Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.
ABSTRACT: Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials.
Project description:Slices of dog thyroid gland were incubated with liposomes consisting of (125)I-labelled phosphatidylcholine (the iodine was covalently linked to unsaturated fatty acyl chains). The (125)I label of (125)I-labelled liposomes was incorporated into thyroid protein and/or thyroglobulin at a higher rate than was the (131)I label of either Na(131)I or (131)I(2). The iodine was shown to be protein-bound by the co-migration of the labelled iodine with protein under conditions where free iodine, iodide and lipid-bound iodine were removed from protein. The uptake of iodine from the iodinated phospholipid was probably due to phospholipid exchange between the iodinated liposomes and the thyroid cell membrane, since (a) (14)C-labelled phospholipid was metabolized to (14)CO(2) and (b) many lipids in the tissue slice became (14)C-labelled. A very strong inhibition of iodide ;uptake' from Na(131)I, caused by thiosulphate, produced only a minor inhibition of the incorporation of (125)I from (125)I-labelled liposomes into thyroid protein and/or thyroglobulin. This implies that free iodide may not necessarily be formed from the iodinated phospholipids before their entrance or utilization in the cell. Synthetic polytyrosine polypeptide suspensions showed some iodination by (131)I-labelled liposomes. In tissues with low tyrosine contents, such as liver and kidney, only a trace uptake was observed. Salivary gland showed some uptake. Endoplasmic reticulum of thyroid gland showed a higher iodine uptake than that of the corresponding plasma membranes. These experiments, together with the demonstration of the diet-dependent presence of iodinated phospholipids in dog thyroid, leads us to suggest that iodination of the membrane phospholipids of thyroid cells may be directly or indirectly involved at some stage in the synthesis of thyroglobulin, or exists as a scavenger mechanism, to re-utilize and/or recover released iodine from unstable compounds inside the thyroid cell.
Project description:Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), (124)I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes (124)I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel (124)I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [(124)I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester.
Project description:1. The influence of carrier iodide, iodine monochloride and pH on the labelling of ox insulin with (131)I by the iodine monochloride method have been studied. 2. The quantitative effect of the iodide in the radioactive iodine preparation was that predicted from a calculation of its specific activity. No other interfering factors were detected in the [(131)I]iodide solutions used. 3. Increasing the molar ratio of iodine monochloride to insulin resulted in an increase followed progressively by a decrease in the proportion of (131)I bound, while the total iodine bound increased to an amount characteristic of pH and thereafter remained constant. 4. The influence of pH on the iodination of insulin with iodine monochloride was complex and the pH curve showed two maxima, at pH2.8 and 6.4. At pH2.8 it was not possible to exceed 8 atoms of iodine bound per molecule by increasing the molar ratio of iodine monochloride. Similarly, at pH6.4 the substitution value of 11.5 atoms of iodine per molecule could not be exceeded. 5. Iodinated insulins containing an average of 1.96, 2.74, 6.0 and 7.0 atoms of iodine per molecule fully retained the ability to bind guinea-pig anti-(ox insulin) serum, and the ability to compete with unlabelled insulin for antibody sites only became significantly changed in the most highly substituted preparations and in the presence of large concentrations of unlabelled insulin. 6. The method for the iodination of insulin with 98% incorporation of (131)I by using chloramine-t is described. 7. (131)I-iodinated insulin prepared with graded quantities of chloramine-t in excess of that required for efficient labelling was less efficiently bound by guinea-pig anti-(ox insulin) serum than insulin labelled by the iodine monochloride method.
Project description:Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.
Project description:Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.
Project description:Wastewater environment is a rich source of microorganisms with the capability for the degradation of malicious aromatic pollutants. Although wastewater could be regarded as both a resource and a problem, we intended to elucidate its beneficial aspect in this study sourcing for laccase-producing proteobacteria. Different wastewater samples, from selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were selectively enriched with some model compounds (vanillin, lignin and potassium hydrogen phthalate) to screen out bacterial isolates that possess excellent degradation potentials. Thereafter, positive isolates were screened for the production of laccase and degradation on phenolic (guaiacol, ?-naphthol and syringaldazine) and non-phenolic (ABTS; 2,2 azino-bis -(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6 sulphonic acid) and PFC; potassium ferrocyanoferrate) substrates characteristic of laccase oxidation. Remarkable laccase producers were identified based on their 16 S rRNA sequences and their secreted enzymes were subjected to substrate specificity test, employing laccase substrates; ABTS, PFC, guaiacol, ?-naphthol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and pyrogallol. Results showed that wastewater and selective enrichment, in tandem, produced the gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa DEJ16, Pseudomonas mendocina AEN16 and Stenotrophomonas maltophila BIJ16, which preferably oxidized the non-phenolic substrates. Units of extracellular laccase activity ranging between cca. 490 and cca. 600 U/mL were recorded for ABTS whereas outputs recorded from PFC catalysis ranged from cca. 320 to cca. 430 U/mL. Stenotrophomonas maltophila BIJ16 presented an unparalleled high laccase activity and had a responsive substrate specificity to aromatic and inorganic substrates, thereby suggesting its employment for in situ biodegradation studies. In conclusion, wastewater serves as an ideal milieu for the isolation of laccase producing bacteria.
