ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against multiple cardiovascular disease states in a similar manner as nitric oxide (NO). H2S therapy also has been shown to augment NO bioavailability and signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of H2S deficiency on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) function, NO production, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that mice lacking the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) exhibit elevated oxidative stress, dysfunctional eNOS, diminished NO levels, and exacerbated myocardial and hepatic I/R injury. In CSE KO mice, acute H2S therapy restored eNOS function and NO bioavailability and attenuated I/R injury. In addition, we found that H2S therapy fails to protect against I/R in eNOS phosphomutant mice (S1179A). Our results suggest that H2S-mediated cytoprotective signaling in the setting of I/R injury is dependent in large part on eNOS activation and NO generation.
Project description:Cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) produces H2S via enzymatic conversion of L-cysteine and plays a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. We investigated the effects of genetic modulation of CSE and exogenous H2S therapy in the setting of pressure overload-induced heart failure.Transverse aortic constriction was performed in wild-type, CSE knockout, and cardiac-specific CSE transgenic mice. In addition, C57BL/6J or CSE knockout mice received a novel H2S donor (SG-1002). Mice were followed up for 12 weeks with echocardiography. We observed a >60% reduction in myocardial and circulating H2S levels after transverse aortic constriction. CSE knockout mice exhibited significantly greater cardiac dilatation and dysfunction than wild-type mice after transverse aortic constriction, and cardiac-specific CSE transgenic mice maintained cardiac structure and function after transverse aortic constriction. H2S therapy with SG-1002 resulted in cardioprotection during transverse aortic constriction via upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway with preserved mitochondrial function, attenuated oxidative stress, and increased myocardial vascular density.Our results demonstrate that H2S levels are decreased in mice in the setting of heart failure. Moreover, CSE plays a critical role in the preservation of cardiac function in heart failure, and oral H2S therapy prevents the transition from compensated to decompensated heart failure in part via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increased nitric oxide bioavailability.
Project description:The accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) during chronic kidney failure (CKD) can exert toxic effects on the glomeruli and tubulo-interstitial region. Among the potential mechanisms, the formation of highly reactive metabolite, Hcy thiolactone, is known to modify proteins by N-homocysteinylation, leading to protein degradation, stress and impaired function. Previous studies documented impaired nitric oxide production and altered caveolin expression in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), leading to endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine whether Hhcy homocysteinylates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and alters caveolin-1 expression to decrease nitric oxide bioavailability, causing hypertension and renal dysfunction. We also examined whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could dehomocysteinylate eNOS to protect the kidney. WT and Cystathionine β-Synthase deficient (CBS+/-) mice representing HHcy were treated without or with sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor (30 µM), in drinking water for 8 weeks. Hhcy mice (CBS+/-) showed low levels of plasma H2S, elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and renal dysfunction. H2S treatment reduced SBP and improved renal function. Hhcy was associated with homocysteinylation of eNOS, reduced enzyme activity and upregulation of caveolin-1 expression. Further, Hhcy increased extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition and disruption of gap junction proteins, connexins. H2S treatment reversed the changes above and transfection of triple genes producing H2S (CBS, CSE and 3MST) showed reduction of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. We conclude that during Hhcy, homocysteinylation of eNOS and disruption of caveolin-mediated regulation leads to ECM remodeling and hypertension, and H2S treatment attenuates renovascular damage.
Project description:We reported that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) causes decreases in the activity and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and calpain activity in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Calpains are a family of calcium-dependent endopeptidases, and their specific endogenous inhibitor is calpastatin. In this study, we evaluated the role of calpain-calpastatin in CSE-induced decrease in eNOS gene expression. PAEC were incubated with 5-10% CSE for 2-24 h. eNOS gene transcription rate, eNOS messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) half-life, and the activity and protein contents of calpain and calpastatin were measured. Incubation of PAEC with CSE caused significant decreases in eNOS gene transcription and calpain activity and an increase in calpastatin protein content. eNOS mRNA half-life was not significantly altered by CSE. To investigate whether CSE-induced inhibition of eNOS gene expression is caused by decreased calpain activity due to an increase in calpastatin protein content, we cloned calpastatin gene from PAEC and constructed adenovirus vectors containing calpastatin. Overexpression of calpastatin mimics the inhibitory effects of CSE on calpain activity and on the activity, protein, and mRNA of eNOS. The cell-permeable calpain inhibitor, calpastatin peptide, inhibits acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary artery. Incubation of PAEC with an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide of calpastatin prevented CSE-induced increases in calpastatin protein and CSE-induced decreases in calpain activity, eNOS gene transcription, activity and protein content of eNOS, and NO release. These results indicate that CSE-induced inhibition of eNOS expression in PAEC is caused by calpain inhibition due to an increase in calpastatin protein content.
