Investigation of intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-pseudomonas syringae interactions using a fast neutron-generated mutant allele of EDS5 identified by genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing.
ABSTRACT: A whole-genome sequencing technique developed to identify fast neutron-induced deletion mutations revealed that iap1-1 is a new allele of EDS5 (eds5-5). RPS2-AvrRpt2-initiated effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was compromised in iap1-1/eds5-5 with respect to in planta bacterial levels and the hypersensitive response, while intra- and intercellular free salicylic acid (SA) accumulation was greatly reduced, suggesting that SA contributes as both an intracellular signaling molecule and an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space during ETI. During the compatible interaction between wild-type Col-0 and virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), little intercellular free SA accumulated, which led to the hypothesis that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation. When Col-0 was inoculated with a coronatine-deficient strain of Pst, high levels of intercellular SA accumulation were observed, suggesting that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation using its phytotoxin coronatine. This work suggests that accumulation of SA in the intercellular space is an important component of basal/PAMP-triggered immunity as well as ETI to pathogens that colonize the intercellular space.
Project description:SUMMARY Age-related resistance (ARR) occurs in numerous plant species, often resulting in increased disease resistance as plants mature. ARR in Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is associated with intercellular salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and the transition to flowering. Forward and reverse genetic screens were performed to identify genes required for ARR and to investigate the mechanism of the ARR response. Infiltration of SA into the intercellular space of the ARR-defective mutant iap1-1 (important for the ARR pathway) partially restored ARR function. Inter- and intracellular SA accumulation was reduced in the mutant iap1-1 compared with the wild-type, and the SA regulatory gene EDS1 was also required for ARR. Combining microarray analysis with reverse genetics using T-DNA insertion lines, four additional ARR genes were identified as contributing to ARR: two plant-specific transcription factors of the NAC family [ANAC055 (At3g15500) and ANAC092 (At5g39610)], a UDP-glucose glucosyltransferase [UGT85A1 (At1g22400)] and a cytidine deaminase [CDA1 (At2g19570)]. These four genes and IAP1 are also required for ARR to Hyaloperonospora parasitica. IAP1 encodes a key component of ARR that acts upstream of SA accumulation and possibly downstream of UGT85A1, CDA1 and the two NAC transcription factors (ANAC055, ANAC092).
Project description:Receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1 modulate multiple cellular processes including brassinosteroid signaling and PRR-mediated PTI in Arabidopsis. Our previous reports also demonstrated that <i>bak1 bkk1</i> double mutants exhibit a spontaneous cell death phenotype under normal growth condition. With an unknown mechanism, the cell death in <i>bak1 bkk1</i> is significantly suppressed when grown in dark but can be quickly induced by light. Furthermore, little is known about intrinsic components involved in <i>BAK1</i> and <i>BKK1</i>-regulated cell death pathway. In this study, we analyzed how light functions as an initiator of cell death and identified ETI components to act as mediators of cell death signaling in <i>bak1 bkk1</i>. Cell death suppressed in <i>bak1 bkk1</i> by growing in dark condition recurred upon exogenously treated SA. SA biosynthesis-related genes <i>SID2</i> and <i>EDS5</i>, which encode chloroplast-localized proteins, were highly expressed in <i>bak1-4 bkk1-1</i>. When crossed to <i>bak1-3 bkk1-1, sid2</i> or <i>eds5</i> was capable of efficiently suppressing the cell death. It suggested that overly produced SA is crucial for inducing cell death in <i>bak1 bkk1</i> grown in light. Notably, <i>bak1-3</i> or <i>bkk1-1</i> single mutant was shown to be more susceptible but <i>bak1-3 bkk1-1</i> double mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial pathogen, suggesting immune signaling other than PTI is activated in <i>bak1 bkk1</i>. Moreover, genetic analyses showed that mutation in <i>EDS1</i> or <i>PAD4</i>, key ETI mediator, significantly suppressed the cell death in <i>bak1-3 bkk1-1</i>. In this study, we revealed that light-triggered SA accumulation plays major role in inducing the cell death in <i>bak1 bkk1</i>, mediated by ETI components.
