Broad and potent cellular and humoral immune responses after a second late HIV-modified vaccinia virus ankara vaccination in HIV-DNA-primed and HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara-boosted Swedish vaccinees.
ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that an HIV vaccine regimen including three HIV-DNA immunizations and a single HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost was safe and highly immunogenic in Swedish volunteers. A median 38 months after the first HIV-MVA vaccination, 24 volunteers received 10(8) plaque-forming units of HIV-MVA. The vaccine was well tolerated. Two weeks after this HIV-MVA vaccination, 18 (82%) of 22 evaluable vaccinees were interferon (IFN)-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) reactive: 18 to Gag and 10 (45%) to Env. A median minimal epitope count of 4 to Gag or Env was found in a subset of 10 vaccinees. Intracellular cytokine staining revealed CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T cell responses in 23 (95%) of 24 vaccinees, 19 to Gag and 19 to Env. The frequency of HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses was equally high (75%). A high proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses to Gag was polyfunctional with production of three or more cytokines (40% and 60%, respectively). Of the Env-specific CD4(+) T cells 40% were polyfunctional. Strong lymphoproliferative responses to Aldrithiol-2 (AT-2)-treated subtype A, B, C, and A_E virus were demonstrable in 21 (95%) of 22 vaccinees. All vaccinees developed binding antibodies to Env and Gag. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assay against subtype B and CRF01_AE viruses. The neutralizing antibody response rates were influenced by the vaccine dose and/or mode of delivery used at the previous HIV-MVA vaccination. Thus, a second late HIV-MVA boost induced strong and broad cellular immune responses and improved antibody responses. The data support further exploration of this vaccine concept.
Project description:We explored the duration of immune responses and the effect of a late third HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost in HIV-DNA primed and HIV-MVA boosted Tanzanian volunteers. Twenty volunteers who had previously received three HIV-DNA and two HIV-MVA immunizations were given a third HIV-MVA immunization 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. At the time of the third HIV-MVA, 90% of the vaccinees had antibodies to HIV-1 subtype C gp140 (median titer 200) and 85% to subtype B gp160 (median titer 100). The majority of vaccinees had detectable antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies, 70% against CRF01_AE virus-infected cells (median titer 239) and 84% against CRF01_AE gp120-coated cells (median titer 499). A high proportion (74%) of vaccinees had IFN-? ELISpot responses, 63% to Gag and 42% to Env, 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. After the third HIV-MVA, there was an increase in Env-binding antibodies and ADCC-mediating antibodies relative to the response seen at the time of the third HIV-MVA vaccination, p?<?.0001 and p?<?.05, respectively. The frequency of IFN-? ELISpot responses increased to 95% against Gag or Env and 90% to both Gag and Env, p?=?.064 and p?=?.002, respectively. In conclusion, the HIV-DNA prime/HIV-MVA boost regimen elicited potent antibody and cellular immune responses with remarkable durability, and a third HIV-MVA immunization significantly boosted both antibody and cellular immune responses relative to the levels detected at the time of the third HIV-MVA, but not to higher levels than after the second HIV-MVA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We conducted a phase I/II randomized placebo-controlled trial with the aim of exploring whether priming with a low intradermal dose of a multiclade, multigene HIV-1 DNA vaccine could improve the immunogenicity of the same vaccine given intramuscularly prior to boosting with a heterologous HIV-1 MVA among healthy adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS:Sixty HIV-uninfected volunteers were randomized to receive DNA plasmid vaccine 1mg intradermally (id), n=20, or 3.8mg intramuscularly (im), n=20, or placebo, n=20, using a needle-free injection device. DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtype A, B, C; rev B; p17/p24 gag A, B and Rtmut B were given at weeks 0, 4 and 12. Recombinant MVA (10(8)pfu) expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE or placebo was administered im at month 9 and 21. RESULTS:The vaccines were well tolerated. Two weeks after the third HIV-DNA injection, 22/38 (58%) vaccinees had IFN-? ELISpot responses to Gag. Two weeks after the first HIV-MVA boost all 35 (100%) vaccinees responded to Gag and 31 (89%) to Env. Two to four weeks after the second HIV-MVA boost, 28/29 (97%) vaccinees had IFN-? ELISpot responses, 27 (93%) to Gag and 23 (79%) to Env. The id-primed recipients had significantly higher responses to Env than im recipients. Intracellular cytokine staining for Gag-specific IFN-?/IL-2 production showed both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses. All vaccinees had HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses. All vaccinees reacted in diagnostic HIV serological tests and 26/29 (90%) had antibodies against gp160 after the second HIV-MVA boost. Furthermore, while all of 29 vaccinee sera were negative for neutralizing antibodies against clade B, C and CRF01_AE pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl neutralization assay, in a PBMC assay, the response rate ranged from 31% to 83% positives, depending upon the clade B or CRF01_AE virus tested. CONCLUSIONS:This vaccine approach is safe and highly immunogenic. Low dose, id HIV-DNA priming elicited higher and broader cell-mediated immune responses to Env after HIV-MVA boost compared to a higher HIV-DNA priming dose given im. Three HIV-DNA priming immunizations followed by two HIV-MVA boosts efficiently induced Env-antibody responses.
