Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of thermostable β-1,4-xylanase from Streptomyces sp. S9.
ABSTRACT: Xylanase, which catalyzes the random hydrolysis of internal xylosidic linkages, is a critical enzyme participating in xylan decomposition and has been widely applied in industrial utilizations. Xylanase isolated from the extremophilic Streptomyces sp. S9 (XynAS9) possesses broad adaptability to temperature and pH and thus is an attractive candidate in industrial applications. In particular, the major products of XynAS9 are xylose and xylobiose, which enable the subsequent bioconversion to be carried out with higher efficiency. Therefore, the three-dimensional structure of XynAS9 and its catalytic machinery are of great interest. Here, recombinant XynAS9 protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized. Crystals belonging to the hexagonal space group P6(5)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 80.9, c = 289.3 Å, were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.08 Å resolution. Initial phase determination using molecular replacement indicated that the crystal contains one molecule in an asymmetric unit. Further model building and structural refinement are in progress.
Project description:A novel xylanase gene, xyn10A, was cloned from Flavobacterium johsoniae, overexpressed in a flavobacterial expression system, the recombinant enzyme purified by Ni-affinity chromatography, and enzyme structure and activity analyzed. Xyn10A was found to be a modular xylanase with an Fn3 accessory domain on its N-terminal and a catalytic region on the C-terminal. The optimum pH and temperature for Xyn10A was 8.0 and 30 °C, but Xyn10A retained 50% activity at 4 °C, indicating that Xyn10A is a cold-active xylanase. A Fn3-deletion xylanase had relative activity ca. 3.6-fold lower than the wild-type, indicating that Fn3 promotes xylanase activity. The Fn3 region also contributed to stability of the enzyme at elevated temperatures. However, Fn3 did not bind this xylanase to insoluble substrates. The enzyme hydrolyzed xylo-oligosaccharides into xylobiose, and xylose with xylobiose as the main product, confirming that Xyn10A is a strict endo-?-1,4-xylanase. Xyn10A also hydrolyzed birchwood and beechwood xylan to yield mainly xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose.
Project description:Bacterial strain Bacillus tequilensis BT21 isolated from marine sediments was found to produce extracellular xylanase. The xynBT21 gene encoding xylanase enzyme was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a protein consisting of 213 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 23.3 kDa. Puri?ed recombinant xylanase had optimum activity at 60 °C and pH=6. The enzyme was highly stable in alkaline pH, at pH=7 it remained 100% active for 24 h, while its activity increased at pH=8 and 9 during incubation. B. tequilensis BT21 xylanase had alkaline pI of 9.4 and belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11. The mode of action of XynBT21 on beechwood xylan and xylooligosaccharides was studied. It hydrolysed xylooligosaccharides and beechwood xylan yielding mainly xylobiose (X2) with a small amount of xylose (X1), indicating that XynBT21 was probably an endo-acting xylanase. Enzymatic hydrolysis using wheat bran as a substrate revealed that xylanase reported here has the potential to produce xylobiose from wheat bran. Xylooligosaccharides, especially xylobiose, have strong bifidogenic properties and are increasingly used as a prebiotic. This is the ?rst report that describes this novel xylanase enzyme from marine B. tequilensis BT21 used for the release of xylobiose from wheat bran.
Project description:Endo-β-1,4-D-xylanases are used in a multitude of industrial applications. Native crystals of a cold-adapted xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 8 were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a=46.6, b=110.8, c=150.2 Å at 100 K, and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The asymmetric unit is likely to contain one molecule, with a VM of 2.07 Å3 Da(-1), corresponding to a solvent content of ∼40%.
