Circulating serum microRNAs as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma still remains incurable in the majority of cases prompting a further search for new and better prognostic markers. Emerging evidence has suggested that circulating microRNAs can serve as minimally invasive biomarkers for multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. In this study, a global analysis of serum microRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays was performed, followed by quantitative real-time PCR. The analyses revealed five deregulated microRNAs: miR-744, miR-130a, miR-34a, let-7d and let-7e in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma when compared to healthy donors. Multivariate logistical regression analysis showed that a combination of miR-34a and let-7e can distinguish multiple myeloma from healthy donors with a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 86.7%, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance from healthy donors with a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 96.7%. Furthermore, lower levels of miR-744 and let-7e were associated with shorter overall survival and remission of myeloma patients. One-year mortality rates for miR-744 and let-7e were 41.9% and 34.6% for the 'low' expression and 3.3% and 3.9% for the 'high' expression groups, respectively. Median time of remission for both miR-744 and let-7e was approximately 11 months for the 'low' expression and approximately 47 months for the 'high' expression groups of myeloma patients These data demonstrate that expression patterns of circulating microRNAs are altered in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and miR-744 with let-7e are associated with survival of myeloma patients.
Project description:Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder that is characterised by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, monoclonal paraprotein in the blood or urine and associated organ dysfunction. It accounts for approximately 1% of cancers and 13% of haematological cancers. Myeloma arises from an asymptomatic proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells termed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).MicroRNA expression profiling of serum samples was performed on three patient groups as well as normal controls. Validation of the nine microRNAs detected as promising biomarkers was carried out using TaqMan quantitative reverse transcription PCR. MicroRNA levels in serum were normalised using standard curves to determine the numbers of microRNAs per ?l of serum.Three serum microRNAs, miR-720, miR-1308 and miR-1246, were found to have potential as diagnostic biomarkers in myeloma. Use of miR-720 and miR-1308 together provides a powerful diagnostic tool for distinguishing normal healthy controls, as well as patients with unrelated illnesses, from pre-cancerous myeloma and myeloma patients. In addition, the combination of miR-1246 and miR-1308 can distinguish MGUS from myeloma patients.We have developed a biomarker signature using microRNAs extracted from serum, which has potential as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for multiple myeloma.
Project description:Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is a pre-malignant precursor of multiple myeloma with a 1% risk of progression per year. Although targeted analyses have shown the presence of specific genetic abnormalities such as IGH translocations, RB1 deletion, 1q gain, hyperdiploidy or RAS gene mutations, little is known about the molecular mechanism of malignant transformation. We performed whole exome sequencing together with comparative genomic hybridization plus single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in 33 flow-cytometry-separated abnormal plasma cell samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to describe somatic gene mutations and chromosome changes at the genome-wide level. Non-synonymous mutations and copy-number alterations were present in 97.0% and in 60.6% of cases, respectively. Importantly, the number of somatic mutations was significantly lower in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance than in myeloma (P<10-4) and we identified six genes that were significantly mutated in myeloma (KRAS, NRAS, DIS3, HIST1H1E, EGR1 and LTB) within the monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance dataset. We also found a positive correlation with increasing chromosome changes and somatic gene mutations. IGH translocations, comprising t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and t(14;20), were present in 27.3% of cases and in a similar frequency to myeloma, consistent with the primary lesion hypothesis. MYC translocations and TP53 deletions or mutations were not detected in samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, indicating that they may be drivers of progression to myeloma. Data from this study show that monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is genetically similar to myeloma, however overall genetic abnormalities are present at significantly lower levels in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significant than in myeloma.