Project description:We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of HIV-DNA priming using Zetajet™, a needle-free device intradermally followed by intramuscular HIV-MVA boosts, in 24 healthy Mozambicans. Volunteers were randomized to receive three immunizations of 600??g (n?=?10; 2?×?0.1?ml) or 1,200??g (n?=?10; 2?×?0.2?ml) of HIV-DNA (3?mg/ml), followed by two boosts of 108 pfu HIV-MVA. Four subjects received placebo saline injections. Vaccines and injections were safe and well tolerated with no difference between the two priming groups. After three HIV-DNA immunizations, IFN-? ELISpot responses to Gag were detected in 9/17 (53%) vaccinees, while none responded to Envelope (Env). After the first HIV-MVA, the overall response rate to Gag and/or Env increased to 14/15 (93%); 14/15 (93%) to Gag and 13/15 (87%) to Env. There were no significant differences between the immunization groups in frequency of response to Gag and Env or magnitude of Gag responses. Env responses were significantly higher in the higher dose group (median 420 vs. 157.5 SFC/million peripheral blood mononuclear cell, p?=?.014). HIV-specific antibodies to subtype C gp140 and subtype B gp160 were elicited in all vaccinees after the second HIV-MVA, without differences in titers between the groups. Neutralizing antibody responses were not detected. Two (13%) of 16 vaccinees, one in each of the priming groups, exhibited antibodies mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to CRF01_AE. In conclusion, HIV-DNA vaccine delivered intradermally in volumes of 0.1-0.2?ml using Zetajet was safe and well tolerated. Priming with the 1,200??g dose of HIV-DNA generated higher magnitudes of ELISpot responses to Env.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We compared safety and immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) vaccination with and without electroporation (EP) in a phase I randomized placebo-controlled trial of an HIV-DNA prime HIV-MVA boost vaccine in healthy Swedish volunteers.<h4>Methods</h4>HIV-DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtypes A, B and C; Rev B; Gag A and B and RTmut B were given ID at weeks 0, 6 and 12 in a dose of 0.6 mg. Twenty-five volunteers received vaccine using a needle-free device (ZetaJet) with (n=16) or without (n=9) ID EP (Dermavax). Five volunteers were placebo recipients. Boosting with recombinant MVA-CMDR expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE (HIV-MVA) or placebo was performed at weeks 24 and 40. Nine of the vaccinees received a subtype C CN54 gp140 protein boost together with HIV-MVA.<h4>Results</h4>The ID/EP delivery was very well tolerated. After three HIV-DNA immunizations, no statistically significant difference was seen in the IFN-? ELISpot response rate to Gag between HIV-DNA ID/EP recipients (5/15, 33%) and HIV-DNA ID recipients (1/7, 14%, p=0.6158). The first HIV-MVA or HIV-MVA+gp140 vaccination increased the IFN-? ELISpot response rate to 18/19 (95%). CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell responses to Gag or Env were demonstrable in 94% of vaccinees. A balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response was noted, with 78% and 71% responders, respectively. IFN-? and IL-2 dominated the CD4+ T cell response to Gag and Env. The CD8+ response to Gag was broader with expression of IFN-?, IL-2, MIP-1? and/or CD107. No differences were seen between DNA vaccine groups. Binding antibodies were induced after the second HIV-MVA+/-gp140 in 93% of vaccinees to subtype C Env, with the highest titers among EP/gp140 recipients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Intradermal electroporation of HIV-DNA was well tolerated. Strong cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses were elicited by the HIV-DNA prime and HIV-MVA boosting regimen, with or without intradermal electroporation use.<h4>Trial registration</h4>International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 60284968.
