A biochemical landscape of A-to-I RNA editing in the human brain transcriptome.
ABSTRACT: Inosine is an abundant RNA modification in the human transcriptome and is essential for many biological processes in modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosines to inosines (A-to-I editing) in double-stranded regions. We previously established a biochemical method called "inosine chemical erasing" (ICE) to directly identify inosines on RNA strands with high reliability. Here, we have applied the ICE method combined with deep sequencing (ICE-seq) to conduct an unbiased genome-wide screening of A-to-I editing sites in the transcriptome of human adult brain. Taken together with the sites identified by the conventional ICE method, we mapped 19,791 novel sites and newly found 1258 edited mRNAs, including 66 novel sites in coding regions, 41 of which cause altered amino acid assignment. ICE-seq detected novel editing sites in various repeat elements as well as in short hairpins. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these edited mRNAs are associated with transcription, energy metabolism, and neurological disorders, providing new insights into various aspects of human brain functions.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a widespread and conserved post-transcriptional modification, producing significant changes in cellular function and behavior. Accurately identifying, detecting, and quantifying these sites in the transcriptome is necessary to improve our understanding of editing dynamics, its broader biological roles, and connections with diseases. Chemical labeling of edited bases coupled with affinity enrichment has enabled improved characterization of several forms of RNA editing. However, there are no approaches currently available for pull-down of inosines. To address this need, we explore acrylamide as a labeling motif and report here an acrylamidofluorescein reagent that reacts with inosine and enables enrichment of inosine-containing RNA transcripts. This method provides improved sensitivity in the detection and identification of inosines toward a more comprehensive transcriptome-wide analysis of A-to-I editing. Acrylamide derivatization is also highly generalizable, providing potential for the labeling of inosine with a wide variety of probes and affinity handles.
Project description:Gene structure and expression in diplonemid mitochondria are unparalleled. Genes are fragmented in pieces (modules) that are separately transcribed, followed by the joining of module transcripts to contiguous RNAs. Some instances of unique uridine insertion RNA editing at module boundaries were noted, but the extent and potential occurrence of other editing types remained unknown. Comparative analysis of deep transcriptome and genome data from Diplonema papillatum mitochondria reveals ∼220 post-transcriptional insertions of uridines, but no insertions of other nucleotides nor deletions. In addition, we detect in total 114 substitutions of cytosine by uridine and adenosine by inosine, amassed into unusually compact clusters. Inosines in transcripts were confirmed experimentally. This is the first report of adenosine-to-inosine editing of mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in mitochondria. In mRNAs, editing causes mostly amino-acid additions and non-synonymous substitutions; in ribosomal RNAs, it permits formation of canonical secondary structures. Two extensively edited transcripts were compared across four diplonemids. The pattern of uridine-insertion editing is strictly conserved, whereas substitution editing has diverged dramatically, but still rendering diplonemid proteins more similar to other eukaryotic orthologs. We posit that RNA editing not only compensates but also sustains, or even accelerates, ultra-rapid evolution of genome structure and sequence in diplonemid mitochondria.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing has been shown to be an important mechanism that increases protein diversity in the brain of organisms from human to fly. The family of ADAR enzymes converts some adenosines of RNA duplexes to inosines through hydrolytic deamination. The adenosine recognition mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, to investigate it, we analyzed a set of selectively edited substrates with a cluster of edited sites. We used a large set of individual transcripts sequenced by the 454 sequencing technique. On average, we analyzed 570 single transcripts per edited region at four different developmental stages from embryogenesis to adulthood. To our knowledge, this is the first time, large-scale sequencing has been used to determine synchronous editing events. We demonstrate that edited sites are only coupled within specific distances from each other. Furthermore, our results show that the coupled sites of editing are positioned on the same side of a helix, indicating that the three-dimensional structure is key in ADAR enzyme substrate recognition. Finally, we propose that editing by the ADAR enzymes is initiated by their attraction to one principal site in the substrate.
Project description:In animals, the most common type of RNA editing is the deamination of adenosines (A) into inosines (I). Because inosines basepair with cytosines (C), they are interpreted as guanosines (G) by the cellular machinery and genomically encoded G alleles at edited sites mimic the function of edited RNAs. The contribution of this hardwiring effect on genome evolution remains obscure. We looked for population genomics signatures of adaptive evolution associated with A-to-I RNA edited sites in humans and Drosophila melanogaster. We found that single nucleotide polymorphisms at edited sites occur 3 (humans) to 15 times (Drosophila) more often than at unedited sites, the nucleotide G is virtually the unique alternative allele at edited sites and G alleles segregate at higher frequency at edited sites than at unedited sites. Our study reveals that a significant fraction of coding synonymous and nonsynonymous as well as silent and intergenic A-to-I RNA editing sites are likely adaptive in the distantly related human and Drosophila lineages.
