Trends in otitis media-related health care use in the United States, 2001-2011.
ABSTRACT: Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of pediatric health care visits and the most frequent reason children consume antibiotics or undergo surgery. During recent years, several interventions have been introduced aiming to decrease OM burden.To study the trend in OM-related health care use in the United States during the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era (2001-2011).An analysis of an insurance claims database of a large, nationwide managed health care plan was conducted. Enrolled children aged 6 years or younger with OM visits were identified.Annual OM visit rates, OM-related complications, and surgical interventions were analyzed.Overall, 7.82 million unique children (5.51 million child-years) contributed 6.21 million primary OM visits; 52% were boys and 48% were younger than 2 years. There was a downward trend in OM visit rates from 2004 to 2011, with a significant drop that coincided with the advent of the 13-valent vaccine (PCV-13) in 2010. The observed OM visit rates in 2010 (1.00/child-year) and 2011 (0.81/child-year) were lower than the projected rates based on the 2005-2009 trend had there been no intervention (P?
Project description:Otitis media (OM) and their sequelae are a major health issue in the Inuit population of Nunavik, Quebec. Hypotheses of the study were: (i) early onset OM leads to repeated OM; (ii) repeated OM episodes leads to middle ear abnormalities (MEA) at age 5 years, (iii) pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may reduce multiple OM and MEA. Immunisation cards, medical records and audiology screening tests at age 5 years in a sample of 610 children born in 1994-2010 in 3 communities were reviewed. Children were classified into three categories using a score based on audiology screening tests: no abnormality, minor, or major MEA. The average number of OM episodes before age 5 years was 5.0 and 30% had minor and 17% major MEA at age 5 years. Community residency predicted both frequent (? 8) OM episodes and MEA. Early onset OM (age <6 months) was a predictor of frequent OM (RR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.50-1.95) whereas PCV (?1 dose ? age 2 months) has no significant effect. Frequent OM episodes were associated with major MEA (RR = 2.16; 95%CI: 1.20-3.85). Although associations were not statistically significant, there was a trend towards a protective effect of PCV administration on frequent OM and minor MEA, but not major MEA. In conclusion, results support an association between early onset OM, frequent OM and MEA that could represent a causal pathway.
Project description:Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to Sweden in 2009 and replaced by pneumococcal non-typeable <i>Haemophilus influenzae</i> protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) or 13-valent PCV (PCV13) from late 2009. A retrospective cohort study assessed the impact of PCVs on otitis media/acute otitis media (OM) in children aged ≤5 years (NCT02742753) living in Skåne (PCV7 then PHiD-CV) or Västra Götalandsregionen (PCV7 then PCV13) between 2005 and 2013 using linked regional and national databases. Time-series analyses described differences between pre-PCV and post-PCV eras. Adjusted age-period-cohort (APC) predictive models estimated vaccine effectiveness and OM incidence ratios between PCV cohorts. Time-to-first OM diagnosis was estimated in ≤2 year-olds by survival analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model. Descriptive interrupted time-series analyses showed OM incidence in ≤2 year-olds declined by 42% (Skåne) and 25% (Västra Götalandsregionen) after PHiD-CV/PCV13, respectively, versus pre-PCV, but baseline OM incidence and duration of PCV7 use differed between regions. In adjusted APC models, OM incidence decreased after PHiD-CV by 9.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4; 15.1, <i>p</i> < .001) and PCV13 by 2.3% (95%CI: -3.2; 7.6, <i>p</i> = .401) compared with pre-PCV. Both PHiD-CV and PCV13 decreased the risk of first OM diagnosis: hazard ratio (95%CI) for PHiD-CV relative to pre-PCV 0.67 (0.65; 0.69); 0.87 (0.85; 0.89) for PCV13 relative to pre-PCV; <i>p</i> < .001 for both comparisons. Within the limitations of this study conducted in two large Swedish regions, descriptive time-series analyses showed that OM incidence rates declined following the introduction of PHiD-CV and PCV13; however, this reduction only reached statistical significance for PHiD-CV in the adjusted APC models.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Respiratory infections are a major health problem in the Inuit population of Nunavik, province of Quebec, Canada.<h4>Objectives</h4>A study was undertaken to assess the burden of lower (LRTI) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and otitis media (OM) and to explore some of their determinants including the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) status.