Gene content evolution in Discobid mitochondria deduced from the phylogenetic position and complete mitochondrial genome of Tsukubamonas globosa.
ABSTRACT: The unicellular eukaryotic assemblage Discoba (Excavata) comprises four lineages: the Heterolobosea, Euglenozoa, Jakobida, and Tsukubamonadida. Discoba has been considered as a key assemblage for understanding the early evolution of mitochondrial (mt) genomes, as jakobids retain the most gene-rich (i.e., primitive) genomes compared with any other eukaryotes determined to date. However, to date, mt genome sequences have been completed for only a few groups within Discoba, including jakobids, two closely related heteroloboseans, and kinetoplastid euglenozoans. The Tsukubamonadida is the least studied lineage, as the order was only recently established with the description of a sole representative species, Tsukubamonas globosa. The evolutionary relationship between T. globosa and other discobids has yet to be resolved, and no mt genome data are available for this particular organism. Here, we use a "phylogenomic" approach to resolve the relationship between T. globosa, heteroloboseans, euglenozoans, and jakobids. In addition, we have characterized the mt genome of T. globosa (48,463 bp in length), which encodes 52 putative protein-coding and 29 RNA genes. By mapping the gene repertoires of discobid mt genomes onto the well-resolved Discoba tree, we model gene loss events during the evolution of discobid mt genomes.
Project description:Discoba (Excavata) is an evolutionarily important group of eukaryotes that includes Jakobida, with the most bacterial-like mitochondrial genomes known, and Euglenozoa, many of which have extensively fragmented mitochondrial genomes. However, little is known about the mitochondrial genomes of Heterolobosea, the third main group of Discoba. Here, we studied two heteroloboseids-an undescribed amoeba "BB2" and Pharyngomonas kirbyi. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that they form a clade that is a sister group to all other Heterolobosea. We characterized the mitochondrial genomes of BB2 and P. kirbyi, which encoded 44 and 48 putative protein-coding genes respectively. Their gene contents were similar to that of Naegleria. In BB2, mitochondrially encoded RNAs were heavily edited, with ?500 mononucleotide insertion events, mostly guanosines. These insertions always have the same identity as an adjacent nucleotide. Editing occurs in all ribosomal RNAs and protein-coding transcripts except one, and half of the transfer RNAs. Analysis of Illumina deep-sequencing data suggested that this RNA editing is very accurate and efficient, and most likely co-transcriptional. The dissimilarity of this editing process to other RNA editing phenomena in discobids, as well as its apparent absence in P. kirbyi, suggest that this remarkably extensive system of insertional editing evolved independently in the BB2 lineage, after its divergence from the P. kirbyi lineage.
Project description:Discoba (Excavata) is an ancient group of eukaryotes with great morphological and ecological diversity. Unlike the other major divisions of Discoba (Jakobida and Euglenozoa), little is known about the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Heterolobosea. We have assembled a complete mtDNA genome from the aggregating heterolobosean amoeba, Acrasis kona, which consists of a single circular highly AT-rich (83.3%) molecule of 51.5 kb. Unexpectedly, A. kona mtDNA is missing roughly 40% of the protein-coding genes and nearly half of the transfer RNAs found in the only other sequenced heterolobosean mtDNAs, those of Naegleria spp. Instead, over a quarter of A. kona mtDNA consists of novel open reading frames. Eleven of the 16 protein-coding genes missing from A. kona mtDNA were identified in its nuclear DNA and polyA RNA, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that at least 10 of these 11 putative nuclear-encoded mitochondrial (NcMt) proteins arose by direct transfer from the mitochondrion. Acrasis kona mtDNA also employs C-to-U type RNA editing, and 12 homologs of DYW-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins implicated in plant organellar RNA editing are found in A. kona nuclear DNA. A mapping of mitochondrial gene content onto a consensus phylogeny reveals a sporadic pattern of relative stasis and rampant gene loss in Discoba. Rampant loss occurred independently in the unique common lineage leading to Heterolobosea + Tsukubamonadida and later in the unique lineage leading to Acrasis. Meanwhile, mtDNA gene content appears to be remarkably stable in the Acrasis sister lineage leading to Naegleria and in their distant relatives Jakobida.
