Techniques and outcomes of transcatheter closure of complex atrial septal defects - single center experience.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To prospectively study the techniques and outcomes of transcatheter closure of complex Atrial septal defects (ASD). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Prospective single center study with experience in catheter closure of ASD. All patients with complex ASD suitable for device closure. OBJECTIVE: Analysis of outcomes of transcatheter closure of complex ASD in JIPMER Hospital over the past 5-year period. METHODS: Complex ASD was predefined and patients satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria are included. All the patients had meticulous Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) imaging beforehand. Modifications of the conventional techniques were allowed on a case per case basis according to operator preference. Successfully intervened patients were followed up clinically. RESULTS: Out of the 75 patients enrolled, 69 patients had successful device closure (success rate 92%) despite challenging anatomy. Fifty-six (74%) patients had ASD ? 25 mm. Fifteen patients (20%) had defect size ? 35 mm and 20 patients (26.6%) had devices implanted with ? 35 mm waist size. Fifty percent of patients had complete absence of aortic rim and 25% had deficient posterior rim. Twenty percent of patients had malaligned septum. Mean follow up period was 3.2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Trans catheter closure is feasible in anatomically complex substrates of Secundum ASD. Careful case selection, scrupulous imaging protocol, and expertise in modified techniques are mandatory for successful outcomes.
Project description:Background:Septal malalignment is related to erosion and device embolization in transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD), but limited information is available. Objectives:This study aimed to assess clinical significance of septal malalignment and to determine appropriate evaluation of ASD diameter, including the selection of device size. Methods:Four hundred and seventeen patients with ASD who underwent transcatheter closure were enrolled. Septal malalignment was defined as separation between the septum primum and the septum secundum on transesophageal echocardiography. Results:One hundred and eighty-four patients had septal malalignment. The frequency of septal malalignment increased with age reaching around 50% in adult patients. Septal malalignment was related to aortic rim deficiency. The distance of separation between the septum primum and the septum secundum was 5?±?2?mm (range, 1-11?mm). In patients with septal malalignment, the ASD diameter measured at the septum primum was 19?±?6?mm, while the ASD diameter measured at the septum secundum was 16?±?6?mm. There was a difference of 4?±?2?mm (range, 0-8?mm) between the ASD diameter measured at the septum primum and that measured at the septum secundum. For transcatheter closure, the Amplatzer Septal Occluder device size 2-3?mm larger and the Occlutech Figulla Flex II device size 4-7?mm larger than the ASD diameter measured at the septum primum were frequently used. During the study period, erosion or device embolization did not occur in all of the patients. Conclusions:Septal malalignment is highly prevalent in adult patients with aortic rim deficiency. The measurement of ASD diameter at the septum primum can be valuable for the selection of device size in patients with septal malalignment.
Project description:Practice variation is a potentially important measure of healthcare quality. The IMPACT registry provides a representative national sample with which to study practice variation in trans-catheter interventions for congenital heart disease. METHODS:We studied cases for closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in IMPACT between January 1, 2011, and September 30, 2015, using hierarchical multivariate models studying (1) the distribution of indications for closure and (2) in patients whose indication for closure was left (LVVO) or right ventricular volume overload (RVVO), the factors influencing probability of closure of a small defect (either in size or in terms of the magnitude of shunt). RESULTS:Over the study period, 5233 PDA and 4459 ASD cases were performed at 77 hospitals. The indications for ASD closure were RVVO in 84% and stroke prevention in 13%. Indications for PDA closure were LVVO in 57%, endocarditis prevention in 36%, and pulmonary hypertension in 7%. There was statistically significant variability in indications between hospitals for PDA and ASD procedures (median rate ratio (MRR): 1.3 and 1.1; both P<.001). The proportion of cases for volume overload with a Qp:Qs <1.5:1 decreased with increasing PDA and ASD procedural volume (P=.04 and 0.05). For ASD, the proportion was higher at hospitals with a larger proportion of adult cases (P=.0007). There was significant variation in practice in the risk of closing PDA <2 mm for LVVO (MRR: 1.4, P<.001). CONCLUSION:There is measurable variation in transcatheter closure of PDA and ASD. Further research is necessary to study whether this affects outcomes or resource utilization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects is one of the greatest challenges in interventional cardiology. Short- and midium-term follow-up data for large samples are limited. This report presents our experience with transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects using an occluder. METHODS:Two hundred fifty-three patients included in the database of the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital from January 2011- December 2015 with transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects and discharged from follow-up. All patients were invited for clinical and transthoracic echocardiography, electrocardiogram, and thoracic radiography check-up. RESULTS:Device implantation was successful in 252 of 253 patients (99.6%). The median age was 42?months (range 27-216?months). The median follow-up duration was 36?months (range 6-60?months). The mean defect diameter was 3.5?±?1.4?mm and the mean size of the ventricular septal defect rim below the aortic valve was 3.7?±?1.8?mm. The mean diameter of the devices used was 4?mm. Thirty-seven patients developed arrhythmia after the procedure and recovered within 24?months; four patients had hemolysis and four had moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation. No other serious adverse event occurred during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION:Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects using an occluder is safe and effective in most patients.