<h4>Methods</h4>The reference population includes children less than 5 years of age born in 1994-2010 and a sample of 825 children was selected for this study. Outpatient medical records were reviewed. Visits with a diagnosis of LRTI, URTI and OM were extracted. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of disease risk.<h4>Results</h4>The average number of LRTI, URTI and OM episodes were, respectively, 2.6, 6.2 and 5.9 from birth up to the 5th birthday. Seasonal patterns were similar for URTI and OM, but was different for LRTI. Children who received the recommended 4 PCV doses had a lower LRTI and OM risk than unvaccinated children. There was a trend towards a lower OM risk associated with a mixed PCV10+ PCV13 schedule compared with PCV7.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Results suggest a lower LRTI and OM risk associated with PCV use in this high-risk population but respiratory disease risk remains high compared with the general population in Quebec.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the nation-wide double-blind cluster-randomised Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease trial (FinIP, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00861380, NCT00839254), we assessed the indirect impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) against five pneumococcal disease syndromes.<h4>Methods</h4>Children 6 weeks to 18 months received PHiD-CV10 in 48 clusters or hepatitis B/A-vaccine as control in 24 clusters according to infant 3+1/2+1 or catch-up schedules in years 2009-2011. Outcome data were collected from national health registers and included laboratory-confirmed and clinically suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), hospital-diagnosed pneumonia, tympanostomy tube placements (TTP) and outpatient antimicrobial prescriptions. Incidence rates in the unvaccinated population in years 2010-2015 were compared between PHiD-CV10 and control clusters in age groups <5 and ≥5 years (5-7 years for TTP and outpatient antimicrobial prescriptions), and in infants <3 months. PHiD-CV10 was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Programme (PCV-NVP) for 3-month-old infants without catch-up in 9/2010.<h4>Results</h4>From 2/2009 to 10/2010, 45398 children were enrolled. Vaccination coverage varied from 29 to 61% in PHiD-CV10 clusters. We detected no clear differences in the incidence rates between the unvaccinated cohorts of the treatment arms, except in single years. For example, the rates of vaccine-type IPD, non-laboratory-confirmed IPD and empyema were lower in PHiD-CV10 clusters compared to control clusters in 2012, 2015 and 2011, respectively, in the age-group ≥5 years.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first report from a clinical trial evaluating the indirect impact of a PCV against clinical outcomes in an unvaccinated population. We did not observe consistent indirect effects in the PHiD-CV10 clusters compared to the control clusters. We consider that the sub-optimal trial vaccination coverage did not allow the development of detectable indirect effects and that the supervening PCV-NVP significantly diminished the differences in PHiD-CV10 vaccination coverage between the treatment arms.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To analyse the trends of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in children over the period 2001-2015.<h4>Design</h4>Time trend analysis.<h4>Setting</h4>Thirty-four member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).<h4>Participants</h4>Midyear estimates of the resident population aged ?14 years.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Using data from the WHO Mortality Database and Nolte and McKee's list, AMRs were calculated as the annual number of deaths over the population/100 000 inhabitants. The rates were stratified by age groups (<1, 1-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years). All data were summarised by presenting the average rates for the years 2001/2005, 2006/2010 and 2011/2015.<h4>Results</h4>There was a significant decline in children's AMRs in the <1?year group in all 34 OECD countries from 2001/2005 to 2006/2010 (332.78 to 295.17/100 000; %? -11.30%; 95%?CI -18.75% to -3.85%) and from 2006/2010 to 2011/2015 (295.17 to 240.22/100 000; %? -18.62%; 95%?CI -26.53% to -10.70%) and a slow decline in the other age classes. The only cause of death that was significantly reduced was conditions originating in the early neonatal period for the <1?year group. The age-specific distribution of causes of death did not vary significantly over the study period.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The low decline in amenable mortality rates for children aged ?1?year, the large variation in amenable mortality rates across countries and the insufficient success in reducing mortality from all causes suggest that the heath system should increase its efforts to enhance child survival. Promoting models of comanagement between primary care and subspecialty services, encouraging high-quality healthcare and knowledge, financing universal access to healthcare and adopting best practice guidelines might help reduce amenable child mortality.