Project description:Nearly all of eukaryotic diversity has been classified into 6 suprakingdom-level groups (supergroups) based on molecular and morphological/cell-biological evidence; these are Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, Archaeplastida, Rhizaria, Chromalveolata, and Excavata. However, molecular phylogeny has not provided clear evidence that either Chromalveolata or Excavata is monophyletic, nor has it resolved the relationships among the supergroups. To establish the affinities of Excavata, which contains parasites of global importance and organisms regarded previously as primitive eukaryotes, we conducted a phylogenomic analysis of a dataset of 143 proteins and 48 taxa, including 19 excavates. Previous phylogenomic studies have not included all major subgroups of Excavata, and thus have not definitively addressed their interrelationships. The enigmatic flagellate Andalucia is sister to typical jakobids. Jakobids (including Andalucia), Euglenozoa and Heterolobosea form a major clade that we name Discoba. Analyses of the complete dataset group Discoba with the mitochondrion-lacking excavates or "metamonads" (diplomonads, parabasalids, and Preaxostyla), but not with the final excavate group, Malawimonas. This separation likely results from a long-branch attraction artifact. Gradual removal of rapidly-evolving taxa from the dataset leads to moderate bootstrap support (69%) for the monophyly of all Excavata, and 90% support once all metamonads are removed. Most importantly, Excavata robustly emerges between unikonts (Amoebozoa + Opisthokonta) and "megagrouping" of Archaeplastida, Rhizaria, and chromalveolates. Our analyses indicate that Excavata forms a monophyletic suprakingdom-level group that is one of the 3 primary divisions within eukaryotes, along with unikonts and a megagroup of Archaeplastida, Rhizaria, and the chromalveolate lineages.
Project description:Data from Discoba (Heterolobosea, Euglenozoa, Tsukubamonadida, and Jakobida) are essential to understand the evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), because this clade includes the most primitive-looking mitogenomes known, as well some extremely divergent genome information systems. Heterolobosea encompasses more than 150 described species, many of them from extreme habitats, but only six heterolobosean mitogenomes have been fully sequenced to date. Here we complete the mitogenome of the heterolobosean Pleurostomum flabellatum, which is extremely halophilic and reportedly also lacks classical mitochondrial cristae, hinting at reduction or loss of respiratory function. The mitogenome of P. flabellatum maps as a 57,829-bp-long circular molecule, including 40 coding sequences (19 tRNA, two rRNA, and 19 orfs). The gene content and gene arrangement are similar to Naegleria gruberi and Naegleria fowleri, the closest relatives with sequenced mitogenomes. The P. flabellatum mitogenome contains genes that encode components of the electron transport chain similar to those of Naegleria mitogenomes. Homology searches against a draft nuclear genome showed that P. flabellatum has two homologs of the highly conserved Mic60 subunit of the MICOS complex, and likely lost Mic19 and Mic10. However, electron microscopy showed no cristae structures. We infer that P. flabellatum, which originates from high salinity (313‰) water where the dissolved oxygen concentration is low, possesses a mitochondrion capable of aerobic respiration, but with reduced development of cristae structure reflecting limited use of this aerobic capacity (e.g., microaerophily).
