Secondary amine-initiated three-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones involving alkynes, aldehydes and thiourea/urea.
ABSTRACT: The three-component reactions of aldehydes, electron deficient alkynes and ureas/thioureas have been smoothly performed to yield a class of unprecedented 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones (DHPMs). The reactions are initiated by the key transformation of an enamine-type activation involving the addition of a secondary amine to an alkyne, which enables the subsequent incorporation of aldehydes and ureas/thioureas. This protocol tolerates a broad range of aryl- or alkylaldehydes, N-substituted and unsubstituted ureas/thioureas and alkynes to yield the corresponding DHPMs with specific regioselectivity.
Project description:Human polyomaviruses are generally latent but can be reactivated in patients whose immune systems are suppressed. Unfortunately, current therapeutics for diseases associated with polyomaviruses are non-specific, have undefined mechanisms of action, or exacerbate the disease. We previously reported on a class of dihydropyrimidinones that specifically target a polyomavirus-encoded protein, T antigen, and/or inhibit a cellular chaperone, Hsp70, that is required for virus replication. To improve the antiviral activity of the existing class of compounds, we performed Biginelli and modified multi-component reactions to obtain new 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones and -thiones for biological evaluation. We also compared how substituents at the N-1 versus N-3 position in the pyrimidine affect activity. We discovered that AMT580-043, a N-3 alkylated dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-thione, inhibits the replication of a disease-causing polyomavirus in cell culture more potently than an existing drug, cidofovir.
Project description:Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) is active towards many drugs with a heteroatom having the properties of a soft nucleophile. Thiocarbamides and thiones are S-oxygenated to the sulfenic acid which can either react with glutathione and initiate a redox-cycle or be oxygenated a second time to the unstable sulfinic acid. In this study, we utilized LC-MS/MS to demonstrate that the oxygenation by hFMO of the thioureas under test terminated at the sulfenic acid. With thiones, hFMO catalyzed the second reaction and the sulfinic acid rapidly lost sulfite to form the corresponding imidazole. Thioureas are often pulmonary toxicants in mammals and, as previously reported by our laboratory, are excellent substrates for hFMO2. This isoform is expressed at high levels in the lung of most mammals, including non-human primates. Genotyping to date indicates that individuals of African (up to 49%) or Hispanic (2-7%) ancestry have at least one allele for functional hFMO2 in lung, but not Caucasians nor Asians. In this study the major metabolite formed by hFMO2 with thioureas from Allergan, Inc. was the sulfenic acid that reacted with glutathione. The majority of thiones were poor substrates for hFMO3, the major form in adult human liver. However, hFMO1, the major isoform expressed in infant and neonatal liver and adult kidney and intestine, readily S-oxygenated thiones under test, with Kms ranging from 7 to 160 μM and turnover numbers of 30-40 min(-1). The product formed was identified by LC-MS/MS as the imidazole. The activities of the mouse and human FMO1 and FMO3 orthologs were in good agreement with the exception of some thiones for which activity was much greater with hFMO1 than mFMO1.
Project description:Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR) of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step protocol towards the potentially interesting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones was established and a small library was synthesized.
Project description:The syntheses of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) using solvent-free grindstone chemistry method. All the synthesized compounds exhibited significant activity against pathogenic bacteria. The current effort has been developed to obtain new DHPM derivatives that focus on the bacterial ribosomal A site RNA as a drug target. Molecular docking simulation analysis was applied to confirm the target specificity of DHPMs. The crystal structure of bacterial 16S rRNA and human 40S rRNA was taken as receptors for docking. Finally, the docking score, binding site interaction analysis revealed that DHPMs exhibit more specificity towards 16S rRNA than known antibiotic amikacin. Accordingly, targeting the bacterial ribosomal A site RNA with potential drug leads promises to overcome the bacterial drug resistance. Even though, anti-neoplastic activities of DHPMs were also predicted through prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) tool. Further, the results establish that the DHPMs can serve as perfect leads against bacterial drug resistance.
