Pancreatic cancer cachexia: a review of mechanisms and therapeutics.
ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, we have gained new insight into the pathophysiology of cachexia associated with pancreatic cancer. Unfortunately, its treatment is complex and remains a challenge. Pancreatic cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by uncompensated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss in the setting of anorexia that leads to progressive functional impairment. This paper will review the current concepts of pancreatic cancer cachexia, its assessment and pathophysiology as well as current and future treatments. The successful management of pancreatic cancer cachexia will likely require a multimodal approach that includes nutritional support and combination pharmaceutical interventions.
Project description:Cachexia is a major characteristic of multiple non-malignant diseases, advanced and metastatic cancers and it is highly prevalent in pancreatic cancer, affecting almost 70-80% of the patients. Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial condition accompanied by compromised appetite and changes in body composition, i.e., loss of fat. It is associated with lower effectiveness of treatment, compromised quality of life, and higher mortality. Understanding the complex pathways underlying the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia, new therapeutic targets will be unraveled. The interplay between tumor and host factors, such as cytokines, holds a central role in cachexia pathophysiology. Cytokines are possibly responsible for anorexia, hypermetabolism, muscle proteolysis, and apoptosis. In particular, cachexia in pancreatic cancer might be the result of the surgical removal of pancreas parts. In recent years, many studies have been carried out to identify an effective treatment algorithm for cachexia. Choosing the most appropriate treatment, the clinical effect and the risk of adverse effects should be taken under consideration. The purpose of this review is to highlight the pathophysiological mechanisms as well as the current ways of cachexia treatment in the pharmaceutical and the nutrition field.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Up to 80% of pancreatic cancer patients suffer from cachexia, a devastating condition that exacerbates underlying disease, reduces quality of life, and increases treatment complications and mortality. Tumour-induced inflammation is linked to this multifactorial wasting syndrome, but mechanisms and effective treatments remain elusive. Myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), a key component of the innate immune system, plays a pivotal role in directing the inflammatory response to various insults. In this study, we tested whether MyD88 signalling is essential in the development of pancreatic cancer cachexia using a robust mouse tumour model. METHODS:Sex, age, and body weight-matched wide type (WT) and MyD88 knockout (MyD88 KO) mice were orthotopically or intraperitoneally implanted with a pancreatic tumour cell line from a syngeneic C57BL/6 KRASG12D/+ P53R172H/+ Pdx-Cre (KPC) mouse. We observed the effects of MyD88 signalling during pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression and the cachexia development through behavioural, histological, molecular, and survival aspects. RESULTS:Blocking MyD88 signalling greatly ameliorated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-associated anorexia and fatigue, attenuated lean mass loss, reduced muscle catabolism and atrophy, diminished systemic and central nervous system inflammation, and ultimately improved survival. Our data demonstrate that MyD88 signalling plays a critical role in mediating pancreatic cancer-induced inflammation that triggers cachexia development and therefore represents a promising therapeutic target. CONCLUSIONS:MyD88-dependent inflammation is crucial in the pathophysiology of pancreatic cancer progression and contributes to high mortality. Our findings implicate the importance of innate immune signalling pathways in pancreatic cancer cachexia and a novel therapeutic target.
Project description:Cancer-related anorexia and cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a complex multifactorial condition, with loss of lean body mass, chronic inflammation, severe metabolic derangements, reduced food intake, reduced physical activity, and poor quality of life as key symptoms. Cachexia recognizes different phases or stages, moving from precachexia through overt cachexia to advanced or refractory cachexia. The purpose of this review is to describe currently effective approaches for the treatment of cachexia, moving forward to drugs and treatments already shown to be effective but needing further clinical trials to confirm their efficacy. We then introduce novel promising investigational drugs and approaches which, based on a strong rationale from the most recent data on the molecular targets/pathways driving the pathophysiology of cachexia, need to be tested either in currently ongoing or appropriate future clinical trials to confirm their clinical potential. Although different drugs and treatments have been tested, we can speculate that a single therapy may not be completely successful. Indeed, considering the complex clinical picture and the multifactorial pathogenesis of CACS, we believe that its clinical management requires a multidisciplinary and multitargeted approach. In our opinion, appropriate treatment for cachexia should target the following conditions: inflammatory status, oxidative stress, nutritional disorders, muscle catabolism, immunosuppression, quality of life, and above all, fatigue. A comprehensive list of the most interesting and effective multitargeted treatments is reported and discussed, with the aim of suggesting the most promising with regard to clinical outcome. A critical issue is that of testing therapies at the earliest stages of cachexia, possibly at the precachexia stage, with the aim of preventing or delaying the development of overt cachexia and thereby obtaining the best possible clinical outcome for patients.
