Analysis of anoxybacillus genomes from the aspects of lifestyle adaptations, prophage diversity, and carbohydrate metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria.
Project description:The Anoxybacillus flavithermus KU2-6-11 was isolated from sediments of a nameless hot spring. The hot spring is located in Uzon caldera (Kamchatka, Russia). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,646,305 bp and encodes 2787genes. The draft genome sequence of the Anoxybacillus flavithermus KU2-6-11 has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PEDM01000000 and the sequences could be found at the site https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/PEDM01000000.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. RESULTS:We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. CONCLUSIONS:Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Anoxybacillus flavithermus Kn10 strain (NBRC 109594), isolated from a water drain of the Kan-nawa Hot Spring in Japan. The draft genome sequence is composed of 90 contigs for 2,772,624 bp with 41.6% G+C content and contains 2,883 protein-coding genes and 80 tRNA genes.
Project description:Preconditioning of Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 with cations prior to attachment often significantly increased (P ? 0.05) the number of viable cells that attached to stainless steel (by up to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2)) compared with unconditioned bacteria. It is proposed that the transition of A. flavithermus and Geobacillus spp. from milk formulations to stainless steel product contact surfaces in milk powder manufacturing plants is mediated predominantly by bacterial physiological factors (e.g., surface-exposed adhesins) rather than the concentrations of cations in milk formulations surrounding bacteria.
Project description:The thermophilic spore-forming bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus is responsible for powdered milk product spoilage, and its presence in dairy processing environments is a concern. Here, the complete genome sequence of the A. flavithermus strain 52-1A isolated from a heat-processed powdered milk product concentrate in Switzerland is presented.
Project description:Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain 25 was isolated from a sediment sample from the Garga hot spring in the Barguzin Valley, Baikal Region, Russian Federation (54°19'3.72?N, 110°59'38.4?E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,838,680 bp and encodes 3,009 genes.
Project description:A new facultative chemolithoautotrophic arsenite (As(III))-oxidizing bacterium TCC9-4 was isolated from a hot spring microbial mat in Tengchong of Yunnan, China. This strain could grow with As(III) as an energy source, CO2-HCO3 (-) as a carbon source and oxygen as the electron acceptor in a minimal salts medium. Under chemolithoautotrophic conditions, more than 90% of 100 mg/L As(III) could be oxidized by the strain TCC9-4 in 36 h. Temperature was an important environmental factor that strongly influenced the As(III) oxidation rate and As(III) oxidase (Aio) activity; the highest Aio activity was found at the temperature of 40?C. Addition of 0.01% yeast extract enhanced the growth significantly, but delayed the As(III) oxidation. On the basis of 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequence analysis, strain TCC9-4 was identified as Anoxybacillus flavithermus. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of arsenic (As) oxidation by A. flavithermus. The Aio gene in TCC9-4 might be quite novel relative to currently known gene sequences. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbially mediated As oxidation in hot springs.
Project description:Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Anoxybacillus flavithermus TNO-09.006 from a milk-processing plant, and we report the complete genome of this isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 2.65 Mb.
Project description:Species of Anoxybacillus are thermophiles and, therefore, their enzymes are suitable for many biotechnological applications. Anoxybacillus ayderensis AB04(T) (= NCIMB 13972(T)?=?NCCB 100050(T)) was isolated from the Ayder hot spring in Rize, Turkey, and is one of the earliest described Anoxybacillus type strains. The present work reports the cellular features of A. ayderensis AB04(T), together with a high-quality draft genome sequence and its annotation. The genome is 2,832,347 bp long (74 contigs) and contains 2,895 protein-coding sequences and 103 RNA genes including 14 rRNAs, 88 tRNAs, and 1 tmRNA. Based on the genome annotation of strain AB04(T), we identified genes encoding various glycoside hydrolases that are important for carbohydrate-related industries, which we compared with those of other, sequenced Anoxybacillus spp. Insights into under-explored industrially applicable enzymes and the possible applications of strain AB04(T) were also described.