Serial cervicovaginal exposures with replication-deficient SIVsm induce higher dendritic cell (pDC) and CD4+ T-cell infiltrates not associated with prevention but a more severe SIVmac251 infection of rhesus macaques.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Intravaginal exposure to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) acutely recruits interferon-alpha (IFN-?) producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and CD4 T-lymphocyte targets to the endocervix of nonhuman primates. We tested the impact of repeated cervicovaginal exposures to noninfectious, defective SIV particles over 72 hours on a subsequent cervicovaginal challenge with replication competent SIV. METHODS:Thirty-four female Indian Rhesus macaques were given a 3-day twice-daily vaginal exposures to either SIVsmB7, a replication-deficient derivative of SIVsmH3 produced by a T lymphoblast CEMx174 cell clone (n = 16), or to CEM supernatant controls (n = 18). On the fourth day, animals were either euthanized to assess cervicovaginal immune cell infiltration or intravaginally challenged with SIVmac251. Challenged animals were tracked for plasma viral load and CD4 counts and euthanized at 42 days after infection. RESULTS:At the time of challenge, macaques exposed to SIVsmB7, had higher levels of cervical CD123 pDCs (P = 0.032) and CD4 T cells (P = 0.036) than those exposed to CEM control. Vaginal tissues showed a significant increase in CD4 T-cell infiltrates (P = 0.048) and a trend toward increased CD68 cellular infiltrates. After challenge, 12 SIVsmB7-treated macaques showed 2.5-fold greater daily rate of CD4 decline (P = 0.0408), and viral load rise (P = 0.0036) as compared with 12 control animals. CONCLUSIONS:Repeated nonproductive exposure to viral particles within a short daily time frame did not protect against infection despite pDC recruitment, resulting instead in an accelerated CD4 T-cell loss with an increased rate of viral replication.
Project description:Persistent production of type I interferon (IFN) by activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) is a leading model to explain chronic immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but direct evidence for this is lacking. We used a dual antagonist of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9 to selectively inhibit responses of pDC but not other mononuclear phagocytes to viral RNA prior to and for 8 weeks following pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques. We show that pDC are major but not exclusive producers of IFN-? that rapidly become unresponsive to virus stimulation following SIV infection, whereas myeloid DC gain the capacity to produce IFN-?, albeit at low levels. pDC mediate a marked but transient IFN-? response in lymph nodes during the acute phase that is blocked by administration of TLR7 and TLR9 antagonist without impacting pDC recruitment. TLR7 and TLR9 blockade did not impact virus load or the acute IFN-? response in plasma and had minimal effect on expression of IFN-stimulated genes in both blood and lymph node. TLR7 and TLR9 blockade did not prevent activation of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in blood or lymph node but led to significant increases in proliferation of both subsets in blood following SIV infection. Our findings reveal that virus-mediated activation of pDC through TLR7 and TLR9 contributes to substantial but transient IFN-? production following pathogenic SIV infection. However, the data indicate that pDC activation and IFN-? production are unlikely to be major factors in driving immune activation in early infection. Based on these findings therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking pDC function and IFN-? production may not reduce HIV-associated immunopathology.
Project description:In SIV/HIV infection, the gastrointestinal tissue dominates as an important site due to the impact of massive mucosal CD4 depletion and immune activation-induced tissue pathology. Unlike AIDS-susceptible rhesus macaques, natural hosts do not progress to AIDS and resolve immune activation earlier. Here, we examine the role of dendritic cells in mediating immune activation and disease progression. We demonstrate that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in the blood upregulate ?7-integrin and are rapidly recruited to the colorectum following a pathogenic SIV infection in rhesus macaques. These pDC were capable of producing proinflammatory cytokines and primed a Tc1 response in vitro. Consistent with the upregulation of ?7-integrin on pDC, in vivo blockade of ?4?7-integrin dampened pDC recruitment to the colorectum and resulted in reduced immune activation. The upregulation of ?7-integrin expression on pDC in the blood was also observed in HIV-infected humans but not in chronically SIV-infected sooty mangabeys that show low levels of immune activation. Our results uncover a new mechanism by which pDC influence immune activation in colorectal tissue following pathogenic immunodeficiency virus infections. SIV negative controls (n=4) and week 12 post SIV infected (n=4) groups of Rhesus macaques and SIV negative controls (n=4) and week 55 post SIV infected (n=4) groups of Sooty mangabeys colorectal tissue biopsies were collected in to RNA later reagent (Qiagen) and were homogenized with syringe and needle method. RNA was extracted with Rneasy mini kit (Qiagen) and was used for microarray experiments. Rhesus GeneChip assays were performed in the Yerkes Microarray Core Facility (www.microarray.emory.edu) , one of the Affymetrix Microarray Core Labs.The 0.5µg of total RNA sample was analyzed on Rhesus Macaque Genome GeneChip that consists of over 52,000 probe sets (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Target RNA labeling, hybridization and post-hybridization processing were performed following the Affymetrix GeneChip Expression Analysis standard protocols. In brief, The 5 ?g of RNA sample was first reverse-transcribed using T7-Oligo(dT) Promoter Primer and SuperScript II in the first-strand cDNAs synthesis reaction. Following RNase H-mediated second-stranded cDNA synthesis, the double-stranded cDNAs were purified by use of a GeneChip sample clean-up module and served as templates in the generation of biotinylated complementary RNAs (cRNAs) in the presence of T7 RNA Polymerase and a biotinylated nucleotide analog/ribonucleotide mix by in vitro transcription (IVT) reaction. The biotinylated cRNAs were cleaned up, fragmented, and hybridized to the rhesus macaque expression arrays at 45°C for 16 h with constant rotation at 60 rpm. The gene chips were then washed and stained with Affymetrix fluidics stations 450 and scanned on Affymetrix scanner 3000. The images are processed to collect raw data with GeneChip Operating Software (GCOS) 1.4. Tissue: Colorectal tissue Time after SIV infection: 12 weeks for SIV infected Rhesus macaques, 55 weeks for Sooty mangabeys Infection: SIVmac251 infection for Rhesus macaques, SIVsm infection for Sooty mangabeys