Project description:A-to-I RNA editing is an important mechanism that consists of the conversion of specific adenosines into inosines in RNA molecules. Its dysregulation has been associated to several human diseases including cancer. Recent work has demonstrated a role for A-to-I editing in microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene expression regulation. In fact, edited forms of mature miRNAs can target sets of genes that differ from the targets of their unedited forms. The specific deamination of mRNAs can generate novel binding sites in addition to potentially altering existing ones.This work presents miR-EdiTar, a database of predicted A-to-I edited miRNA binding sites. The database contains predicted miRNA binding sites that could be affected by A-to-I editing and sites that could become miRNA binding sites as a result of A-to-I editing.miR-EdiTar is freely available online at http://firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.comSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:RNA editing is a posttranscriptional nucleotide modification in humans. Of the various types of RNA editing, the adenosine to inosine substitution is the most widespread in higher eukaryotes, which is mediated by the ADAR family enzymes. Inosine is recognized by the biological machinery as guanosine; therefore, editing could have substantial functional effects throughout the genome. RNA editing could contribute to cancer either by exclusive editing of tumor suppressor/promoting genes or by introducing transcriptomic diversity to promote cancer progression. Here, we provided a comprehensive overview of the RNA editing sites in gastric adenocarcinoma and highlighted some of their possible contributions to gastric cancer. RNA-seq data corresponding to 8 gastric adenocarcinoma and their paired nontumor counterparts were retrieved from the GEO database. After preprocessing and variant calling steps, a stringent filtering pipeline was employed to distinguish potential RNA editing sites from SNPs. The identified potential editing sites were annotated and compared with those in the DARNED database. Totally, 12362 high-confidence adenosine to inosine RNA editing sites were detected across all samples. Of these, 12105 and 257 were known and novel editing events, respectively. These editing sites were unevenly distributed across genomic regions, and nearly half of them were located in 3'UTR. Our results revealed that 4868 editing sites were common in both normal and cancer tissues. From the remaining sites, 3985 and 3509 were exclusive to normal and cancer tissues, respectively. Further analysis revealed a significant number of differentially edited events among these sites, which were located in protein coding genes and microRNAs. Given the distinct pattern of RNA editing in gastric adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal tissue, edited sites have the potential to serve as the diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing meditated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) enzymes is a widespread post-transcriptional event in mammals. However, A-to-I editing in skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. By integrating strand-specific RNA-seq, whole genome bisulphite sequencing, and genome sequencing data, we comprehensively profiled the A-to-I editome in developing skeletal muscles across 27 prenatal and postnatal stages in pig, an important farm animal and biomedical model. We detected 198,892 A-to-I editing sites and found that they occurred more frequently at prenatal stages and showed low conservation among pig, human, and mouse. Both the editing level and frequency decreased during development and were positively correlated with ADAR enzymes expression. The hyper-edited genes were functionally related to the cell cycle and cell division. A co-editing module associated with myogenesis was identified. The developmentally differential editing sites were functionally enriched in genes associated with muscle development, their editing levels were highly correlated with expression of their host mRNAs, and they potentially influenced the gain/loss of miRNA binding sites. Finally, we developed a database to visualize the Sus scrofa RNA editome. Our study presents the first profile of the dynamic A-to-I editome in developing animal skeletal muscle and provides evidences that RNA editing is a vital regulator of myogenesis.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine modification of RNA molecules (A-to-I RNA editing) is an important mechanism that increases transciptome diversity. It occurs when a genomically encoded adenosine (A) is converted to an inosine (I) by ADAR proteins. Sequencing reactions read inosine as guanosine (G); therefore, current methods to detect A-to-I editing sites align RNA sequences to their corresponding DNA regions and identify A-to-G mismatches. However, such methods perform poorly on RNAs that underwent extensive editing ("ultra"-editing), as the large number of mismatches obscures the genomic origin of these RNAs. Therefore, only a few anecdotal ultra-edited RNAs have been discovered so far. Here we introduce and apply a novel computational method to identify ultra-edited RNAs. We detected 760 ESTs containing 15,646 editing sites (more than 20 sites per EST, on average), of which 13,668 are novel. Ultra-edited RNAs exhibit the known sequence motif of ADARs and tend to localize in sense strand Alu elements. Compared to sites of mild editing, ultra-editing occurs primarily in Alu-rich regions, where potential base pairing with neighboring, inverted Alus creates particularly long double-stranded RNA structures. Ultra-editing sites are underrepresented in old Alu subfamilies, tend to be non-conserved, and avoid exons, suggesting that ultra-editing is usually deleterious. A possible biological function of ultra-editing could be mediated by non-canonical splicing and cleavage of the RNA near the editing sites.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine editing is one of the most frequent post-transcriptional modifications, manifested as A-to-G mismatches when comparing RNA sequences with their source DNA. Recently, a number of RNA-seq data sets have been screened for the presence of A-to-G editing, and hundreds of thousands of editing sites identified. Here we show that existing screens missed the majority of sites by ignoring reads with excessive ('hyper') editing that do not easily align to the genome. We show that careful alignment and examination of the unmapped reads in RNA-seq studies reveal numerous new sites, usually many more than originally discovered, and in precisely those regions that are most heavily edited. Specifically, we discover 327,096 new editing sites in the heavily studied Illumina Human BodyMap data and more than double the number of detected sites in several published screens. We also identify thousands of new sites in mouse, rat, opossum and fly. Our results establish that hyper-editing events account for the majority of editing sites.
Project description:RNA molecules transmit the information encoded in the genome and generally reflect its content. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by ADAR proteins converts a genomically encoded adenosine into inosine. It is known that most RNA editing in human takes place in the primate-specific Alu sequences, but the extent of this phenomenon and its effect on transcriptome diversity are not yet clear. Here, we analyzed large-scale RNA-seq data and detected ∼1.6 million editing sites. As detection sensitivity increases with sequencing coverage, we performed ultradeep sequencing of selected Alu sequences and showed that the scope of editing is much larger than anticipated. We found that virtually all adenosines within Alu repeats that form double-stranded RNA undergo A-to-I editing, although most sites exhibit editing at only low levels (<1%). Moreover, using high coverage sequencing, we observed editing of transcripts resulting from residual antisense expression, doubling the number of edited sites in the human genome. Based on bioinformatic analyses and deep targeted sequencing, we estimate that there are over 100 million human Alu RNA editing sites, located in the majority of human genes. These findings set the stage for exploring how this primate-specific massive diversification of the transcriptome is utilized.