Project description:We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to discover diversity and ecology of anaerobic jakobids (Excavata: Jakobida), an overlooked, deep-branching lineage of free-living nanoflagellates related to Euglenozoa. Jakobids are among a few lineages of nanoflagellates frequently detected in anoxic habitats by PCR-based studies, however only two strains of a single jakobid species have been isolated from those habitats. We recovered 712 environmental sequences and cultured 21 new isolates of anaerobic jakobids that collectively represent at least ten different species in total, from which four are uncultured. Two cultured species have never been detected by environmental, PCR-based methods. Surprisingly, culture-based and culture-independent approaches were able to reveal a relatively high proportion of overall species diversity of anaerobic jakobids-60 or 80%, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and six protein-coding genes showed that anaerobic jakobids constitute a clade of morphologically similar, but genetically and ecologically diverse protists-Stygiellidae fam. nov. Our investigation combines culture-based and environmental molecular-based approaches to capture a wider extent of species diversity and shows Stygiellidae as a group that ordinarily inhabits anoxic, sulfide- and ammonium-rich marine habitats worldwide.
Project description:A new jakobid genus has been isolated from Moroccan desert soil. The cyst-forming protist Moramonas marocensis gen. nov., sp. nov. has two anteriorly inserted flagella of which one points to the posterior cell pole accompanying the ventral feeding groove and is equipped with a dorsal vane-a feature typical for the Jakobida. It further shows a flagellar root system consisting of singlet microtubular root, left root (R1), right root (R2) and typical fibres associated with R1 and R2. The affiliation of M. marocensis to the Jakobida was confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analyses of the SSU rRNA gene, five nuclear genes and 66 mitochondrial protein-coding genes. The mitochondrial genome has the high number of genes typical for jakobids, and bacterial features, such as the four-subunit RNA polymerase and Shine-Dalgarno sequences upstream of the coding regions of several genes. The M. marocensis mitochondrial genome encodes a similar number of genes as other jakobids, but is unique in its very large genome size (greater than 264 kbp), which is three to four times higher than that of any other jakobid species investigated yet. This increase seems to be due to a massive expansion in non-coding DNA, creating a bloated genome like those of plant mitochondria.
Project description:The mitoribosome, as known from studies in model organisms, deviates considerably from its ancestor, the bacterial ribosome. Deviations include substantial reduction of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (mt-rRNA) structure and acquisition of numerous mitochondrion-specific (M) mitoribosomal proteins (mtRPs). A broadly accepted view assumes that M-mtRPs compensate for structural destabilization of mt-rRNA resulting from its evolutionary remodeling. Since most experimental information on mitoribosome makeup comes from eukaryotes having derived mitochondrial genomes and mt-rRNAs, we tested this assumption by investigating the mitochondrial translation machinery of jakobids, a lineage of unicellular protists with the most bacteria-like mitochondrial genomes. We report here proteomics analyses of the Andalucia godoyi small mitoribosomal subunit and in silico transcriptomic and comparative genome analyses of four additional jakobids. Jakobids have mt-rRNA structures that minimally differ from their bacterial counterparts. Yet, with at least 31 small subunit and 44 large subunit mtRPs, the mitoriboproteome of Andalucia is essentially as complex as that in animals or fungi. Furthermore, the relatively high conservation of jakobid sequences has helped to clarify the identity of several mtRPs, previously considered to be lineage-specific, as divergent homologs of conserved M-mtRPs, notably mS22 and mL61. The coexistence of bacteria-like mt-rRNAs and a complex mitoriboproteome refutes the view that M-mtRPs were ancestrally recruited to stabilize deviations of mt-rRNA structural elements. We postulate instead that the numerous M-mtRPs acquired in the last eukaryotic common ancestor allowed mt-rRNAs to pursue a broad range of evolutionary trajectories across lineages: from dramatic reduction to acquisition of novel elements to structural conservatism.