Project description:Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by progressive loss of weight and muscle atrophy. Using metabolomics, we investigated serum markers and their intra-day variation in advanced pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia.Patients were enrolled in two groups: those with or without cachexia. Blood samples collected at 6:30 AM, 11:30 AM, 4:30 PM, and 9:30 PM were analyzed using metabolomics, and serum levels of IL-6, TNF-?, and leptin were measured and compared between the two groups. Intra-day variation was then evaluated.Twenty-one patients were enrolled in total. In the cachexia group (n?=?9), median body weight loss rate over 6 months was greater, performance status was poorer, and anorexia was more severe than in the non-cachexia group (n?=?12). Each metabolites level showed substantial intra-day variation, and some of them displayed significant differences between the two groups. Levels of paraxanthine remained markedly lower in the cohort with cachexia at all measurement points. Besides, median IL-6 and TNF-? levels appeared higher and leptin concentration appeared lower in the cachexia group, albeit without statistical significance.Some metabolites and some serological marker levels were affected by cancer cachexia. Although paraxanthine levels were consistently lower in patients with cachexia, we identified that many metabolites indicated large intra- and inter-day variation and that it might be necessary to pay attention to intra-day variation in metabolomics research.
Project description:Cachexia affects up to two thirds of all cancer patients and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with the underlying illness and characterized by loss of skeletal muscle tissue with or without loss of fat mass. Cachexia's other prominent clinical symptoms include anorexia, systemic inflammation, pediatric growth failure, and hypogonadism. The relationship between the symptoms of cancer cachexia and the underlying illness is unclear, and there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Normal Zn metabolism is often disrupted in cancer patients, but the possible effects of systemic Zn dyshomeostasis in cachexia have not been investigated. We propose that the acute phase response can mediate Zn redistribution and accumulation in skeletal muscle tissue and contribute to the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway that regulates protein catabolism. This chronic redistribution deprives Zn from other tissues and organs and compromises critical physiological functions in the body. The cardinal symptoms of Zn deficiency are anorexia, systemic inflammation, growth failure in children, and hypogonadism. These symptoms also prominently characterize cancer cachexia suggesting that the role of systemic Zn dyshomeostasis in cachexia should be investigated.
Project description:Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition characterized by a combination of anorexia, muscle wasting, weight loss, and malnutrition. This condition affects an overwhelming majority of patients with pancreatic cancer and is a primary cause of cancer-related death. However, few, if any, effective therapies exist for both treatment and prevention of this syndrome. In order to develop novel therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer cachexia, appropriate animal models are necessary. In this study, we developed and validated a syngeneic, metastatic, murine model of pancreatic cancer cachexia. Using our model, we investigated the ability of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) blockade to mitigate the metabolic changes associated with cachexia. We found that TGF-? inhibition using the anti-TGF-? antibody 1D11.16.8 significantly improved overall mortality, weight loss, fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral density, and skeletal muscle proteolysis in mice harboring advanced pancreatic cancer. Other immunotherapeutic strategies we employed were not effective. Collectively, we validated a simplified but useful model of pancreatic cancer cachexia to investigate immunologic treatment strategies. In addition, we showed that TGF-? inhibition can decrease the metabolic changes associated with cancer cachexia and improve overall survival.