Project description:A multistep model has been proposed of disease progression starting in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance continuing through multiple myeloma, sometimes with an intermediate entity called smoldering myeloma, and ending in extramedullary disease. To gain further insights into the role of the transcriptome deregulation in the transition from a normal plasma cell to a clonal plasma cell, and from an indolent clonal plasma cell to a malignant plasma cell, we performed gene expression profiling in 20 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, 33 with high-risk smoldering myeloma and 41 with multiple myeloma. The analysis showed that 126 genes were differentially expressed in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering myeloma and multiple myeloma as compared to normal plasma cell. Interestingly, 17 and 9 out of the 126 significant differentially expressed genes were small nucleolar RNA molecules and zinc finger proteins. Several proapoptotic genes (AKT1 and AKT2) were down-regulated and antiapoptotic genes (APAF1 and BCL2L1) were up-regulated in multiple myeloma, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, compared to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. When we looked for those genes progressively modulated through the evolving stages of monoclonal gammopathies, eight snoRNA showed a progressive increase while APAF1, VCAN and MEGF9 exhibited a progressive downregulation. In conclusion, our data show that although monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering myeloma and multiple myeloma are not clearly distinguishable groups according to their gene expression profiling, several signaling pathways and genes were significantly deregulated at different steps of the transformation process.
Project description:Bone marrow monocytes are primarily committed to osteoclast formation. It is, however, unknown whether potential primary alterations are specifically present in bone marrow monocytes from patients with multiple myeloma, smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We analyzed the immunophenotypic and transcriptional profiles of bone marrow CD14+ monocytes in a cohort of patients with different types of monoclonal gammopathies to identify alterations involved in myeloma-enhanced osteoclastogenesis. The number of bone marrow CD14+CD16+ cells was higher in patients with active myeloma than in those with smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Interestingly, sorted bone marrow CD14+CD16+ cells from myeloma patients were more pro-osteoclastogenic than CD14+CD16-cells in cultures ex vivo Moreover, transcriptional analysis demonstrated that bone marrow CD14+ cells from patients with multiple myeloma (but neither monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance nor smoldering myeloma) significantly upregulated genes involved in osteoclast formation, including IL21RIL21R mRNA over-expression by bone marrow CD14+ cells was independent of the presence of interleukin-21. Consistently, interleukin-21 production by T cells as well as levels of interleukin-21 in the bone marrow were not significantly different among monoclonal gammopathies. Thereafter, we showed that IL21R over-expression in CD14+ cells increased osteoclast formation. Consistently, interleukin-21 receptor signaling inhibition by Janex 1 suppressed osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow CD14+ cells of myeloma patients. Our results indicate that bone marrow monocytes from multiple myeloma patients show distinct features compared to those from patients with indolent monoclonal gammopathies, supporting the role of IL21R over-expression by bone marrow CD14+ cells in enhanced osteoclast formation.
Project description:Dicer and Drosha are key enzymes in the miRNA-processing pathway which is altered in many human cancers. We analyzed Dicer and Drosha expression levels by quantitative PCR in 151 patients with monoclonal gammopathies: 102 symptomatic myeloma patients, 23 smoldering myelomas and 26 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We found that Dicer expression values were significantly higher in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance than in smoldering myelomas and symptomatic myeloma (mean ± SD, 0.84 ± 0.36 vs. 0.60 ± 0.23 and 0.62 ± 0.51; P<0.01). Moreover, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer in symptomatic myeloma patients with high expression of Dicer (not reached vs. 23.6 months; P=0.02). By contrast, no differences in the expression of Drosha among these groups of patients were observed. Our data suggest that Dicer expression may play an important role in the progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathies.
Project description:The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of multiple myeloma (MM) is reported to play a role in the biology of disease. In this study, we found that the extracellular BM microenvironment in MM contains a unique miRNA signature detectable by miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR, which is partially represented in the peripheral blood. Eleven miRNAs were significantly decreased in both BM and serum of MM patients in comparison with controls. Evaluation of these miRNAs in plasma of a separate cohort of MM patients and controls confirmed significantly aberrant levels of let-7a, let-7b, let-7i, miR-15b, miR-16, and miR-20a in both serum and plasma. We then studied the myeloma precursor diseases and found that a subset of the MM miRNAs exhibited aberrant expression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma. miRNA analysis of enriched CD138(+) plasma cells from MM and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance found that most of the validated MM BM signature miRNAs were significantly decreased in MM plasma cells. Gene expression profiling indicated that multiple targets of the decreased miRNAs found increased expression in MM plasma cells, including ATF2, HRAS, HDAC4, TGFB1, TGFBR1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. The findings suggest that these miRNAs are detectable in aberrant levels in the peripheral blood of patients with plasma cell proliferation and may play a role in aberrant plasma cell proliferation and disease progression.