Project description:The methionine-iodine reaction was reinvestigated spectrophotometrically in detail monitoring the absorbance belonging to the isosbestic point of iodine at 468 nm, at T = 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, and at 0.5 M ionic strength in buffered acidic medium. The stoichiometric ratio of the reactants was determined to be 1:1 producing methionine sulfoxide as the lone sulfur-containing product. The direct reaction between methionine and iodine was found to be relatively rapid in the absence of initially added iodide ion, and it can conveniently be followed by the stopped-flow technique. Reduction of iodine eventually leads to the formation of iodide ion that inhibits the reaction making the whole system autoinhibitory with respect to the halide ion. We have also shown that this inhibitory effect appears quite prominently, and addition of iodide ion in the millimole concentration range may result in a rate law where the formal kinetic order of this species becomes -2. In contrast to this, hydrogen ion has just a mildly inhibitory effect giving rise to the fact that iodine is the kinetically active species in the system but not hypoiodous acid. The surprisingly complex kinetics of this simple reaction may readily be interpreted via the initiating rapidly established iodonium-transfer process between the reactants followed by the subsequent hydrolytic decomposition of the short-lived iodinated methionine. A seven-step kinetic model to be able to describe the most important characteristics of the measured kinetic curves is established and discussed in detail.
Project description:Vanillin is a phenolic food additive commonly used for flavor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Though it is one of the widely used food additives, strategies of the human gut microbes to evade its antimicrobial activity await extensive elucidation. The current study explores the human gut microbiome with a multi-omics approach to elucidate its composition and metabolic machinery to counter vanillin bioactivity. A combination of SSU rRNA gene diversity, metagenomic RNA features diversity, phylogenetic affiliation of metagenome encoded proteins, uniformly (R = 0.99) indicates the abundance of Bacteroidetes followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Manual curation of metagenomic dataset identified gene clusters specific for the vanillin metabolism (ligV, ligK, and vanK) and intermediary metabolic pathways (pca and cat operon). Metagenomic dataset comparison identified the omnipresence of vanillin catabolic features across diverse populations. The metabolomic analysis brings forth the functionality of the vanillin catabolic pathway through the Protocatechuate branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway. These results highlight the human gut microbial features and metabolic bioprocess involved in vanillin catabolism to overcome its antimicrobial activity. The current study advances our understanding of the human gut microbiome adaption toward changing dietary habits.
Project description:Phenolic compounds extracted from cactus seed oil were identified for the first time by HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS and subsequently quantified by HPLC-DAD. A total of 7 compounds were identified, vanillin, syringaldehyde, and ferulaldehyde were found to be the most abundant ones. The effect of geographical origin and roasting process of cactus seeds was evaluated. Differences between different locations were not found, however the roasting process had a significant effect on the amount of phenolic compounds. The amount of syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid ethyl ester, and ferulaldehyde increased during the roasting process. Nevertheless, the concentration of vanillin was not influenced by roasting. It was demonstrated that the increase of those compounds was due to the thermal degradation of lignin from the seeds during the roasting process of seeds.
Project description:A multicopper oxidase (IOX) produced by Iodidimonas sp. Q-1 has high catalytic efficiency for iodide (I-) oxidation to form molecular iodine (I2). In this study, the potential capacity of IOX for decolorization of recalcitrant dyes was determined. Although IOX did not decolorize any dyes in the absence of redox mediator, significant decolorization of Orange G, Indigo Carmine, Amido Black, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was observed in the presence of iodide. Addition of 0.1?mM iodide was sufficient to decolorize a total of 3?mM Indigo Carmine, suggesting that iodide functions as a mediator. Such mediator-like function of iodide was not observed in commercially available fungal laccases. The IOX-iodide decolorization system showed much alkaline pH optima of 5.5-6.5 and stronger salt tolerance than fungal laccases did. In addition, actual wastewater discharged from a dyeing factory could be decolorized more than 50% by the system. Since iodide is naturally occurring, non-toxic, and cheaper than common synthetic mediators, the IOX-iodide system is potentially more advantageous than fungal laccase-mediator systems for decolorization of recalcitrant dyes.