Project description:The role of CD4(+) T cells in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is not well understood. Even though strong HIV- and SIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses have been detected in individuals that control viral replication, major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules have not been definitively linked with slow disease progression. In a cohort of 196 SIVmac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques, a group of macaques controlled viral replication to less than 1,000 viral RNA copies/ml. These elite controllers (ECs) mounted a broad SIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell response. Here, we describe five macaque MHC-II alleles (Mamu-DRB*w606, -DRB*w2104, -DRB1*0306, -DRB1*1003, and -DPB1*06) that restricted six SIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes in ECs and report the first association between specific MHC-II alleles and elite control. Interestingly, the macaque MHC-II alleles, Mamu-DRB1*1003 and -DRB1*0306, were enriched in this EC group (P values of 0.02 and 0.05, respectively). Additionally, Mamu-B*17-positive SIV-infected rhesus macaques that also expressed these two MHC-II alleles had significantly lower viral loads than Mamu-B*17-positive animals that did not express Mamu-DRB1*1003 and -DRB1*0306 (P value of <0.0001). The study of MHC-II alleles in macaques that control viral replication could improve our understanding of the role of CD4(+) T cells in suppressing HIV/SIV replication and further our understanding of HIV vaccine design.
Project description:NKT cells are a specialized population of T lymphocytes that have an increasingly recognized role in immunoregulation, including controlling the response to viral infections. The characteristics of NKT cells in the peripheral blood of macaques during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (SHIV) infection were assessed. NKT cells comprised a mean of 0.19% of peripheral blood lymphocytes across the 64 uninfected macaques studied. Although the range in the percentages of NKT cells was large (0 to 2.2%), levels were stable over time within individual macaques without SIV/SHIV infection. The majority of NKT cells in macaques were CD4(+) (on average 67%) with smaller populations being CD8(+) (21%) and CD4/CD8 double positive (13%). A precipitous decline in CD4(+) NKT cells occurred in all six macaques infected with CXCR4-tropic SHIV(mn229) early after infection, with a concomitant rise in CD8(+) NKT cells in some animals. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was tightly correlated with the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. R5-tropic SIV(mac251) infection of macaques resulted in a slower and more variable decline in CD4(+) NKT cells, with animals that were able to control SIV virus levels maintaining higher levels of CD4(+) NKT cells. An inverse correlation between the depletion of total and CD4(+) NKT cells and SIV viral load during chronic infection was observed. Our results demonstrate the infection-driven depletion of peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells during both SHIV and SIV infection of macaques. Further studies of the implications of the loss of NKT cell subsets in the pathogenesis of HIV disease are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding natural HIV control may lead to new preventative or therapeutic strategies. Several protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes were found in humans and rhesus macaques. Here, we report a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) controller MHC genotype in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs). METHODS:Twelve MHC-genotyped MCMs were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts. RESULTS:Two macaques with M3M4 genotype exhibited the lowest peak viral loads (log plasma SIV RNA copies/mL), nearly 3 logs lower than those in most macaques with other MHC haplotype combinations, and set point viral loads below the level of detection limit by RT-qPCR (<2 log RNA copies/mL). They maintained healthy CD4+ T-cell counts of >500 cells/?L blood, while CD4 counts in the vast majority of other macaques were below this level. CONCLUSIONS:The M3M4 MHC genotype may confer enhanced control of SIV replication in MCMs.
Project description:Drugs of abuse, such as opiates, have been widely associated with enhancing HIV replication, accelerating disease progression and diminishing host-immune responses, thereby making it harder to effectively manage HIV infection. It is thus important to study the effects of drugs of abuse on HIV-infection and immune responses. Here, we develop mathematical models that incorporate the effects of morphine-altered antibody responses on HIV/SIV dynamics. Based on fitting the model to experimental data from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections in control and morphine-addicted macaques, we found that two of the most significant effects of virus specific antibodies are neutralizing viral particles and enhancing viral clearance. Using our model, we quantified how morphine alters virus-specific antibody responses, and how this alteration affects the key components of virus dynamics such as infection rate, virus clearance, viral load, CD4+ T cell count, and CD4+ T cell loss in SIV-infected macaques under conditioning with morphine. We found that in a subpopulation of SIV-infected morphine addicted macaques, the presence of drugs of abuse may cause significantly diminished antibody responses, resulting in more severe infection with increased SIV infectivity, a decreased viral clearance rate, increased viral load, and higher CD4+ T cell loss.