Project description:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial was conducted in 32 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of 3 doses of DNA vaccine (Advax) plus 1 dose of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) (TBC-M4) or 3 doses of TBC-M4 alone (groups A and B, respectively). Both vaccine regimens were found to be safe and well tolerated. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay responses were detected in 1/10 (10%) individuals in group A after three Advax primes and in 9/9 individuals (100%) after the MVA boost. In group B, IFN-? ELISPOT responses were detected in 6/12 (50%) and 7/11 (64%) individuals after the second and third MVA vaccinations, respectively. Responses to all vaccine components, but predominantly to Env, were seen. The breadth and magnitude of the T cell response and viral inhibition were greater in group A than in group B, indicating that the quality of the T-cell response was enhanced by the DNA prime. Intracellular cytokine staining indicated that the T-cell responses were polyfunctional but were skewed toward Env with a CD4(+) phenotype. At 2 weeks after the last vaccination, HIV-specific antibody responses were detected in all (100%) group B and 1/11 (9.1%) group A vaccinees. Vaccinia virus-specific responses were detected in all (100%) group B and 2/11 (18.2%) group A vaccinees. In conclusion, HIV-specific T-cell responses were seen in the majority of volunteers in groups A and B but with a trend toward greater quality of the T-cell response in group A. Antibody responses were better in group B than in group A.
Project description:Attenuated poxvirus vectors expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigens are considered promising HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Here, we describe the nature of T cell immune responses induced in healthy volunteers participating in a phase I clinical trial in Spain after intramuscular administration of three doses of the recombinant MVA-B-expressing monomeric gp120 and the fused Gag-Pol-Nef (GPN) polyprotein of clade B. The majority (92.3%) of the volunteers immunized had a positive specific T cell response at any time postvaccination as detected by gamma interferon (IFN-?) intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay. The CD4(+) T cell responses were predominantly Env directed, whereas the CD8(+) T cell responses were similarly distributed against Env, Gag, and GPN. The proportion of responders after two doses of MVA-B was similar to that obtained after the third dose of MVA-B vaccination, and the responses were sustained (84.6% at week 48). Vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells to HIV-1 antigens after 1 year were polyfunctional and distributed mainly within the effector memory (TEM) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) T cell populations. Antivector T cell responses were mostly induced by CD8(+) T cells, highly polyfunctional, and of TEMRA phenotype. These findings demonstrate that the poxvirus MVA-B vaccine candidate given alone is highly immunogenic, inducing broad, polyfunctional, and long-lasting CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to HIV-1 antigens, with preference for TEM. Thus, on the basis of the immune profile of MVA-B in humans, this immunogen can be considered a promising HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The immune parameters of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates that might be relevant in protection against HIV-1 infection are still undefined. The highly attenuated poxvirus strain MVA is one of the most promising vectors to be use as HIV-1 vaccine. We have previously described a recombinant MVA expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (referred as MVA-B), that induced HIV-1-specific immune responses in different animal models and gene signatures in human dendritic cells (DCs) with immunoregulatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to characterize in more detail the immunogenic profile of MVA-B and to improve its immunogenicity we have generated a new vector lacking two genes (A41L and B16R), known to counteract host immune responses by blocking the action of CC-chemokines and of interleukin 1beta, respectively (referred as MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R). A DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol was used to compare the adaptive and memory HIV-1 specific immune responses induced in mice by the parental MVA-B and by the double deletion mutant MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that both vectors triggered HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with the CD8(+) T-cell compartment responsible for >91.9% of the total HIV-1 responses in both immunization groups. However, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell immune responses. HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses were polyfunctional and preferentially Env-specific in both immunization groups. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R induced more GPN-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses, with an enhanced polyfunctional pattern. Both vectors were capable of producing similar levels of antibodies against Env. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed that MVA-B and MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R induced in mice robust, polyfunctional and durable T-cell responses to HIV-1 antigens, but the double deletion mutant showed enhanced magnitude and quality of HIV-1 adaptive and memory responses. Our observations are relevant in the immune evaluation of MVA-B and on improvements of MVA vectors as HIV-1 vaccines.
