Outcomes of autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma according to different induction regimens.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Induction therapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation is the standard treatment for suitable patients with multiple myeloma. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess whether induction therapy with thalidomidecontaining regimens was associated with improved results compared to vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone, and whether cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone were associated with better results than thalidomide and dexamethasone. METHODS:The records of 152 patients who underwent autologous transplantation at this institution from August of 2004 to January of 2012 were reviewed, selecting those with at least partial response to a maximum of eight cycles of induction therapy and sufficient follow-up information for analysis. RESULTS:This study included 89 patients; 44 were female, with a mean age of 55 years (there was a significant trend for increasing age over the years of the study).The median number of induction therapy cycles was four, again with a trend of increase over the years.At least a very good partial response to induction therapy was achieved more often in the cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone group (61.1%) and in the thalidomide and dexamethasone group (59.2%) than in the vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone group (16.2%). The overall median progression-free survival was 34 months, with no statistically significant difference between the three groups. The overall median survival was not reached, and there was no significant difference between the three groups; the estimated five-year overall survival was 55%. CONCLUSION:Although the quality of responses appeared to be better with thalidomidecontaining regimens, these improvements did not translate into improved long-term outcomes. Given its track record, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone is currently considered the preferred regimen for first-line induction therapy in the Brazilian public health system.
Project description:In the Medical Research Council (MRC) Myeloma IX trial (ISRCTN684564111) patients were randomised to sodium clodronate or zoledronic acid and induction treatment: cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (CVAD) or cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone (CTD) followed by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in the intensive pathway; attenuated CTD or melphalan and prednisolone (MP) in the non-intensive pathway. Subsequent randomisation allocated patients to either thalidomide or observation. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life (QoL) questionnaires, QLQ-C30 and QLQ-MY24, were administered at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months and annually thereafter, enabling the effect of sequential treatment on patient-reported health-related QoL (HR-QoL) to be investigated. The protocol specified four subscales of interest: Pain, Fatigue, Global Health Status/Quality of Life and Physical Functioning at 3, 6 and 12 months that were compared using linear models. The intensive pathway showed significant differences in favour of CTD for Fatigue at 3 months and Physical Functioning at 12 months. The non-intensive pathway and maintenance phase reported significant differences at 3 months; Pain (improved with attenuated CTD) and Global Health status/Quality of Life (improved with observation). The improved outcomes in MRC Myeloma IX were accompanied by some beneficial and few detrimental effects on HR-QoL.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies which typically respond to standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, patients with refractory NHL face a poor prognosis and represent an unmet need for improved therapeutics. We present two cases of refractory CD30+ NHL who responded to novel brentuximab vedotin- (BV-) based regimens. The first is a patient with stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with cranial nerve involvement who failed front-line treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (CHOEP) and second line cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate (MTX), and cytarabine (hyperCVAD) with intrathecal- (IT-) MTX and IT-cytarabine, but responded when BV was substituted for vincristine (hyperCBAD). The second patient was a man with stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with leptomeningeal involvement whose disease progressed during first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and progressed despite salvage therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) in whom addition of BV to topotecan resulted in a significant response. This report describes the first successful salvage treatments of highly aggressive, double refractory CD30+ NHL using two unreported BV-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Both regimens appear effective and have manageable toxicities. Further clinical trials assessing novel BV combinations are warranted.