Project description:After worldwide implementation of 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/PCV13), a 20-valent PCV (PCV20) was developed. We assessed dynamics of non-PCV13 additional PCV20 serotypes (VT20-13), compared with all other non-VT20 serotypes, in children <2 years of age in late PCV13 (2015-2017) and early PCV (2009-2011) periods. Our prospective population-based multifaceted surveillance included isolates from carriage in healthy children, children requiring chest radiography for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), and children with non-LRTI illness, as well as isolates from acute conjunctivitis, otitis media (OM), and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). After PCV13 implementation, VT20-13 increased disproportionally in OM, IPD, and carriage in LRTI. VT20-13/non-VT20 prevalence ratio range was 0.26-1.40. VT20-13 serotypes were more frequently antimicrobial-nonsusceptible than non-VT20 serotypes. The disproportionate increase of VT20-13 in respiratory infections and IPD points to their higher disease potential compared with all other non-VT20 as a group.
Project description:Epidemiological surveillance data for emergency department (ED) visits by children are imperative to guide resource allocation and to develop health policies that advance pediatric emergency care. However, there are sparse population-based data on patient-level information (e.g., the number of children who present to the emergency department [ED]). In this context, we aimed to investigate both the patient- and visit-level rates of ED utilization by children.This was a retrospective cohort study using population-based multipayer data - state ED databases (SEDD) and state inpatient databases (SID) - from six geographically-dispersed U.S. states (California, Florida, Iowa, Nebraska, New York, and Utah) in 2010 and 2011. We identified all children aged <18 years who presented to the ED and described the patient-level ED visit rate, visit-level ED visit rate, and proportion of all ED visits made by children. We conducted the analysis using the 2011 SEDD and SID data. We also repeated the analysis using the 2010 data to determine the consistency of the results across different years.In 2011, 2.9 million children with a patient identifier presented to EDs in the six U.S. states. At the patient-level, 15 out of every 100 children presented to an ED at least once per year. Of these children, 25% presented to EDs 2-3 times per year with an approximately 1.5-fold variation across the states (e.g., 19% in Utah vs. 28% in Florida). In addition, 5% presented to EDs ?4 times per year. At the visit-level, 6.7 million ED visits were made by children in 2011 - 34 ED visits per 100 children annually. ED visits by children accounted for 22% of all ED visits (including both adults and children), with a relatively small variation across the states (e.g., 20% in New York vs. 24% in Nebraska). Analysis of the 2010 data gave similar results for the ED utilization by children.By using large population-based data, we found a substantial burden of ED visits at both patient- and visit-levels. These findings provide a strong foundation for policy makers and professional organizations to strengthen emergency care for children.
Project description:Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have lowered the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) worldwide. However, the influence of regional vaccine uptake differences on the changing epidemiology of IPD remains unclear. We aimed to examine the overall impact of both seven- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV7 and PCV13) on IPD in Switzerland. Three-year periods from 2005-2010 and 2011-2019 were considered, respectively, as (early and late) PCV7 eras and (early, mid and late) PCV13 eras. Vaccine coverage was estimated from a nationwide survey according to east (German-speaking) and west (French/Italian-speaking) regions for each period. Reported incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were compared between successive periods and regions using nationwide IPD surveillance data. Overall IPD incidence across all ages was only 16% lower in the late PCV13 era compared to the early PCV7 era (IRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.88), due to increasing incidence of non-PCV-type IPD (2.59, 2.37-2.83) in all age groups, except children <5 years. PCV uptake rates in swiss children were slightly higher in the west than the east (<i>p</i> < 0.001), and were accompanied by lower IPD incidences across all age groups in the former region. Post-PCV13, non-PCV serotypes 8, 22F and 9N were the major cause of IPD in adults ≥65 years. Increased PCV coverage in both areas of Switzerland resulted in a decrease in vaccine-type and overall IPD incidence across all age groups, in a regionally dependent manner. However, the rising incidence of non-vaccine-type IPD, exclusive to older adults, may undermine indirect beneficial effects.