Project description:Bacterial infection of plants often begins with colonization of the plant surface, followed by entry into the plant through wounds and natural openings (such as stomata), multiplication in the intercellular space (apoplast) of the infected tissues, and dissemination of bacteria to other plants. Historically, most studies assess bacterial infection based on final outcomes of disease and/or pathogen growth using whole infected tissues; few studies have genetically distinguished the contribution of different host cell types in response to an infection. The phytotoxin coronatine (COR) is produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. COR-deficient mutants of P. s. tomato (Pst) DC3000 are severely compromised in virulence, especially when inoculated onto the plant surface. We report here a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants that could rescue the virulence of COR-deficient mutant bacteria. Among the susceptible to coronatine-deficient Pst DC3000 (scord) mutants were two that were defective in stomatal closure response, two that were defective in apoplast defense, and four that were defective in both stomatal and apoplast defense. Isolation of these three classes of mutants suggests that stomatal and apoplastic defenses are integrated in plants, but are genetically separable, and that COR is important for Pst DC3000 to overcome both stomatal guard cell- and apoplastic mesophyll cell-based defenses. Of the six mutants defective in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure, three are defective in salicylic acid (SA)-induced stomatal closure, but exhibit normal stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA), and scord7 is compromised in both SA- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. We have cloned SCORD3, which is required for salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, and SCORD5, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, AtGCN20/AtABCF3, predicted to be involved in stress-associated protein translation control. Identification of SCORD5 begins to implicate an important role of stress-associated protein translation in stomatal guard cell signaling in response to microbe-associated molecular patterns and bacterial infection.
Project description:In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The Arabidopsis TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal "WRKY" transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4(Ws) /RRS1(Ws) allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4(Col) /RRS1(Col) effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4(Col) (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers temperature-conditioned EDS1-dependent auto-immunity. Here we show that a high (28°C, non-permissive) to moderate (19°C, permissive) temperature shift of 35S:RPS4-HS plants can be used to follow defense-related transcriptional dynamics without a pathogen effector trigger. By comparing responses of 35S:RPS4-HS with 35S:RPS4-HS rrs1-11 and 35S:RPS4-HS eds1-2 mutants, we establish that RPS4(Col) auto-immunity depends entirely on EDS1 and partially on RRS1(Col) . Examination of gene expression microarray data over 24 h after temperature shift reveals a mainly quantitative RRS1(Col) contribution to up- or down-regulation of a small subset of RPS4(Col) -reprogramed, EDS1-dependent genes. We find significant over-representation of WRKY transcription factor binding W-box cis-elements within the promoters of these genes. Our data show that RRS1(Col) contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4(Col) auto-immunity and are consistent with activated RPS4(Col) engaging RRS1(Col) for resistance signaling.
Project description:Yellow stripe-like1 (YSL1) and YSL3 are involved in iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) translocation. Previously, we reported that upregulation of YSL1 and YSL3 under excess Cu caused high accumulation of Cu in the siz1 mutant, impaired in small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase. Interestingly, the siz1 mutant contains high levels of salicylic acid (SA), involved in plant defense against biotrophic pathogens. In this study, we found that YSL1 and YSL3 were upregulated by SA. SA-regulated YSL3 but not YSL1 depended on nonexpressor of PR1 (NPR1). Susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 was greater for ysl3 than the wild type. Also, during Pst DC3000 infection, YSL3 was positively regulated by SA signaling through NPR1 and the upregulation was enhanced in the coi1 mutant that defective in the jasmonic acid (JA) receptor, coronatine insensitive1. This line of evidence indicates that the regulation of YSL3 is downstream of SA signaling and interplays with JA signaling for involvement in pathogen-induced defense. We provide new insights into the biological function of the metal transporter YSL3 in plant pathogen defense.