Project description:High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT) has been considered to be the standard frontline treatment for younger, fit patients with multiple myeloma (MM) since the 1990s. Efforts continue to optimize the use of HDT-ASCT with the aim of improving outcomes. One strategy has been the incorporation of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib) in the pre-transplantation setting as an induction therapy or in the post-transplantation setting as a consolidation or maintenance therapy. Given their high response rates, three-drug induction therapy regimens (for example, bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone, lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide-bortezomib-dexamethasone) are now the standard of care. Thalidomide and bortezomib are well suited for consolidation therapy, and regimens using these agents can improve the depth of response following HDT-ASCT. Lenalidomide is particularly well suited for long-term maintenance therapy following HDT-ASCT, and initial results are promising and have shown improvements in disease outcomes such as progression-free survival and overall survival in some cases, although a low incidence of second primary malignancies have been observed. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal regimen and duration of induction therapy, the impact of maintenance on overall survival and the safety of long-term treatment. Many of the studies currently underway in MM will help address these aspects.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In Ontario, no clearly defined standard of care for the management of mantle cell lymphoma (mcl) has been developed, and substantial variability from centre to centre is evident. This guidance document was prompted by the need to harmonize practice in Ontario with respect to first-line, conditioning, and post-transplantation maintenance therapy for patients newly diagnosed with transplantation-eligible mcl.<h4>Methods</h4>The medline and embase databases were systematically searched from January 2013 to January 2020 for evidence, and the best available evidence was used to draft recommendations relevant to first-line therapy, autologous stem-cell transplantation, and post-transplantation maintenance in the management of transplantation-eligible newly diagnosed mcl. Final approval of this guidance document was obtained from the Stem Cell Transplant Advisory Committee.<h4>Recommendations</h4>These recommendations apply to all cases of transplantation-eligible newly diagnosed mcl:? Alternating cycles of r-chop (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisolone) and r-dhap [rituximab plus dexamethasone-high-dose cytarabine-cisplatin] is the recommended first-line treatment for symptomatic patients newly diagnosed with mcl before autologous stem-cell transplantation (asct).? Rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (r-hypercvad), alternating with methotrexate and cytarabine, is not recommended for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed mcl.? beam (carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan), beac (carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-cyclophosphamide), and total-body irradiation-based regimens are reasonable conditioning options for patients with mcl who have responded to first-line therapy and who are undergoing asct.? Maintenance therapy with rituximab is recommended for patients with newly diagnosed mcl who have undergone asct.
Project description:Excellent outcomes obtained after infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-EPOCH) alone have led some to question the role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL). We reviewed the outcomes in patients treated with 1 of 3 rituximab-containing regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [R-CHOP]; hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone [R-HCVAD], or R-EPOCH) with or without RT. We also evaluated the ability of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) to identify patients at risk of relapse.We retrospectively identified 97 patients with diagnoses of stage I/II PMBCL treated at our institution between 2001 and 2013. The clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. We analyzed whether postchemotherapy PET-CT could identify patients at risk for progressive disease according to a 5 point scale (5PS) Deauville score assigned.Among 97 patients (median follow-up time, 57 months), the 5-year overall survival rate was 99%. Of patients treated with R-CHOP, 99% received RT; R-HCVAD, 82%; and R-EPOCH, 36%. Of 68 patients with evaluable end-of-chemotherapy PET-CT scans, 62% had a positive scan (avidity above that of the mediastinal blood pool [Deauville 5PS = 3]), but only 9 patients experienced relapse (n=1) or progressive disease (n=8), all with a 5PS of 4 to 5. Of the 25 patients who received R-EPOCH, 4 experienced progression, all with 5PS of 4 to 5; salvage therapy (RT and autologous stem cell transplantation) was successful in all cases.Combined modality immunochemotherapy and RT is well tolerated and effective for treatment of PMBCL. A postchemotherapy 5PS of 4 to 5, rather than 3 to 5, can identify patients at high risk of progression who should be considered for therapy beyond chemotherapy alone after R-EPOCH.
Project description:While first-line induction therapy for patients with multiple myeloma has changed over the years, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation still plays a significant role, improving both depth of response and progression-free survival of myeloma patients. Our 25-year experience in mobilizing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for 472 transplant-eligible myeloma patients was retrospectively reviewed. Patients were stratified according to the remission induction therapy received, and the outcomes were compared among the cohorts that received vincristine, adriamycin and dexamethasone (VAD) (n=232), bortezomib and dexamethasone (BD) (n=86), cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (CyBorD) (n=82) and other regimens (n=67). Cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was the predominant mobilization regimen given. A greater number of CD34+ cells (9.9×10E6/kg, p=0.026) was collected with less hospital admissions in BD patients (13%, p=0.001), when compared to those receiving VAD (7.5×10E6/kg, 29%), CyBorD (7.6×10E6/kg, 19%), or other regimens (7.9×10E6/kg, 36%). Induction therapy did not influence the overall rate of unscheduled visits or the length of hospitalization because of complications following mobilization. The myeloma response was not significantly deepened following the cyclophosphamide administered for mobilization. This analysis demonstrates the importance of monitoring the impact of initial treatment on downstream procedures such as stem cell mobilization and collection.