Project description:Deficient retro-aortic rim has been identified as a risk factor for device erosion following trans-catheter closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the primary screening method for subjects for possible device closure of ASD, but its reliability in measuring retro-aortic rim size has not been assessed previously.A single-institution cross-sectional analysis of children and adults referred for trans-catheter device closure of single ostium secundum ASD from January 1, 2005 to April 1, 2012 with reviewable TTE and trans-esophageal echocardiogram images was performed. Inter-rater reliability of measurements was tested in a 24% sample. Accuracy of TTE measurement of retro-aortic rim was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot with trans-esophageal echocardiogram measurement as the gold standard. Test characteristics of TTE detection of deficient retro-aortic rim were calculated. Risk factors for misclassification of deficient retro-aortic rim were assessed using receiver operator characteristic curves. Risk factors for measurement error were assessed through multivariate linear regression.In total, 163 subjects of median age 5 years (range: 0.3-46 years) were included. Trans-thoracic echocardiography had 90% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 90% positive predictive value, and 83% negative predictive value to detect deficient retro-aortic rim. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated no fixed bias (P?=?.23), but errors in measurement increased on average as the aortic rim increased in size (P?<?.001). Prespecified patient level risk factors did not affect receiver operator characteristic curve area under the curve, nor were any patient-level risk factors independently associated with increased measurement error on TTE.TTE is a sensitive and specific screening test for deficient retro-aortic rim across a range of patient ages and sizes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are both common congenital heart diseases, but the combination of these two cardiac defects is extremely rare, and the therapeutic strategy is controversial. CASE SUMMARY:We treated an adult patient with combined ASD and PDA, and safely attained a successful outcome with two-stage transcatheter closure, which is PDA closure preceding ASD closure, to prevent serious complications. DISCUSSION:Transcatheter closure of one of the defects is now widely accepted as an alternative to surgical closure. In addition, adults with both ASD and PDA are better suited for transcatheter closure than surgical closure. One of the reasons is the difficulty to ligate the ductus arteriosus of an adult patient due to its friability and calcification. Meanwhile, simultaneous combined transcatheter closure of ASD and PDA can result in serious complications, such as thrombocytopenia and haemolysis, whose mechanism is considered to be the destruction of platelets and red blood cells by the residual shunt through implanted devices. Additionally, antiplatelet therapy that prevents device-related thrombus formation after ASD closure can possibly exacerbate thrombocytopenia and haemolysis. Therefore, the staged strategy is reasonable from the perspectives of antiplatelet therapy and haemodynamic changes.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To review current controversies in the transcatheter device closure of ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD). RECENT FINDINGS:Transcatheter device closure of ASD (TC-ASD) has well established efficacy and safety. For most individual patients with suitable anatomy, TC-ASD is the preferred method for treating ASD. The availability of large multicenter data sets has made it possible to study practice patterns at a range of hospitals across the United States. These studies have revealed differences in practice that were not previously appreciated. Interpretation of the indications for TC-ASD, specifically the definition of right ventricular volume overload varies between hospitals. In response to concern about device erosion, an increasing proportion of patients are being referred for operative ASD closure. Over the last decade, the average age at which ASD closure occurs has decreased. These trends demonstrate previously underappreciated differences in opinion between cardiologists across the country and suggest that further research is necessary to address knowledge gaps limiting consistency of practice. SUMMARY:As TC-ASD and congenital interventional cardiology mature as a field, studies of real-world practice provide increasingly valuable information about aspects of care in which there are disagreements about best practices and in which further research is necessary.
Project description:Clinical outcomes for transcatheter and operative closures of atrial septal defects (ASDs) are similar. Economic cost for each method has not been well described.A single-center retrospective cohort study of children and adults<30 years of age undergoing closure for single secundum ASD from January 1, 2007, to April 1, 2012, was performed to measure differences in inflation-adjusted cost of operative and transcatheter closures of ASD. A propensity score weight-adjusted multivariate regression model was used in an intention-to-treat analysis. Costs for reintervention and crossover admissions were included in primary analysis.A total of 244 subjects were included in the study (64% transcatheter and 36% operative), of which 2% (n = 5) were ?18 years. Crossover rate from transcatheter to operative group was 3%. Risk of reintervention (P = .66) and 30-day mortality (P = .37) were not significantly different. In a multivariate model, adjusted cost of operative closure was 2012 US $60,992 versus 2012 US $55,841 for transcatheter closure (P < .001). Components of total cost favoring transcatheter closure were length of stay, medications, and follow-up radiologic and laboratory testing, overcoming higher costs of procedure and echocardiography. Professional costs did not differ. The rate of 30-day readmission was greater in the operative cohort, further increasing the cost advantage of transcatheter closure. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that costs of follow-up visits influenced relative cost but that device closure remained favorable over a broad range of crossover and reintervention rates.For single secundum ASD, cost comparison analysis favors transcatheter closure over the short term. The cost of follow-up regimens influences the cost advantage of transcatheter closure.
Project description:A 92-year-old man was referred to our hospital with decompensated heart failure. He was treated with diuretics and inotropic agents, but the clinical response was unsatisfactory. Echocardiography incidentally revealed an atrial septal defect (ASD) with a significant left-to-right shunt and pulmonary-to-systemic-blood-flow ratio of 2.36. Because the ASD was considered to be the primary cause of his treatment-resistant heart failure, the patient underwent transcatheter ASD closure. Shortly after shunt closure, his hemodynamics significantly improved, and he was discharged nine days later. This is an extremely rare case of a nonagenarian who showed an excellent clinical course after transcatheter ASD closure.
Project description:This article describes current devices and indications for transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defect (TC-ASD) and patent foramen ovale in children and young adults. TC-ASD has a proven record of efficacy and safety, but device erosion raises questions about the relative safety of TC-ASD versus operative open heart surgical ASD closure. New devices for ASD closure with properties to reduce risk of erosion are being developed. Recent studies demonstrating superiority of patent foramen ovale device closure over medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke may lead to changes in practice for structural/interventional cardiologists. Care should be taken in extrapolating data to children and younger adults.