Project description:Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial disease characterized by decreased food intake and loss of body weight due to reduced musculature with or without loss of fat mass. Patients with gastric cancer have a high incidence of cachexia. We previously established a novel CC rat model induced by human gastric cancer-derived 85As2 cells in order to examine the pathophysiology of CC and identify potential therapeutics. In patients with CC, anorexia is often observed, despite elevation of ghrelin, suggesting that ghrelin resistance may develop in these patients. In this study, we aimed to clarify the occurrence of ghrelin resistance in CC rats accompanied by anorexia and we investigated whether rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine that potentiates ghrelin signaling, ameliorated CC-related anorexia through alleviation of ghrelin resistance. 85As2-tumor-bearing rats developed severe CC symptoms, including anorexia and loss of body weight/musculature, with the latter symptoms being greater in cachectic rats than in non-tumor-bearing or pair-fed rats. CC rats showed poor responses to intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin. In CC rats, plasma ghrelin levels were elevated and hypothalamic anorexigenic peptide mRNA levels were decreased, whereas hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) mRNA was not affected. In vitro, RKT directly enhanced ghrelin-induced GHS-R activation. RKT administrated orally for 7 days partly alleviated the poor response to ghrelin and ameliorated anorexia without affecting the elevation of plasma ghrelin levels in CC rats. The expression of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y mRNA but not hypothalamic GHS-R mRNA was increased by RKT. Thus, the 85As2 cell-induced CC rat model developed ghrelin resistance, possibly contributing to anorexia and body weight loss. The mechanism through which RKT ameliorated anorexia in the CC rat model may involve alleviation of ghrelin resistance by enhancement of ghrelin signaling. These findings suggest that RKT may be a promising agent for the treatment of CC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Anorexia-cachexia is a common and severe cancer-related complication but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, using a mouse model for tumour-induced anorexia-cachexia, we screened for proteins that are differentially expressed in the hypothalamus, the brain's metabolic control centre.<h4>Methods</h4>The hypothalamus of tumour-bearing mice with implanted methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma (MCG 101) displaying anorexia and their sham-implanted pair-fed or free-fed littermates was examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE)-based comparative proteomics. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.<h4>Results</h4>The 2-DE data showed an increased expression of dynamin 1, hexokinase, pyruvate carboxylase, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor in tumour-bearing mice, whereas heat-shock 70?kDa cognate protein, selenium-binding protein 1, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein G?0 were downregulated. The expression of several of the identified proteins was similarly altered also in the caloric-restricted pair-fed mice, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in brain metabolic adaptation to restricted nutrient availability. However, the expression of dynamin 1, which is required for receptor internalisation, and of hexokinase, and pyruvate carboxylase were specifically changed in tumour-bearing mice with anorexia.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The identified differentially expressed proteins may be new candidate molecules involved in the pathophysiology of tumour-induced anorexia-cachexia.
Project description:Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss, muscle tissue wasting and psychological distress, and this syndrome is a major source of increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This study aimed to clarify the gut-brain peptides involved in the pathogenesis of the syndrome and determine effective treatment for cancer anorexia-cachexia. We show that both ghrelin insufficiency and resistance were observed in tumor-bearing rats. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) decreased the plasma level of acyl ghrelin, and its receptor antagonist, ?-helical CRF, increased food intake of these rats. The serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR) antagonist SB242084 decreased hypothalamic CRF level and improved anorexia, gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility and body weight loss. The ghrelin receptor antagonist (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 worsened anorexia and hastened death in tumor-bearing rats. Ghrelin attenuated anorexia-cachexia in the short term, but failed to prolong survival, as did SB242084 administration. In addition, the herbal medicine rikkunshito improved anorexia, GI dysmotility, muscle wasting, and anxiety-related behavior and prolonged survival in animals and patients with cancer. The appetite-stimulating effect of rikkunshito was blocked by (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6. Active components of rikkunshito, hesperidin and atractylodin, potentiated ghrelin secretion and receptor signaling, respectively, and atractylodin prolonged survival in tumor-bearing rats. Our study demonstrates that the integrated mechanism underlying cancer anorexia-cachexia involves lowered ghrelin signaling due to excessive hypothalamic interactions of 5-HT with CRF through the 5-HT2cR. Potentiation of ghrelin receptor signaling may be an attractive treatment for anorexia, muscle wasting and prolong survival in patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia.
Project description:Hypothalamic inflammation is a key component of acute sickness behavior and cachexia, yet mechanisms of inflammatory signaling in the central nervous system remain unclear. Previous work from our lab and others showed that while MyD88 is an important inflammatory signaling pathway for sickness behavior, MyD88 knockout (MyD88KO) mice still experience sickness behavior after inflammatory stimuli challenge. We found that after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MyD88KO mice showed elevated expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the hypothalamus. We therefore assessed the role of an additional inflammatory signaling pathway, TRIF, in acute inflammation (LPS challenge) and in a chronic inflammatory state (cancer cachexia). TRIFKO mice resisted anorexia and weight loss after peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) or central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) LPS challenge and in a model of pancreatic cancer cachexia. Compared to WT mice, TRIFKO mice showed attenuated upregulation of Il6, Ccl2, Ccl5, Cxcl1, Cxcl2, and Cxcl10 in the hypothalamus after IP LPS treatment, as well as attenuated microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration into the brain after ICV LPS treatment. Lastly, we found that TRIF was required for Ccl2 upregulation in the hypothalamus and induction of the catabolic genes, Mafbx, Murf1, and Foxo1 in gastrocnemius during pancreatic cancer. In summary, our results show that TRIF is an important inflammatory signaling mediator of sickness behavior and cachexia and presents a novel therapeutic target for these conditions.