Project description:This paper examined whether nebivolol protects the heart via nitric oxide (NO) synthase and NO-dependent signaling in an in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction.Beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation promotes endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO bioavailability. We hypothesized that specific beta(3)-AR agonists would attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury via eNOS activation and increased NO bioavailability.Mice were subjected to 45 min of myocardial ischemia in vivo followed by 24 h of reperfusion (R). Nebivolol (500 ng/kg), CL 316243 (1 ?g/kg), BRL-37344 (1 ?g/kg), or vehicle (VEH) was administered at the time of R. Myocardial area-at-risk (AAR) and infarct size (INF)/AAR was measured at 24 h of R. Cardiac tissue and plasma were collected to evaluate eNOS phosphorylation, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and nitrite and nitrosothiol levels.Nebivolol (500 ng/kg) reduced INF/AAR by 37% (p < 0.001 vs. VEH) and serum troponin-I levels from 41 ± 4 ng/ml to 25 ± 4 ng/ml (p < 0.05 vs. VEH). CL 316243 and BRL-37344 reduced INF by 39% and 42%, respectively (p < 0.001 vs. VEH). Nebivolol and CL 316243 increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 (p < 0.05 vs. VEH) and increased nitrite and total nitrosylated protein levels. Nebivolol and CL 316243 significantly increased myocardial nNOS expression. Nebivolol failed to reduce INF after MI/R in beta(3)-AR (-/-), eNOS(-/-), and in nNOS(-/-) mice.Our results indicate that beta(3)-AR agonists protect against MI/R injury. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of beta(3)-AR agonists are mediated by rapid eNOS and nNOS activation and increased NO bioavailability.
Project description:Endothelial NOS (eNOS)-derived NO has long been considered a paracrine signaling molecule only capable of affecting nearby cells because of its short half-life in blood and relatively limited diffusion distance in tissues. To date, no studies have demonstrated that endogenously generated NO possesses a clearly defined endocrine function. Therefore, we evaluated whether enzymatic generation of NO in the heart is capable of modulating remote physiological actions and cell signaling. Mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of the human eNOS gene (CS-eNOS-Tg) were used to address this hypothesis. Cardiac-specific eNOS overexpression resulted in significant increases in nitrite, nitrate, and nitrosothiols in the heart, plasma, and liver. To examine whether the increase in hepatic NO metabolites could modulate cytoprotection, we subjected CS-eNOS-Tg mice to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. CS-eNOS-Tg mice displayed a significant reduction in hepatic I/R injury (4.2-fold reduction in the aminotransferase and a 3.5-fold reduction in aspartate aminotransferase) compared with WT littermates. These findings demonstrate that endogenously derived NO is transported in the blood, metabolized in remote organs, and mediates cytoprotection in the setting of I/R injury. This study presents clear evidence for an endocrine role of NO generated endogenously from eNOS and provides additional evidence for the profound cytoprotective actions of NO in the setting of I/R injury.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and nitric oxide (NO) are major gasotransmitters produced in endothelial cells (ECs), contributing to the regulation of vascular contractility and structural integrity. Their interaction at different levels would have a profound impact on angiogenesis. Here, we showed that H2 S and NO stimulated the formation of new microvessels. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-926) with NaHS (a H2 S donor) stimulated the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and enhanced NO production. H2 S had little effect on eNOS protein expression in ECs. L-cysteine, a precursor of H2 S, stimulated NO production whereas blockage of the activity of H2 S-generating enzyme, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), inhibited this action. CSE knockdown inhibited, but CSE overexpression increased, NO production as well as EC proliferation. LY294002 (Akt/PI3-K inhibitor) or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) abolished the effects of H2 S on eNOS phosphorylation, NO production, cell proliferation and tube formation. Blockade of NO production by eNOS-specific siRNA or nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reversed, but eNOS overexpression potentiated, the proliferative effect of H2 S on ECs. Our results suggest that H2 S stimulates the phosphorylation of eNOS through a p38 MAPK and Akt-dependent pathway, thus increasing NO production in ECs and vascular tissues and contributing to H2 S-induced angiogenesis.