Project description:In Colombia, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were implemented into the infant universal mass vaccination program in a stepwise manner; PCV-7 between 2009 and 2011 in different geographic regions/cities, with nationwide introduction of a 10-valent vaccine (PHiD-CV) in 2012. We aimed to describe trends in all-cause pneumonia mortality and overall mortality, and in the incidence of all-cause pneumonia and otitis media (OM) in Colombian children <2 y (y = years) of age, before and after PCV introduction. We obtained mortality and incidence data, nationally and for five major cities (Bogota, Medellin, Barranquilla, Cali and Cartagena) from 2005-2016 and 2008-2016, respectively, comparing mortality and incidence proportions in the post-PCV introduction period with those in the pre-PCV period. Overall mean reductions in all-cause pneumonia mortality was observed in the post-PCV period nationally (48.8%; 95%CI: 45.5-51.8%) and in four cities including Bogota (77.1%; 71.1-81.8%) and Medellin (56.4%; 44.1-65.9%); no substantial reduction was observed in Cartagena. Similar findings were observed for overall mortality. Reductions in all-cause pneumonia incidence were observed in Bogota (66.0%; 65.5-66.6%), Medellin (40.6%; 39.3-41.9%) and Cartagena (15.0%; 11.2-18.6%), while incidence increased in Barranquilla (78.5%; 68.4-89.2%) and Cali (125.5%; 119.2-132.0%). All-cause OM incidence fell in Medellin and Bogota (42.1-51.1%) but increased (95.8%) in Barranquilla. In conclusion, overall reductions in disease outcomes were observed following PCV introduction in most cities and nationwide. Decreasing trends in outcomes were observed prior to PCV introduction, and limited data points and data reporting issues may have influenced our results. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02567747).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infectious diseases affecting children globally and the most common reason for antibiotic prescription and paediatric surgery. Australian Aboriginal children have higher rates of OM than non-Aboriginal children; however, there are no data comparing OM hospitalization rates between them at the population level. We report temporal trends for OM hospitalizations and in-hospital tympanostomy tube insertion (TTI) in a cohort of 469,589 Western Australian children born between 1996 and 2012.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We used the International Classification of Diseases codes version 10 to identify hospitalizations for OM or TTI recorded as a surgical procedure. Using age-specific population denominators, we calculated hospitalization rates per 1,000 child-years by age, year and level of socio-economic deprivation.<h4>Results</h4>There were 534,674 hospitalizations among 221,588 children hospitalized at least once before age 15 years. Aboriginal children had higher hospitalization rates for OM than non-Aboriginal children (23.3/1,000 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 22.8,24.0] vs 2.4/1,000 [95% CI 2.3,2.4] child-years) with no change in disparity over time. Conversely non-Aboriginal children had higher rates of TTI than Aboriginal children (13.5 [95% CI 13.2,13.8] vs 10.1 [95% CI 8.9,11.4]). Children from lower socio-economic backgrounds had higher OM hospitalization rates than those from higher socio-economic backgrounds, although for Aboriginal children hospitalization rates were not statistically different across all levels of socio-economic disadvantage. Hospitalizations for TTI among non-Aboriginal children were more common among those from higher socio-economic backgrounds. This was also true for Aboriginal children; however, the difference was not statistically significant. There was a decline in OM hospitalization rates between 1998 and 2005 and remained stable thereafter.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Aboriginal children and children from lower socio-economic backgrounds were over-represented with OM-related hospitalizations but had fewer TTIs. Despite a decrease in OM and TTI hospitalization rates during the first half of the study for all groups, the disparity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children and between those of differing socioeconomic deprivation remained.