Genetic variability of respiratory complex abundance, organization and activity in mouse brain.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous human disorders involving tissues with high energy demand. Murine models are widely used to elucidate genetic determinants of phenotypes relevant to human disease, with recent studies of C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2) and B6xD2 populations implicating naturally occurring genetic variation in mitochondrial function/dysfunction. Using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblots and in-gel activity analyses of complexes I, II, III, IV and V, our studies are the first to assess abundance, organization and catalytic activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and supercomplexes in mouse brain. Remarkable strain differences in supercomplex assembly and associated activity are evident, without differences in individual complexes I, II, III or IV. Supercomplexes I1 III2 IV2-3 exhibit robust complex III immunoreactivity and activities of complexes I and IV in D2, but with little detected in B6 for I1 III2 IV2 , and I1 III2 IV3 is not detected in B6. I1 III2 IV1 and I1 III2 are abundant and catalytically active in both strains, but significantly more so in B6. Furthermore, while supercomplex III2 IV1 is abundant in D2, none is detected in B6. In aggregate, these results indicate a shift toward more highly assembled supercomplexes in D2. Respiratory supercomplexes are thought to increase electron flow efficiency and individual complex stability, and to reduce electron leak and generation of reactive oxygen species. Our results provide a framework to begin assessing the role of respiratory complex suprastructure in genetic vulnerability and treatment for a wide variety of mitochondrial-related disorders.
Project description:The mitochondrial respiratory chain is organized in a dynamic set of supercomplexes (SCs). The COX7A2L protein is essential for mammalian SC III2+IV assembly. However, its function in respirasome (SCs I+III2+IVn) biogenesis remains controversial. To unambiguously determine the COX7A2L role, we generated COX7A2L-knockout (COX7A2L-KO) HEK293T and U87 cells. COX7A2L-KO cells lack SC III2+IV but have enhanced complex III steady-state levels, activity, and assembly rate, normal de novo complex IV biogenesis, and delayed respirasome formation. Nonetheless, the KOs have normal respirasome steady-state levels, and only larger structures (SCs I1-2+III2+IV2-n or megacomplexes) were undetected. Functional substrate-driven competition assays showed normal mitochondrial respiration in COX7A2L-KO cells in standard and nutritional-, environmental-, and oxidative-stress-challenging conditions. We conclude that COX7A2L establishes a regulatory checkpoint for the biogenesis of CIII2 and specific SCs, but the COX7A2L-dependent MRC remodeling is essential neither to maintain mitochondrial bioenergetics nor to cope with acute cellular stresses.
Project description:The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is a dynamic system in which the respiratory complexes coexist with super-assembled quaternary structures called supercomplexes (SCs). The physiological role of SCs is still disputed. Here, we used zebrafish to study the relevance of respiratory SCs. We combined immunodetection analysis and deep data-independent proteomics to characterize these structures and found similar SCs to those described in mice, as well as novel SCs including III2 + IV2 , I + IV, and I + III2 + IV2 . To study the physiological role of SCs, we generated two null allele zebrafish lines for supercomplex assembly factor 1 (scaf1). scaf1-/- fish displayed altered OXPHOS activity due to the disrupted interaction of complexes III and IV. scaf1-/- fish were smaller in size and showed abnormal fat deposition and decreased female fertility. These physiological phenotypes were rescued by doubling the food supply, which correlated with improved bioenergetics and alterations in the metabolic gene expression program. These results reveal that SC assembly by Scaf1 modulates OXPHOS efficiency and allows the optimization of metabolic resources.
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7332985 | BioStudies
Project description:Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV can associate into larger structures termed supercomplexes or respirasomes, thereby generating structural interdependences among the individual complexes yet to be understood. In patients, nonsense mutations in complex IV subunit genes cause severe encephalomyopathies randomly associated with pleiotropic complex I defects. Using complexome profiling and biochemical analyses, we have explored the structural rearrangements of the respiratory chain in human cell lines depleted of the catalytic complex IV subunits COX1 or COX2. In the absence of a functional complex IV holoenzyme, several supercomplex I+III2 species coexist, which differ in their content of COX subunits and COX7A2L/HIGD2A assembly factors. The incorporation of an atypical COX1-HIGD2A submodule attenuates supercomplex I+III2 turnover rate, indicating an unexpected molecular adaptation for supercomplexes stabilization that relies on the presence of COX1 independently of holo-complex IV formation. Our data set the basis for complex I structural dependence on complex IV, revealing the co-existence of alternative pathways for the biogenesis of 'supercomplex-associated' versus individual complex IV, which could determine physiological adaptations under different stress and disease scenarios.
Project description:The organization of the mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins into supercomplexes (SCs) is now undisputed; however, their assembly process, or the role of differential expression isoforms, remain to be determined. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cytochrome c oxidase (CIV) forms SCs of varying stoichiometry with cytochrome bc 1 (CIII). Recent studies have revealed, in normoxic growth conditions, an interface made exclusively by Cox5A, the only yeast respiratory protein that exists as one of two isoforms depending on oxygen levels. Here we present the cryo-EM structures of the III2-IV1 and III2-IV2 SCs containing the hypoxic isoform Cox5B solved at 3.4 and 2.8 Å, respectively. We show that the change of isoform does not affect SC formation or activity, and that SC stoichiometry is dictated by the level of CIII/CIV biosynthesis. Comparison of the CIV5B- and CIV5A-containing SC structures highlighted few differences, found mainly in the region of Cox5. Additional density was revealed in all SCs, independent of the CIV isoform, in a pocket formed by Cox1, Cox3, Cox12, and Cox13, away from the CIII-CIV interface. In the CIV5B-containing hypoxic SCs, this could be confidently assigned to the hypoxia-induced gene 1 (Hig1) type 2 protein Rcf2. With conserved residues in mammalian Hig1 proteins and Cox3/Cox12/Cox13 orthologs, we propose that Hig1 type 2 proteins are stoichiometric subunits of CIV, at least when within a III-IV SC.