Project description:Myeloma is consistently preceded by premalignant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). In >5% of MGUS patients there is a second MGUS clone (biclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; BGUS), yet, at myeloma diagnosis, presentation of biclonal gammopathy myeloma (BGMy) is considered less frequent, implying that myeloma eradicates coexisting MGUS.In the largest study of its kind, we assessed BGMy frequency amongst 6399 newly diagnosed myeloma patients enrolled in recent UK clinical trials.Compared to expected prevalence (i.e., >5% of MGUS have BGUS), only 58 of 6399 (0.91%) newly diagnosed myeloma patients had BGMy, indicating myeloma typically eliminates coexistent MGUS. In these 58 BGMy cases, the MGUS plasma cell clone was greatly suppressed in size compared to typical levels observed in conventional MGUS; contrarily, the MGUS clone did not inhibit the myeloma plasma cell clone in BGMy.Myeloma eliminates the majority of competing MGUS, and when it does not, the MGUS clone is substantially reduced in size.
Project description:We have examined serum microRNA expression in multiple myeloma (MM) patients at diagnosis and at complete response (CR) after autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), in patients with stable monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and in healthy controls. MicroRNAs were first profiled using TaqMan Human MicroRNA Arrays. Differentially expressed microRNAs were then validated by individual TaqMan MicroRNA assays and correlated with CR and progression-free survival (PFS) after ASCT. Supervised analysis identified a differentially expressed 14-microRNA signature. The differential expression of miR-16 (P = 0.028), miR-17 (P = 0.016), miR-19b (P = 0.009), miR-20a (P = 0.017) and miR-660 (P = 0.048) at diagnosis and CR was then confirmed by individual assays. In addition, high levels of miR-25 were related to the presence of oligoclonal bands (P = 0.002). Longer PFS after ASCT was observed in patients with high levels of miR-19b (6 vs. 1.8 years; P < 0.001) or miR-331 (8.6 vs. 2.9 years; P = 0.001). Low expression of both miR-19b and miR-331 in combination was a marker of shorter PFS (HR 5.3; P = 0.033). We have identified a serum microRNA signature with potential as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in MM.
Project description:Progress in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy, has been slow. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs targeting multiple mRNAs, has revealed a new level of gene expression regulation. To determine whether miRNAs play a role in the malignant transformation of plasma cells (PCs), we have used both miRNA microarrays and quantitative real time PCR to profile miRNA expression in MM-derived cell lines (n = 49) and CD138+ bone marrow PCs from subjects with MM (n = 16), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 6), and normal donors (n = 6). We identified overexpression of miR-21, miR-106b approximately 25 cluster, miR-181a and b in MM and MGUS samples with respect to healthy PCs. Selective up-regulation of miR-32 and miR-17 approximately 92 cluster was identified in MM subjects and cell lines but not in MGUS subjects or healthy PCs. Furthermore, two miRNAs, miR-19a and 19b, that are part of the miR-17 approximately 92 cluster, were shown to down regulate expression of SOCS-1, a gene frequently silenced in MM that plays a critical role as inhibitor of IL-6 growth signaling. We also identified p300-CBP-associated factor, a gene involved in p53 regulation, as a bona fide target of the miR106b approximately 25 cluster, miR-181a and b, and miR-32. Xenograft studies using human MM cell lines treated with miR-19a and b, and miR-181a and b antagonists resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth in nude mice. In summary, we have described a MM miRNA signature, which includes miRNAs that modulate the expression of proteins critical to myeloma pathogenesis.
Project description:Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare disorder characterized by inhibition of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and normochromic, normocytic anaemia with reticulocytopenia. Among 51 PRCA patients, we identified 12 (24%) patients having monoclonal gammopathy, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or smouldering multiple myeloma, with presence of monoclonal protein or abnormal serum free light chains and atypical bone marrow features of clonal plasmacytosis, hypercellularity and fibrosis. Thus far, three patients treated with anti-myeloma based therapeutics have responded with reticulocyte recovery and clinical transfusion independence, suggesting plasma cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of this specific monoclonal gammopathy-associated PRCA.