Project description:We report a novel nanoflagellate, Ophirina amphinema n. gen. n. sp., isolated from a lagoon of the Solomon Islands. The flagellate displays 'typical excavate' morphological characteristics, such as the presence of a ventral feeding groove with vanes on the posterior flagellum. The cell is ca. 4?µm in length, bears two flagella, and has a single mitochondrion with flat to discoid cristae. The flagellate exists in two morphotypes: a suspension-feeder, which bears flagella that are about the length of the cell, and a swimmer, which has longer flagella. In a tree based on the analysis of 156 proteins, Ophirina is sister to jakobids, with moderate bootstrap support. Ophirina has some ultrastructural (e.g. B-fibre associated with the posterior basal body) and mtDNA (e.g. rpoA-D) features in common with jakobids. Yet, other morphological features, including the crista morphology and presence of two flagellar vanes, rather connect Ophirina to non-jakobid or non-discobid excavates. Ophirina amphinema has some unique features, such as an unusual segmented core structure within the basal bodies and a rightward-oriented dorsal fan. Thus, Ophirina represents a new deeply-branching member of Discoba, and its mosaic morphological characteristics may illuminate aspects of the ancestral eukaryotic cellular body plan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Comparative analyses have indicated that the mitochondrion of the last eukaryotic common ancestor likely possessed all the key core structures and functions that are widely conserved throughout the domain Eucarya. To date, such studies have largely focused on animals, fungi, and land plants (primarily multicellular eukaryotes); relatively few mitochondrial proteomes from protists (primarily unicellular eukaryotic microbes) have been examined. To gauge the full extent of mitochondrial structural and functional complexity and to identify potential evolutionary trends in mitochondrial proteomes, more comprehensive explorations of phylogenetically diverse mitochondrial proteomes are required. In this regard, a key group is the jakobids, a clade of protists belonging to the eukaryotic supergroup Discoba, distinguished by having the most gene-rich and most bacteria-like mitochondrial genomes discovered to date. RESULTS:In this study, we assembled the draft nuclear genome sequence for the jakobid Andalucia godoyi and used a comprehensive in silico approach to infer the nucleus-encoded portion of the mitochondrial proteome of this protist, identifying 864 candidate mitochondrial proteins. The A. godoyi mitochondrial proteome has a complexity that parallels that of other eukaryotes, while exhibiting an unusually large number of ancestral features that have been lost particularly in opisthokont (animal and fungal) mitochondria. Notably, we find no evidence that the A. godoyi nuclear genome has or had a gene encoding a single-subunit, T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerase, which functions as the mitochondrial transcriptase in all eukaryotes except the jakobids. CONCLUSIONS:As genome and mitochondrial proteome data have become more widely available, a strikingly punctuate phylogenetic distribution of different mitochondrial components has been revealed, emphasizing that the pathways of mitochondrial proteome evolution are likely complex and lineage-specific. Unraveling this complexity will require comprehensive comparative analyses of mitochondrial proteomes from a phylogenetically broad range of eukaryotes, especially protists. The systematic in silico approach described here offers a valuable adjunct to direct proteomic analysis (e.g., via mass spectrometry), particularly in cases where the latter approach is constrained by sample limitation or other practical considerations.
Project description:Many plant mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been sequenced but few in ferns. <i>Ophioglossum vulgatum</i> represents a typical species of fern genus <i>Ophioglossum</i> with medicinal and scientific value. However, its mt genome structure remains to be characterized. This study assembled and annotated the complete <i>O. vulgatum</i> mt genome and presented its structural characters and repeat sequences firstly. Its mt and chloroplast (cp) transfer sequences were explored, and the phylogenetic significance of both mt and cp genomes was also evaluated at the family level. Our results showed that the complete mt genome of <i>O. vulgatum</i> is a single circular genome of 369,673 bp in length, containing 5000 dispersed repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from cp and mt genomes displayed similar topologies, but also showed subtle differences at certain nodes. There exist 4818 bp common gene fragments between cp and mt genomes, of which more than 70% are located in tRNA intergenic regions (in mt). In conclusion, we assembled the complete mt genome of <i>O. vulgatum</i>, identified its remarkable structural characters, and provided new insights on ferns. The complementary results derived from mt and cp phylogeny highlighted that some higher taxonomic-level phylogenetic relationships among ferns remain to be resolved.