Project description:We used electron cryo-tomography and subtomogram averaging to investigate the structure of complex I and its supramolecular assemblies in the inner mitochondrial membrane of mammals, fungi, and plants. Tomographic volumes containing complex I were averaged at ?4 nm resolution. Principal component analysis indicated that ?60% of complex I formed a supercomplex with dimeric complex III, while ?40% were not associated with other respiratory chain complexes. The mutual arrangement of complex I and III2 was essentially conserved in all supercomplexes investigated. In addition, up to two copies of monomeric complex IV were associated with the complex I1III2 assembly in bovine heart and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, but their positions varied. No complex IV was detected in the respiratory supercomplex of the plant Asparagus officinalis Instead, an ?4.5-nm globular protein density was observed on the matrix side of the complex I membrane arm, which we assign to ?-carbonic anhydrase. Our results demonstrate that respiratory chain supercomplexes in situ have a conserved core of complex I and III2, but otherwise their stoichiometry and structure varies. The conserved features of supercomplex assemblies indicate an important role in respiratory electron transfer.
Project description:Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes I, III, and IV associate into a variety of supramolecular structures known as supercomplexes and respirasomes. While COX7A2L was originally described as a supercomplex-specific factor responsible for the dynamic association of complex IV into these structures to adapt MRC function to metabolic variations, this role has been disputed. Here, we further examine the functional significance of COX7A2L in the structural organization of the mammalian respiratory chain. As in the mouse, human COX7A2L binds primarily to free mitochondrial complex III and, to a minor extent, to complex IV to specifically promote the stabilization of the III2+IV supercomplex without affecting respirasome formation. Furthermore, COX7A2L does not affect the biogenesis, stabilization, and function of the individual oxidative phosphorylation complexes. These data show that independent regulatory mechanisms for the biogenesis and turnover of different MRC supercomplex structures co-exist.
Project description:The existence of respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) has been well acknowledged especially with the development of cryo-EM in the past few years, but their physiological relevance remains elusive. Dynamics of OXPHOS complexes is tightly correlated to cell fate switch, but whether SCs involve in this process is unknown. During C2C12 myogenesis, CIII2 and CIV as well as the subunits of CIII and CIV were slightly increasing, while SC III2+IV was decreasing, which indicates that SC reorganization may regulate myogenesis. Knockdown Cox7a2l decreased SCs III2+IV, I+III2+IV2 and I+III2+IV3, but had little effect on I+III2+IV. Transcriptome and quantitative-proteome analysis indicated that Cox7a2l silence activated myogenic gene expression and repressed cell cycle-associated gene expression. Besides, knockdown of Cox7a2l decreased CII abundance and accumulated succinate, which in turn suppressed certain key transcription factors, such as HMGA1 which is important for stemness maintenance. Our results indicated that respiratory supercomplex reorganization changed succinate homeostasis and myogenesis related gene expression profiles, thus switching cell fate. Overall design: RNA-seq of C2C12 cells treated with random control siRNA or targeted-Cox7a2l siRNA.
Project description:Mitochondrial respiratory complexes assemble into supercomplexes (SC). Q-respirasome (III2 + IV) requires the supercomplex assembly factor (SCAF1) protein. The role of this factor in the N-respirasome (I + III2 + IV) and the physiological role of SCs are controversial. Here, we study C57BL/6J mice harboring nonfunctional SCAF1, the full knockout for SCAF1, or the wild-type version of the protein and found that exercise performance is SCAF1 dependent. By combining quantitative data-independent proteomics, 2D Blue native gel electrophoresis, and functional analysis of enriched respirasome fractions, we show that SCAF1 confers structural attachment between III2 and IV within the N-respirasome, increases NADH-dependent respiration, and reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the expression of AOX in cells and mice confirms that CI-CIII superassembly segments the CoQ in two pools and modulates CI-NADH oxidative capacity.
Project description:Mitochondrial supercomplexes containing complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain are now regarded as an established entity. Supercomplex I·III·IV has been theorized to improve respiratory chain function by allowing quinone channeling between complexes I and III. Here, we show that the role of the supercomplexes extends beyond channeling. Mutant analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans reveals that complex III affects supercomplex I·III·IV formation by acting as an assembly or stabilizing factor. Also, a complex III mtDNA mutation, ctb-1, inhibits complex I function by weakening the interaction of complex IV in supercomplex I·III·IV. Other complex III mutations inhibit complex I function either by decreasing the amount of complex I (isp-1), or decreasing the amount of complex I in its most active form, the I·III·IV supercomplex (isp-1;ctb-1). ctb-1 suppresses a nuclear encoded complex III defect, isp-1, without improving complex III function. Allosteric interactions involve all three complexes within the supercomplex and are necessary for maximal enzymatic activities.
Project description:The complexes of the electron transport chain associate into large macromolecular assemblies, which are believed to facilitate efficient electron flow. We have identified a conserved mitochondrial protein, named respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1-Yml030w), that is required for the normal assembly of respiratory supercomplexes. We demonstrate that Rcf1 stably and independently associates with both Complex III and Complex IV of the electron transport chain. Deletion of the RCF1 gene caused impaired respiration, probably as a result of destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes. Consistent with the hypothetical function of these respiratory assemblies, loss of RCF1 caused elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. Finally, we show that knockdown of HIG2A, a mammalian homolog of RCF1, causes impaired supercomplex formation. We suggest that Rcf1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved protein family that acts to promote respiratory supercomplex assembly and activity.