ORMDL3 promotes eosinophil trafficking and activation via regulation of integrins and CD48.
ABSTRACT: ORM (yeast)-like protein isoform 3 (ORMDL3) has recently been identified as a candidate gene for susceptibility to asthma; however, the mechanisms by which it contributes to asthma pathogenesis are not well understood. Here we demonstrate a functional role for ORMDL3 in eosinophils in the context of allergic inflammation. Eosinophils recruited to the airways of allergen-challenged mice express ORMDL3. ORMDL3 expression in bone marrow eosinophils is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is induced by interleukin-3 and eotaxin-1. Overexpression of ORMDL3 in eosinophils causes increased rolling, distinct cytoskeletal rearrangement, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (1/2) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B. Knockdown of ORMDL3 significantly inhibits activation-induced cell shape changes, adhesion and recruitment to sites of inflammation in vivo, combined with reduced expression of CD49d and CD18. In addition, ORMDL3 regulates interleukin-3-induced expression of CD48 and CD48-mediated eosinophil degranulation. These studies show that ORMDL3 regulates eosinophil trafficking, recruitment and degranulation, further elucidating a role for this molecule in allergic asthma and potentially other eosinophilic disorders.
Project description:Asthma, a chronic inflammatory condition defined by episodic shortness of breath with expiratory wheezing and cough, is a serious health concern affecting more than 250 million persons. Genome-wide association studies have identified ORM (yeast)-like protein isoform 3 (ORMDL3) as a gene associated with susceptibility to asthma. Although its yeast ortholog is a negative regulator of de novo ceramide biosynthesis, how ORMDL3 contributes to asthma pathogenesis is not known.We sought to decipher the molecular mechanism for the pathologic functions of ORMDL3 in asthma and the relationship to its evolutionarily conserved role in regulation of ceramide homeostasis.We determined the relationship between expression of ORMDL3 and ceramide in epithelial and inflammatory cells and in asthma pathogenesis in mice.Although small increases in ORMDL3 expression decrease ceramide levels, remarkably, higher expression in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro and in vivo increased ceramide production, which promoted chronic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus production during house dust mite-induced allergic asthma. Moreover, nasal administration of the immunosuppressant drug FTY720/fingolimod reduced ORMDL3 expression and ceramide levels and mitigated airway inflammation and hyperreactivity and mucus hypersecretion in house dust mite-challenged mice.Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of ORMDL3 regulates ceramide homeostasis in cells in a complex manner and suggest that local FTY720 administration might be a useful therapeutic intervention for the control of allergic asthma.
Project description:Genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci for several immunity-mediated diseases (early onset asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), primary biliary cholangitis, and rheumatoid arthritis) map to chromosomal region 17q12-q21. The predominant view is that association between 17q12-q21 alleles and increased risk of developing asthma or IBD is due to regulatory variants. ORM sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator (ORMDL3) residing in this region is the most promising gene candidate for explaining association with disease. However, the relationship between 17q12-q21 alleles and disease is complex suggesting contributions from other factors, such as trans-acting genetic and environmental modifiers or circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms regulate expression levels of thousands of genes and their dysregulation is implicated in the etiology of several common chronic inflammatory diseases. However, their role in the regulation of the 17q12-q21 genes has not been investigated. Moreover, the core clock gene nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (NR1D1) resides about 200 kb distal to the GWAS region. We hypothesized that circadian rhythms influenced gene expression levels in 17q12-q21 region and conversely, regulatory elements in this region influenced transcription of the core clock gene NR1D1 in cis. To test these hypotheses, we examined the diurnal expression profiles of zona pellucida binding protein 2 (ZPBP2/Zpbp2), gasdermin B (GSDMB), and ORMDL3/Ormdl3 in human and mouse tissues and analyzed the impact of genetic variation in the ZPBP2/Zpbp2 region on NR1D1/Nr1d1 expression. We found that Ormdl3 and Zpbp2 were controlled by the circadian clock in a tissue-specific fashion. We also report that deletion of the Zpbp2 region altered the expression profile of Nr1d1 in lungs and ileum in a time-dependent manner. In liver, the deletion was associated with enhanced expression of Ormdl3. We provide the first evidence that disease-associated genes Zpbp2 and Ormdl3 are regulated by circadian rhythms and the Zpbp2 region influences expression of the core clock gene Nr1d1.