Project description:We recently reported a novel synthesis of copper nanoparticles from copper sulphate utilizing the charge-compensatory effect of ionic liquid [bmim]BF(4) and ethylene glycol. The nanoparticles were characterized and found to be stable for one year. Here we hypothesize that the stabilized nanoparticles should be able to catalyze one-pot multicomponent organic reactions. We show that the nanoparticles catalyzed Biginelli reaction at room temperature to give the product 3,4-dihydopyrimidinone (>90% yield in ~15 minutes) from aldehydes, ?-diketoester (ethylacetoacetate) and urea (or thiourea). ). Remarkably, such high yields and rapid kinetics was found to be independent of the electronic density on the reactant aryl-aldehyde. This was probably because even the surface-active particles reacted faster in the presence of ionic liquid as compared to conventional methods. The heterocyclic dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) and their derivatives are widely used in natural and synthetic organic chemistry due to their wide spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties (resulting from their antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Our method has an easy work-up procedure and the nanoparticles could be recycled with minimal loss of efficiency.
Project description:An efficient and practical protocol has been developed to synthesize dihydropyrimidinones and dihydropyrimidinethiones through FeCl??6H?O/TMSBr-catalyzed three-component cyclocondensation under microwave irradiation. This approach features high yields, broad substrate scope, short reaction time, mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity and easy work-up, thus affording a versatile method for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones and dihydropyrimidinethiones.
Project description:A one-pot three-component synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones via a molecular iodine-catalyzed tandem reaction of simple readily available mono-substituted urea, alkylaldehyde, and arylaldehyde has been developed. The reaction proceeds with high chemo- and regioselectivity to give highly diverse dihydropyrimidinones in reasonable yields under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the first catalytic enantioselective version of this reaction was also realized by using chiral spirocyclic SPINOL-phosphoric acids.
Project description:We report the unexpected formation of a 1-azadiene dimer from 4,6-diphenyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones under prolonged microwave irradiation. In this manner, thiazine-2-thiones act as "masked" 1-azadiene equivalents, which makes them useful synthetic tools to access complex heterocyclic frameworks. We compare this dimerization with earlier approaches and elaborate on the observed diastereoselectivity.
Project description:A series of inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) containing one or two thiourea groups has been developed. Inhibition potency of the described compounds ranges from 50??M to 7.2?nM. 1,7-(Heptamethylene)bis[(adamant-1-yl)thiourea] (6f) was found to be the most potent sEH inhibitor, among the thioureas tested. The inhibitory activity of the thioureas against the human sEH is closer to the value of activity against rat sEH rather than murine sEH. While being less active, thioureas are up to 7-fold more soluble than ureas, which makes them more bioavailable and thus promising as sEH inhibitors.
Project description:1. 2-Thiohydantoins are reduced by borohydrides to 4(5)-hydroxyimidazolidine-2-thiones, which eliminate water in acid to form imidazole-2-thiones. Both steps take place in mild conditions, in high yield. A number of imidazole-2-thiones have been synthesized by this sequence of steps, with one, two or three substituents in the 1-, 3- and 4(5)-positions. 2. 4(5)-Hydroxyimidazolidine-2-thiones are ammonium pseudo-bases, giving rise to an equilibrium mixture of amino aldehyde, carbinolamine and mesomeric ammonium cationic forms. The elimination of water is suggested to be a property of the mesomeric ammonium cation. 3. The mild conditions in which imidazole-2-thiones are formed from 4(5)-hydroxyimidazolidine-2-thiones are similar to those in which ergothioneine, a naturally occurring imidazole-2-thione of uncertain function, is normally released and measured. It is suggested that the occurrence in vivo of a precursor to ergothioneine, in the form of a 4(5)-hydroxyimidazolidine-2-thione, would explain many otherwise conflicting published data.