Project description:Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM). PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death. There is no standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of PBL. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like regimens have been the backbone while more intensive regimens such as cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC), or dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (DA-EPOCH) are possible options. Recently, a few studies have reported the potential value of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and thalidomide in PBL patients. The introduction of genes encoding artificial receptors called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and CAR-modified T cells targeted to the B cell-specific CD19 antigen have demonstrated promising results in multiple early clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in epidemiology; pathophysiology; clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics; therapy; and outcome in patients with PBL.
Project description:In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, first-line treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone; salvage with cisplatin-based regimens for relapsing patients; and autologous stem cell therapy are standards of care. Treatment approaches are less clear for patients who are refractory or who are not candidates for autologous stem cell therapy. Options may include palliative regimens or clinical trial enrollment. One therapy under investigation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with antiangiogenic activity.We present the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian male patient diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had an early relapse after treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. He then had a subsequent early relapse after cisplatin-based salvage consolidated with autologous stem cell therapy. The efficacy of gemcitabine-cisplatin-rituximab was limited to five months, followed by systemic and central nervous system progression. Fourth-line treatment with lenalidomide plus rituximab and involved-field radiotherapy followed by lenalidomide monotherapy greatly improved this patient's quality of life and performance status, allowing over two years of progression-free survival to date (excluding a brief relapse due to treatment interruption).A lenalidomide-based regimen was highly effective in this patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Project description:The induction therapy containing ixazomib, an oral proteasome inhibitor, has shown favorable efficacy and safety in clinical trials, but its experience in real-life remains limited. In routine practice, few patients received ixazomib-based induction therapy due to reasons including (1) patients' preference on oral regimens, (2) concerns on adverse events (AEs) of other intravenous/subcutaneous regimens, (3) requirements for less center visits, and (4) fears of COVID-19 and other infectious disease exposures. With the aim of assessing the real-life effectiveness and safety of ixazomib-based induction therapy, we performed this multi-center, observational study on 85 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients from 14 medical centers. Ixazomib-based regimens included ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRd) in 44.7% of patients, ixazomib-dexamethasone (Id) in 29.4%, and Id plus another agent (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, or daratumumab) in 25.9%. Different ixazomib-based therapies were applied due to (1) financial burdens or limitations on local health insurance coverage, (2) concerns on treatment tolerance, and (3) drug accessibility issue. Ten patients received ixazomib maintenance. The median age was 67 years; 43.5% had ISS stage III disease; 48.2% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score ??2; and 17.6% with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. Overall response rate for all 85 patients was 95.3%, including 65.9% very good partial response or better and 29.5% complete responses. The median time to response was 30 days. The response rate was similar across different ixazomib-based regimens. Median progression-free survival was not reached. Severe AEs (? grade 3) were reported in 29.4% of patients. No grade 3/4 peripheral neuropathy (PN) occurred. Patients received a median of 6 (range 1-20) cycles of ixazomib treatment; 56.6% remained on treatment at data cutoff; 15.3% discontinued treatment due to intolerable AEs. These results support that the ixazomib-based frontline therapy was highly effective with acceptable toxicity in routine practice and the ixazomib oral regimens could be good alternative options for NDMM patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved significantly in the past decade, and new drug combinations have improved the response rates and prolonged survival. Studies comparing different induction chemotherapy regimens have shown that triple combinations have better results than double combinations. However, comparisons among different triple combinations are rare in the literature. METHODS:We retrospectively compared two triple combinations comprising bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) versus thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (CTD), and aimed at identifying which of the two combinations would yield better response rates following four induction cycles prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with untreated multiple myeloma. RESULTS:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 311 patients from 24 different centers.The VCD regimen was used as induction therapy by 117 (37.6%) patients, whereas 194 (62.4%) patients received the CTD regimen. After four cycles of induction on an intention-to-treat basis, 54% of the patients in the VCD group achieved at least very good partial response versus 42.8% in the CTD group (p=0.05). We observed no difference in neuropathy or thrombotic events rates among the two regimens. CONCLUSION:Our results corroborate the superiority of the triple combination regimes containing bortezomib over the triple combination with thalidomide as pre ASCT induction therapy in MM.