Project description:Background and objectives:Genome-wide association studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 17q21 locus conferring increased risk for childhood-onset asthma. Little is known about how these SNPs impact adult asthma patients. We sought to examine an adult population for associations between rs7216389 (17q21-associated SNP) and features of asthma including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), eosinophil counts, and age of asthma onset. Methods:Subjects were genotyped at SNP rs7216389. The geometric mean of FeNO measurements and peripheral blood eosinophil counts from 2008 to 2015 were collected. Demographics and medical history were collected including self-reported allergy diagnoses and age of asthma onset. Eosinophils, monocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the examination of ORMDL3 expression. Results:FeNO levels from 157 genotyped subjects (31CC, 72CT, and 54TT) and peripheral eosinophil counts from 252 genotyped subjects (46CC, 122CT, and 84TT) were analyzed. In a sub-group analysis of asthma subjects, the number of attributable T alleles was associated with significantly lower age of asthma onset (P=0.03) and greater FeNO levels (geometric mean 30.0 ppb TT, 20.0 ppb CT, 20.0 ppb CC, P=0.02). In the total cohort of subjects, the T allele was associated with a higher percentage of individual eosinophil counts >200/mm3 (45% TT, 26% CT, 24% CC, P=0.005). Eosinophils expressed ORMDL3 mRNA and protein. Conclusion:In adult subjects, the number of T alleles at SNP rs7216389 corresponds to significantly greater FeNO levels and peripheral eosinophil counts. The expression of ORMDL3 in eosinophils suggests that they may participate in mediating the asthma risk associated with the 17q21 locus.
Project description:Accumulation of activated eosinophils in tissue is a hallmark of allergic inflammation. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) has been proposed to elicit eosinophil migration in a CB2 receptor/Gi/o -dependent manner. However, it has been claimed recently that this process may also involve other mechanisms such as cytokine priming and the metabolism of 2-AG into eicosanoids. Here, we explored the direct contribution of specific CB2 receptor activation to human and mouse eosinophil effector function in vitro and in vivo.In vitro studies including CB2 expression, adhesion and migratory responsiveness, respiratory burst, degranulation, and calcium mobilization were conducted in human peripheral blood eosinophils and mouse bone marrow-derived eosinophils. Allergic airway inflammation was assessed in mouse models of acute OVA-induced asthma and directed eosinophil migration.CB2 expression was significantly higher in eosinophils from symptomatic allergic donors. The selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 induced a moderate migratory response in eosinophils. However, short-term exposure to JWH-133 potently enhanced chemoattractant-induced eosinophil shape change, chemotaxis, CD11b surface expression, and adhesion as well as production of reactive oxygen species. Receptor specificity of the observed effects was confirmed in eosinophils from CB2 knockout mice and by using the selective CB2 antagonist SR144528. Of note, systemic application of JWH-133 clearly primed eosinophil-directed migration in vivo and aggravated both AHR and eosinophil influx into the airways in a CB2 -specific manner. This effect was completely absent in eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA mice.Our data indicate that CB2 may directly contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophil-driven diseases. Moreover, we provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the CB2 -mediated priming of eosinophils. Hence, antagonism of CB2 receptors may represent a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of allergic inflammation and other eosinophilic disorders.
Project description:Eosinophils are the prominent inflammatory cell involved in allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and hypereosinophilic syndrome and are found in high numbers in local tissue and/or circulating blood of affected patients. There is recent interest in a family of alarmins, including TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33, that are epithelial-derived and released upon stimulation of epithelial cells. Several genome wide association studies have found SNPs in genes encoding IL-33 to be risk factors for asthma. In two studies examining the direct role of IL-33 in eosinophils, there were differences in eosinophil responses. We sought to further characterize activation of eosinophils with IL-33 compared to activation by other cytokines and chemokines. We assessed IL-33 stimulated adhesion, degranulation, chemotaxis and cell surface protein expression in comparison to IL-3, IL-5, and eotaxin-1 on human eosinophils. Our results demonstrate that IL-33 can produce as potent eosinophil activation as IL-3, IL-5 and eotaxin-1. Thus, when considering specific cytokine targeting strategies, IL-33 will be important to consider for modulating eosinophil function.
Project description:Eosinophils play important roles in asthma and lung infections. Murine models are widely used for assessing the functional significance and mechanistic basis for eosinophil involvements in these diseases. However, little is known about tissue eosinophils in homeostasis. In addition, little data on eosinophil chemokine production during allergic airway inflammation are available. In this study, the properties and functions of homeostatic and activated eosinophils were compared. Eosinophils from normal tissues expressed costimulation and adhesion molecules B7-1, B7-2 and ICAM-1 for Ag presentation but little major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, and were found to be poor stimulators of T-cell proliferation. However, these eosinophils expressed high levels of chemokine mRNA including C10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1gamma, MIP-2, eotaxin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 (MCP-5), and produced chemokine proteins. Eosinophil intracellular chemokines decreased rapidly with concomitant surface marker downregulation upon in vitro culturing consistent with piecemeal degranulation. Lung eosinophils from mice with induced allergic airway inflammation exhibited increased chemokines mRNA expression and chemokines protein production and upregulated MHC class II and CD11c expression. They were also found to be the predominant producers of the CCR1 ligands CCL6/C10 and CCL9/MIP-1gamma in inflamed lungs. Eosinophil production of C10 and MIP-1gamma correlated with the marked influx of CD11b(high) lung dendritic cells during allergic airway inflammation and the high expression of CCR1 on these dendritic cells (DCs). The study provided baseline information on tissue eosinophils, documented the upregulation of activation markers and chemokine production in activated eosinophils, and indicated that eosinophils were a key chemokine-producing cell type in allergic lung inflammation.