Project description:1. The culture filtrate of the fungus Coniophora cerebella grown on poplar 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan as carbon source and enzyme inducer contained an enzyme system that degraded the polysaccharide to xylose, acidic and neutral oligosaccharides and an enzyme-resistant polymer. Free uronic acid was not produced. 2. Cold ethanol fractionation of the culture filtrate yielded two active fractions, one of which had only xylanase (EC 18.104.22.168) and the other both xylanase and xylosidase (EC 22.214.171.124) activities. Further fractionation on DEAE-cellulose resolved the xylanase and xylosidase activities. 3. The xylanase degraded poplar 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan in an essentially random manner, producing oligosaccharides, but some xylose residues in the vicinity of uronic acid side groups were protected from hydrolysis, preventing a truly random attack. The xylosidase attacked the polysaccharide very slowly, releasing xylose, but the oligosaccharides produced by the action of the xylanase were much more susceptible to hydrolysis by the xylosidase. 4. The products of xylanase action were separated into neutral and acidic fractions. The neutral oligosaccharides were separated by chromatography on charcoal-Celite, and the major products were characterized as xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose and xylopentaose. Some of the acidic sugars were branched, having the uronic acid residue attached to a xylose residue other than the terminal non-reducing one. 5. Gel filtration of various xylanase fractions gave values for the molecular weight of the enzyme from 34000 to 38000.
Project description:Background:The main representatives of hemicellulose are xylans, usually decorated ?-1,4-linked d-xylose polymers, which are hydrolyzed by xylanases. The efficient utilization and complete hydrolysis of xylans necessitate the understanding of the mode of action of xylan degrading enzymes. The glycoside hydrolase family 30 (GH30) xylanases comprise a less studied group of such enzymes, and differences regarding the substrate recognition have been reported between fungal and bacterial GH30 xylanases. Besides their role in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy, such enzymes could be used for the tailored production of prebiotic xylooligosaccharides (XOS) due to their substrate specificity. Results:The expression of a putative GH30_7 xylanase from the fungus Thermothelomyces thermophila (synonyms Myceliophthora thermophila, Sporotrichum thermophile) in Pichia pastoris resulted in the production and isolation of a novel xylanase with unique catalytic properties. The novel enzyme designated TtXyn30A, exhibited an endo- mode of action similar to that of bacterial GH30 xylanases that require 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) decorations, in contrast to most characterized fungal ones. However, TtXyn30A also exhibited an exo-acting catalytic behavior by releasing the disaccharide xylobiose from the non-reducing end of XOS. The hydrolysis products from beechwood glucuronoxylan were MeGlcA substituted XOS, and xylobiose. The major uronic XOS (UXOS) were the aldotriuronic and aldotetrauronic acid after longer incubation indicating the ability of TtXyn30A to cleave linear parts of xylan and UXOS as well. Conclusions:Hereby, we reported the heterologous production and biochemical characterization of a novel fungal GH30 xylanase exhibiting endo- and exo-xylanase activity. To date, considering its novel catalytic properties, TtXyn30A shows differences with most characterized fungal and bacterial GH30 xylanases. The discovered xylobiohydrolase mode of action offers new insights into fungal enzymatic systems that are employed for the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. The recombinant xylanase could be used for the production of X2 and UXOS from glucuronoxylan, which in turn would be utilized as prebiotics carrying manifold health benefits.
Project description:The maximum yield of xylanase from Aureobasidium melanogenum PBUAP46 was 5.19?±?0.08 U ml-1 when cultured in a production medium containing 3.89% (w/v) rice straw and 0.75% (w/v) NaNO3 as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for 72 h. This enzyme catalyzed well and was relatively stable at pH 7.0 and room temperature (28?±?2 °C). The produced xylanase was used to hydrolyze xylans from four tropical weeds, whereupon it was found that the highest amounts of reducing sugars in the xylan hydrolysates of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical), Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) were at 20.44?±?0.84, 17.50?±?0.29, and 19.44?±?0.40 mg 100 mg xylan-1, respectively, but it was not detectable in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) hydrolysate. The highest combined amount of xylobiose and xylotriose was obtained from vetiver grass; thus, it was selected for further optimization. After optimization, xylanase digestion of vetiver grass xylan at 27.94 U g xylan-1 for 92 h 19 min gave the highest amount of reducing sugars (23.65?±?1.34 mg 100 mg xylan-1), which were principally xylobiose and xylotriose. The enriched XOs exhibited a prebiotic property, significantly stimulating the growth of Lactobacillus brevis and L. casei by a factor of up to 3.5- and 6.5-fold, respectively, compared to glucose.