Project description:Prime-boost vaccination strategies against HIV-1 often include multiple variants for a given immunogen for better coverage of the extensive viral diversity. To study the immunologic effects of this approach, we characterized breadth, phenotype, function, and specificity of Gag-specific T cells induced by a DNA-prime modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccination strategy, which uses mismatched Gag immunogens in the TamoVac 01 phase IIa trial. Healthy Tanzanian volunteers received three injections of the DNA-SMI vaccine encoding a subtype B and AB-recombinant Gagp37 and two vaccinations with MVA-CMDR encoding subtype A Gagp55 Gag-specific T-cell responses were studied in 42 vaccinees using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After the first MVA-CMDR boost, vaccine-induced gamma interferon-positive (IFN-?+) Gag-specific T-cell responses were dominated by CD4+ T cells (P < 0.001 compared to CD8+ T cells) that coexpressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) (66.4%) and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) (63.7%). A median of 3 antigenic regions were targeted with a higher-magnitude median response to Gagp24 regions, more conserved between prime and boost, compared to those of regions within Gagp15 (not primed) and Gagp17 (less conserved; P < 0.0001 for both). Four regions within Gagp24 each were targeted by 45% to 74% of vaccinees upon restimulation with DNA-SMI-Gag matched peptides. The response rate to individual antigenic regions correlated with the sequence homology between the MVA- and DNA Gag-encoded immunogens (P = 0.04, r2 = 0.47). In summary, after the first MVA-CMDR boost, the sequence-mismatched DNA-prime MVA-boost vaccine strategy induced a Gag-specific T-cell response that was dominated by polyfunctional CD4+ T cells and that targeted multiple antigenic regions within the conserved Gagp24 protein.IMPORTANCE Genetic diversity is a major challenge for the design of vaccines against variable viruses. While including multiple variants for a given immunogen in prime-boost vaccination strategies is one approach that aims to improve coverage for global virus variants, the immunologic consequences of this strategy have been poorly defined so far. It is unclear whether inclusion of multiple variants in prime-boost vaccination strategies improves recognition of variant viruses by T cells and by which mechanisms this would be achieved, either by improved cross-recognition of multiple variants for a given antigenic region or through preferential targeting of antigenic regions more conserved between prime and boost. Engineering vaccines to induce adaptive immune responses that preferentially target conserved antigenic regions of viral vulnerability might facilitate better immune control after preventive and therapeutic vaccination for HIV and for other variable viruses.
Project description:The development of an effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) vaccine that is able to stimulate both the humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses remains a major priority challenge. In this study, we described the generation and preclinical evaluation of single and double modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based candidates expressing the HIV-1 clade C membrane-bound gp145(ZM96) trimeric protein and/or the Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) (GPN) polyprotein that was processed to form Gag-induced virus-like particles (VLPs). In vitro characterization of MVA recombinants revealed the stable integration of HIV-1 genes without affecting its replication capacity. In cells that were infected with Env-expressing viruses, the gp145 protein was inserted into the plasma membrane exposing critical epitopes that were recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas Gag-induced VLPs were released from cells that were infected with GPN-expressing viruses. VLP particles as well as purified MVA virions contain Env and Gag visualized by immunoelectron microscopy and western-blot of fractions that were obtained after detergent treatments of purified virus particles. In BALB/c mice, homologous MVA-gp145-GPN prime/boost regimen induced broad and polyfunctional Env- and Gag-specific CD4 T cells and antigen-specific T follicular helper (Tfh) and Germinal Center (GC) B cells, which correlated with robust HIV-1-specific humoral responses. Overall, these results support the consideration of MVA-gp145-GPN vector as a potential vaccine candidate against HIV-1.
Project description:A vaccine regimen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of the CAP256 superinfecting viral envelope (CAP256 SU) protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and DNA vaccines in different prime-boost combinations followed by a soluble protein (P) boost. The envelope protein (Env) contained a flexible glycine linker and I559P mutation. Trimer-specific bNAbs PGT145, PG16, and CAP256 VRC26_08 efficiently bound to the membrane-bound CAP256 envelope expressed on the surface of cells transfected or infected with the DNA and MVA vaccines. The vaccines were tested in two different vaccination regimens in rabbits. Both regimens elicited autologous tier 2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and high-titer binding antibodies to the matching CAP256 Env and CAP256 V1V2 loop scaffold. The immunogenicity of DNA and MVA vaccines expressing membrane-bound Env alone was compared to that of Env stabilized in a more native-like conformation on the surface of Gag virus-like particles (VLPs). The inclusion of Gag in the DNA and MVA vaccines resulted in earlier development of tier 2 NAbs for both vaccination regimens. In addition, a higher proportion of the rabbits primed with DNA and MVA vaccines that included Gag developed tier 2 NAbs than did those primed with vaccine expressing Env alone. Previously, these DNA and MVA vaccines expressing subtype C mosaic HIV-1 Gag were shown to elicit strong T cell responses in mice. Here we show that when the CAP256 SU envelope protein is included, these vaccines elicit autologous tier 2 NAbs.IMPORTANCE A vaccine is urgently needed to combat HIV-1, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, which remains disproportionately affected by the AIDS pandemic and accounts for the majority of new infections and AIDS-related deaths. In this study, two different vaccination regimens were compared. Rabbits that received two DNA primes followed by two modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and two protein inoculations developed better immune responses than those that received two MVA and three protein inoculations. In addition, DNA and MVA vaccines that expressed mosaic Gag VLPs presenting a stabilized Env antigen elicited better responses than Env alone, which supports the inclusion of Gag VLPs in an HIV-1 vaccine.