Project description:Responses to pathogens, including host transcriptional reprogramming, require partially antagonistic signalling pathways dependent on the phytohormones salicylic (SA) and jasmonic (JA) acids. However, upstream factors modulating the interplay of these pathways are not well characterized. Here, we identify the transcription factor ANAC032 from Arabidopsis thaliana as one such regulator in response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). ANAC032 directly represses MYC2 activation upon Pst attack, resulting in blockage of coronatine-mediated stomatal reopening which restricts entry of bacteria into plant tissue. Furthermore, ANAC032 activates SA signalling by repressing NIMIN1, a key negative regulator of SA-dependent defence. Finally, ANAC032 reduces expression of JA-responsive genes, including PDF1.2A Thus, ANAC032 enhances resistance to Pst by generating an orchestrated transcriptional output towards key SA- and JA-signalling genes coordinated through direct binding of ANAC032 to the MYC2, NIMIN1 and PDF1.2A promoters.
Project description:Innate immunity in plants can be triggered by microbe- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is often suppressed by pathogen effectors delivered into the host cell. Plants can overcome pathogen suppression of PTI and reestablish pathogen resistance through effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An unanswered question is how plants might overcome pathogen-suppression of PTI during ETI. Findings described in this paper suggest a possible mechanism. During Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis, a host ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, AtMIN7, is destabilized by the pathogen effector HopM1 through the host 26S proteasome. In this study, we discovered that AtMIN7 is required for not only PTI, consistent with the notion that Pst DC3000 degrades AtMIN7 to suppress PTI, but also ETI. The AtMIN7 level in healthy plants is low, but increases posttranscriptionally in response to activation of PTI. Whereas DC3000 infection led to degradation of AtMIN7, activation of ETI by three different effectors, AvrRpt2, AvrPphB, and HopA1, in Col-0 plants blocks the ability of Pst DC3000 to destabilize AtMIN7. Further analyses of bacterial translocation of HopM1 and AtMIN7 stability in HopM1 transgenic plants show that ETI prevents HopM1-mediated degradation of AtMIN7 inside the plant cell. Both AtMIN7 and HopM1 are localized to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, a subcellular compartment that is not previously known to be associated with bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Thus, blocking pathogen degradation of trans-Golgi network/early endosome-associated AtMIN7 is a critical part of the ETI mechanism to counter bacterial suppression of PTI.
Project description:Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA) mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonise SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, e.g. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonate (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with coronatine deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and coronatine alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. RNA was extracted from leaves of wild type Col-0 or the jaz5/10 mutant plants from leaves 6, 8, 12 or 16 hours after challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.
Project description:In plants, the activation of immunity is often inversely correlated with growth. Mechanisms that plant growth in the context of pathogen challenge and immunity are unclear. Investigating Arabidopsis infection with the powdery mildew fungus, we find that the Arabidopsis atypical E2F DEL1, a transcriptional repressor known to promote cell proliferation, represses accumulation of the hormone salicylic acid (SA), an established regulator of plant immunity. DEL1 deficient plants are more resistant to pathogens and slightly smaller than wild type. The resistance and size phenotypes of DEL1 deficient plants are due to the induction of SA and activation of immunity in the absence of pathogen challenge. Moreover, Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 5 (EDS5), a SA transporter required for elevated SA and immunity, is a direct repressed target of DEL1. Together, these findings indicate that DEL1 control of SA levels contributes to regulating the balance between growth and immunity in developing leaves. Mature, fully expanded leaves of 41/2-week-old Col-0 and del1-1 plants were harvested at 5 days after G. orontii infection and from uninfected control plants for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI) are well-defined modes of plant immunity triggered by recognition of pathogen effector proteins and microbe-associated molecular patterns, respectively. While ETI and PTI network extensively share signaling components, the shared components are used in different ways, resulting in distinct network properties in the model plant Arabidopsis: immunity is highly robust against network perturbations in ETI but relatively sensitive in PTI. However, the molecular mechanism how the shared network leads to the different properties is not known. Here we show that salicylic acid (SA) reponsive genes can respond in the absense of SA during ETI. A 24 DNA microarray study using total RNA from Arabidopsis wildtype Col-0 and sid2-2 mutant infected with Pto hrcC-, Pto EV, Pto AvrRpt2 or water.