Project description:The aims of the present study are to determine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and to identify the role of microRNA-455-3p (miR-455-3p) during those processes. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the expression of miR-455-3p, eNOS protein and the NO production was detected after administration with 50??M NaHS. The results indicated that H2S could augment the expression of miR-455-3p and eNOS protein, leading to the increase of NO level. We also found that overexpression of miR-455-3p in HUVECs increased the protein levels of eNOS whereas inhibition of miR-455-3p decreased it. Moreover, H2S and miR-455-3p could no longer increase the protein level of eNOS in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, MG-132. In vivo, miR-455-3p and eNOS expression were considerably increased in C57BL/6 mouse aorta, muscle and heart after administration with 50??mol/kg/day NaHS for 7 days. We also identified that H2S levels and miR-455-3p expression increased in human atherosclerosis plaque while H2S levels decreased in plasma of atherosclerosis patients. Our data suggest that the stability of eNOS protein and the NO production could be regulated by H2S through miR-455-3p.
Project description:AIMS: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death globally. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as a novel class of MI injury regulators. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that regulates cardiovascular function. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of the miR-30 family in protecting against MI injury by regulating H2S production. RESULTS: The expression of miR-30 family was upregulated in the murine MI model as well as in the primary cardiomyocyte hypoxic model. However, the cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression was significantly decreased. The overexpression of miR-30 family decreased CSE expression, reduced H2S production, and then aggravated hypoxic cardiomyocyte injury. In contrast, silencing the whole miR-30 family can protect against hypoxic cell injury by elevating CSE and H2S level. Nonetheless, the protective effect was abolished by cotransfecting with CSE-siRNA. Systemic delivery of a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-miR-30 family inhibitor correspondingly increased CSE and H2S level, then reduced infarct size, decreased apoptotic cell number in the peri-infarct region, and improved cardiac function in response to MI. However, these cardioprotective effects were absent in CSE knockout mice. MiR-30b overexpression in vivo aggravated MI injury because of H2S reduction, and this could be rescued by S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), which is a novel modulator of CSE, or further exacerbated by propargylglycine (PAG), which is a selective inhibitor of CSE. INNOVATION AND CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism for endogenous H2S production in the heart at the miRNA level and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of miR-30 family inhibition for ischemic heart diseases by increasing H2S production.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a central role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis by controlling NO bioavailability. The activity of eNOS in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) largely depends on posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation. Because the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in ECs can be increased by multiple cardiovascular events, we studied the phosphorylation of eNOS Ser633 by AMPK and examined its functional relevance in the mouse models. Shear stress, atorvastatin, and adiponectin all increased AMPK Thr172 and eNOS Ser633 phosphorylations, which were abolished if AMPK was pharmacologically inhibited or genetically ablated. The constitutively active form of AMPK or an AMPK agonist caused a sustained Ser633 phosphorylation. Expression of gain-/loss-of-function eNOS mutants revealed that Ser633 phosphorylation is important for NO production. The aorta of AMPKalpha2(-/-) mice showed attenuated atorvastatin-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) confirmed that eNOS Ser633 was able to compete with Ser1177 or acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase Ser79 for AMPKalpha phosphorylation. Nano-LC/MS/MS confirmed that eNOS purified from AICAR-treated ECs was phosphorylated at both Ser633 and Ser1177. Our results indicate that AMPK phosphorylation of eNOS Ser633 is a functional signaling event for NO bioavailability in ECs.
Project description:Decreased circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are associated with higher mortality following myocardial ischemia. This study aimed at determining the long-term dose-dependent effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) administration on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Male rats were divided into control and NaSH groups that were treated for 9 weeks with daily intraperitoneal injections of normal saline or NaSH (0.28, 0.56, 1.6, 2.8, and 5.6 mg/kg), respectively. At the end of the study, hearts from all rats were isolated and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during baseline and following IR. In isolated hearts, infarct size, oxidative stress indices as well as mRNA expression of H2S-, nitric oxide (NO)-producing enzymes, and inflammatory markers were measured. In heart tissue following IR, low doses of NaSH (0.28 and 0.56 mg/kg) had no effect, whereas an intermediate dose (1.6 mg/kg), improved recovery of hemodynamic parameters, decreased infarct size, and decreased oxidative stress. It also increased expression of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS), as well as decreased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B). At the high dose of 5.6 mg/kg, NaSH administration was associated with worse recovery of hemodynamic parameters and increased infarct size as well as increased oxidative stress. This dose also decreased expression of CSE, RKIP, and eNOS and increased expression of iNOS and NF-?B. In conclusion, chronic treatment with NaSH has a U-shaped concentration effect on IR injury in heart tissue. An intermediate dose was associated with higher CSE-derived H2S, lower iNOS-derived NO, lower oxidative stress, and inflammation in heart tissue following IR.