Project description:SIV DNA can be detected in lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages of chronically SIV-infected Asian macaques. These macrophages also contain evidence of recently phagocytosed SIV-infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we examine whether these macrophages contain replication-competent virus, whether viral DNA can be detected in tissue-resident macrophages from antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-treated animals and humans, and how the viral sequences amplified from macrophages and contemporaneous CD4+ T cells compare. In ARV-naive animals, we find that lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages contain replication-competent virus if they also contain viral DNA in ARV-naive Asian macaques. The genetic sequence of the virus within these macrophages is similar to those within CD4+ T cells from the same anatomic sites. In ARV-treated animals, we find that viral DNA can be amplified from lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages of SIV-infected Asian macaques that were treated with ARVs for at least 5 months, but we could not detect replication-competent virus from macrophages of animals treated with ARVs. Finally, we could not detect viral DNA in alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected individuals who received ARVs for 3 years and had undetectable viral loads. These data demonstrate that macrophages can contain replication-competent virus, but may not represent a significant reservoir for HIV in vivo.
Project description:An effective AIDS vaccine remains one of the highest priorities in HIV-research. Our recent study showed that vaccination of rhesus macaques with recombinant simian varicella virus (rSVV) vector - simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope and gag genes, induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses to SIV and also significantly reduced plasma viral loads following intravenous pathogenic challenge with SIVMAC251/CX1.The purpose of this study was to define cellular immunological correlates of protection in rSVV-SIV vaccinated and SIV challenged animals. Immunofluorescent staining and multifunctional assessment of SIV-specific T-cell responses were evaluated in both Experimental and Control vaccinated animal groups. Significant increases in the proliferating CD4+ T-cell population and polyfunctional T-cell responses were observed in all Experimental-vaccinated animals compared with the Control-vaccinated animals.Increased CD4+ T-cell proliferation was significantly and inversely correlated with plasma viral load. Increased SIV-specific polyfunctional cytokine responses and increased proliferation of CD4+ T-cell may be crucial to control plasma viral loads in vaccinated and SIVMAC251/CX1 challenged macaques.
Project description:The latent viral reservoir is the source of viral rebound after interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is the major obstacle in eradicating the latent human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). In this study, arsenic class of mineral, arsenic trioxide, clinically approved for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, is demonstrated to reactivate latent provirus in CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 patients and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, without significant systemic T cell activation and inflammatory responses. In a proof-of-concept study using chronically SIVmac239-infected macaques, arsenic trioxide combined with ART delays viral rebound after ART termination, reduces the integrated SIV DNA copies in CD4+ T cells, and restores CD4+ T cells counts in vivo. Most importantly, half of arsenic trioxide-treated macaques show no detectable viral rebound in the plasma for at least 80 days after ART discontinuation. Mechanistically, the study reveals that CD4 receptors and CCR5 co-receptors of CD4+ T cells are significantly downregulated by arsenic trioxide treatment, which reduces susceptibility to infection after provirus reactivation. Furthermore, an increase in SIV-specific immune responses after arsenic trioxide treatment may contribute to suppression of viral rebound. This work suggests that arsenic trioxide in combination with ART is a novel regimen in down-sizing or even eradicating latent HIV-1 reservoir.
Project description:Infection of CD8-depleted rhesus macaques with the genetically heterogeneous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac251 viral swarm provides a rapid-disease model for simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome and SIV-encephalitis (SIVE). The objective was to evaluate how the diversity of the swarm influences the initial seeding of the infection that may potentially affect disease progression. Plasma, lymphoid and non-lymphoid (brain and lung) tissues were collected from two infected macaques euthanized at 21 days post-infection (p.i.), as well as longitudinal specimens and post-mortem tissues from four macaques followed throughout the infection. About 1300 gp120 viral sequences were obtained from the infecting SIVmac251 swarm and the macaques longitudinal and post-mortem samples. Phylogenetic and amino acid signature pattern analyses were carried out to assess frequency, transmission dynamics and persistence of specific viral clusters. Although no significant reduction in viral heterogeneity was found early in infection (21 days p.i.), transmission and replication of SIV variants was not entirely random. In particular, two distinct motifs under-represented (<4 %) in the infecting swarm were found at high frequencies (up to 14 %) in all six macaques as early as 21 days p.i. Moreover, a macrophage tropic variant not detected in the viral swarm (<0.3 %) was present at high frequency (29-100 %) in sequences derived from the brain of two macaques with meningitis or severe SIVE. This study demonstrates the highly efficient transmission and persistence in vivo of multiple low frequency SIVmac251 founder variants, characterized by specific gp120 motifs that may be linked to pathogenesis in the rapid-disease model of neuroAIDS.