Project description:The eosinophil is a multifunctional granulocyte best known for providing host defense against parasites. Paradoxically, eosinophils are also implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, asthma, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Emerging evidence also supports the potential for harnessing the cytotoxic power of eosinophils and redirecting it to kill solid tumors. Central to eosinophil physiology is interleukin-5 (IL-5) and its receptor (IL-5R) which is composed of a ligand-specific alpha chain (IL-5R?) and the common beta chain (?c). Eosinophil activation can lead to their degranulation, resulting in rapid release of an arsenal of tissue-destructive proinflammatory mediators and cytotoxic proteins that can be both beneficial and detrimental to the host. This review discusses eosinophil immunobiology and therapeutic strategies for targeting of IL-5 and IL-5R, as well as the potential for harnessing eosinophil cytotoxicity as a tumoricide.
Project description:Eosinophils are multifunctional cells of the innate immune system linked to allergic inflammation. Asthmatics were more likely to be hospitalized but less likely to suffer severe morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza pandemic. These epidemiologic findings were recapitulated in a mouse model of fungal asthma wherein infection during heightened allergic inflammation was protective against influenza A virus (IAV) infection and disease. Our goal was to delineate a mechanism(s) by which allergic asthma may alleviate influenza disease outcome, focused on the hypothesis that pulmonary eosinophilia linked with allergic respiratory disease is able to promote antiviral host defenses against the influenza virus. The transfer of eosinophils from the lungs of allergen-sensitized and challenged mice into influenza virus-infected mice resulted in reduced morbidity and viral burden, improved lung compliance, and increased CD8+ T cell numbers in the airways. In vitro assays with primary or bone marrow-derived eosinophils were used to determine eosinophil responses to the virus using the laboratory strain (A/PR/08/1934) or the pandemic strain (A/CA/04/2009) of IAV. Eosinophils were susceptible to IAV infection and responded by activation, piecemeal degranulation, and upregulation of Ag presentation markers. Virus- or viral peptide-exposed eosinophils induced CD8+ T cell proliferation, activation, and effector functions. Our data suggest that eosinophils promote host cellular immunity to reduce influenza virus replication in lungs, thereby providing a novel mechanism by which hosts with allergic asthma may be protected from influenza morbidity.
Project description:The presence of eosinophils in the lung is often regarded as a defining feature of asthma. On allergen stimulation, numbers of eosinophils and their progenitors are increased in both the bone marrow and lungs. Eosinophil progenitors provide an ongoing supply of mature eosinophils. Here, we report that deficiency in the regulator of calcineurin 1 gene (Rcan1) leads to a near-complete absence of eosinophilia in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice. In the absence of Rcan1, bone marrow cells produce significantly fewer eosinophils in vivo and in vitro on interleukin-5 stimulation. Importantly, eosinophil progenitor populations are significantly reduced in both naïve and ovalbumin-challenged Rcan1(-/-) mice. Bone marrow cells from Rcan1(-/-) mice are capable of developing into fully mature eosinophils, suggesting that Rcan1 is required for eosinophil progenitor production but may not be necessary for eosinophil maturation. Thus, Rcan1 represents a novel contributor in the development of eosinophilia in allergic asthma through regulation of eosinophil progenitor production.
Project description:Chronic mucosal inflammation is the hallmark of important and common airway diseases, such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenous pro-resolving mediator for mucosal inflammation that decreases allergic and asthmatic responses. Lipoxin B4 (LXB4) is a structurally distinct member of the lipoxin family that signals in a manner distinct from LXA4. LXB4 is generated by mucosal tissues, but its actions in allergic inflammation are unknown. Here, we used murine models of AR and asthma to investigate LXB4's activity in mucosal inflammation. In the upper airway, LXB4 significantly decreased nasal mucosal leukocytes and degranulation of mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils. In the lower airway, LXB4 significantly decreased airway inflammation, mucus metaplasia, and hyper-responsiveness. Inhibition of MC degranulation in vivo by LXB4 was more potent than dexamethasone, and these agents displayed unique profiles for cytokine regulation; however, their overall anti-inflammatory actions were comparable. LXB4 decreased eotaxin-dependent eosinophil chemotaxis, IgE-mediated MC degranulation, and expression of type 2 cytokine receptors. Together, these findings indicate that LXB4 carries cell type selective and mucosal protective actions that broaden the lipoxin family's therapeutic potential for upper and lower airway catabasis.