Project description:Xylanase B, a member of subfamily 7 of the GH30 (glycoside hydrolase family 30) from Talaromyces cellulolyticus (TcXyn30B), is a bifunctional enzyme with glucuronoxylanase and xylobiohydrolase activities. In the present study, crystal structures of the native enzyme and the enzyme-product complex of TcXyn30B expressed in Pichia pastoris were determined at resolutions of 1.60 and 1.65 Å, respectively. The enzyme complexed with 22 -(4-O-methyl-?-d-glucuronyl)-xylobiose (U4m2 X) revealed that TcXyn30B strictly recognizes both the C-6 carboxyl group and the 4-O-methyl group of the 4-O-methyl-?-d-glucuronyl side chain by the conserved residues in GH30-7 endoxylanases. The crystal structure and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Asn-93 on the ?2-?2-loop interacts with the non-reducing end of the xylose residue at subsite-2 and is likely to be involved in xylobiohydrolase activity. These findings provide structural insight into the mechanisms of substrate recognition of GH30-7 glucuronoxylanase and xylobiohydrolase.
Project description:An extracellular xylanase produced by a cellulase-negative mutant strain of Streptomyces lividans 1326 was purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme has an apparent Mr of 43,000 and pI of 5.2. The pH and temperature optima for the activity were 6.0 and 60 degrees C respectively, and the Km and Vmax. values, determined with a soluble oat spelts xylan, were 0.78 mg/ml and 0.85 mmol/min per mg of enzyme. The xylanase showed no activity towards CM-cellulose and p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside. The enzyme degraded xylan, producing mainly xylobiose, a mixture of xylo-oligosaccharides and a small amount of xylose as end products. Its pattern of action on beta-1,4-D-xylan indicates that it is a beta-1,4-endoxylanase (EC 126.96.36.199).
Project description:Extremophilic xylanases have attracted great scientific and industrial interest. In this study, a GH10 xylanase-encoding gene, Xyl10E, was cloned from Bispora sp. MEY-1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Deduced Xyl10E shares the highest identities of 62% and 57% with characterized family GH10 xylanases from Talaromyces leycettanus and Penicillium canescens (structure 4F8X), respectively. Xyl10E was most active at 93 to 95°C and pH 4.0, retained more than 75% or 48% of the initial activity when heated at 80°C or 90°C for 30 min, respectively, and hardly lost activity at pH 1.0 to 7.0, but was completely inhibited by SDS. Two residues, A160 and A161, located on loop 4, were identified to play roles in catalysis. Mutants A160D/E demonstrated higher affinity to substrate with lower Km values, while mutants A161D/E mainly displayed elevated Vmax values. All of these mutants had significantly improved catalytic efficiency. According to the molecular dynamics simulation, the mutation of A160E was able to affect the important substrate binding site Y204 and then improve the substrate affinity, and the mutation of A161D was capable of forming a hydrogen bond with the substrate to promote the substrate binding or accelerate the product release. This study introduces a highly thermophilic fungal xylanase and reveals the importance of loop 4 for catalytic efficiency.
Project description:A genomic library of the Dictyoglomus sp. strain Rt46B.1 was constructed in the phage vector lambda ZapII and screened for xylanase activity. A plaque expressing xylanase activity, designated B6-77, was isolated and shown to contain a genomic insert of 5.3 kb. Subcloning revealed that the xylanase activity was restricted to a internal 1,507-bp PstI-HindIII fragment which was subsequently sequenced and shown to contain a single complete open reading frame coding for a single-domain xylanase, XynA, with a putative length of 352 amino acids. Homology comparisons show that XynA is related to the family F group of xylanases. The temperature and pH optima of the recombinant enzyme were determined to be 85 degrees C and pH 6.5, respectively. However, the enzyme was active across a broad pH range, with over 50% activity between pH 5.5 and 9.5. XynA was shown to be a true endo-acting xylanase, being capable of hydrolyzing xylan to xylotriose and xylobiose, but it could not hydrolyze xylobiose to monomeric xylose. XynA was also shown to hydrolyze xylan present in Pinus radiata kraft pulp, indicating that it may be of use as an aid in pulp bleaching. The equivalent xylanase gene was also isolated from the related bacterium Dictyoglomus thermophilum, and DNA sequencing showed these genes to be identical, which, together with the 16S small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing data, indicates that Rt46B.1 and D. thermophilum are very closely related.