TDP1 deficiency sensitizes human cells to base damage via distinct topoisomerase I and PARP mechanisms with potential applications for cancer therapy.
ABSTRACT: Base damage and topoisomerase I (Top1)-linked DNA breaks are abundant forms of endogenous DNA breakage, contributing to hereditary ataxia and underlying the cytotoxicity of a wide range of anti-cancer agents. Despite their frequency, the overlapping mechanisms that repair these forms of DNA breakage are largely unknown. Here, we report that depletion of Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) sensitizes human cells to alkylation damage and the additional depletion of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease I (APE1) confers hypersensitivity above that observed for TDP1 or APE1 depletion alone. Quantification of DNA breaks and clonogenic survival assays confirm a role for TDP1 in response to base damage, independently of APE1. The hypersensitivity to alkylation damage is partly restored by depletion of Top1, illustrating that alkylating agents can trigger cytotoxic Top1-breaks. Although inhibition of PARP activity does not sensitize TDP1-deficient cells to Top1 poisons, it confers increased sensitivity to alkylation damage, highlighting partially overlapping roles for PARP and TDP1 in response to genotoxic challenge. Finally, we demonstrate that cancer cells in which TDP1 is inherently deficient are hypersensitive to alkylation damage and that TDP1 depletion sensitizes glioblastoma-resistant cancer cells to the alkylating agent temozolomide.
Project description:The abortive activity of topoisomerases can result in clastogenic and/or lethal DNA damage in which the topoisomerase is covalently linked to the 3'- or 5'-terminus of a DNA strand break. This type of DNA damage is implicated in chromosome translocations and neurological disease and underlies the clinical efficacy of an important class of anticancer topoisomerase 'poisons'. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase-1 protects cells from abortive topoisomerase I (Top1) activity by hydrolyzing the 3'-phosphotyrosyl bond that links Top1 to a DNA strand break and is currently the only known human enzyme that displays this activity in cells. Recently, we identified a second tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2; aka TTRAP/EAPII) that possesses weak 3'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (3'-TDP) activity, in vitro. Herein, we have examined whether TDP2 contributes to the repair of Top1-mediated DNA breaks by deleting Tdp1 and Tdp2 separately and together in murine and avian cells. We show that while deletion of Tdp1 in wild-type DT40 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts decreases DNA strand break repair rates and cellular survival in response to Top1-induced DNA damage, deletion of Tdp2 does not. However, deletion of both Tdp1 and Tdp2 reduces rates of DNA strand break repair and cell survival below that observed in Tdp1-/- cells, suggesting that Tdp2 contributes to cellular 3'-TDP activity in the absence of Tdp1. Consistent with this idea, over-expression of human TDP2 in Tdp1-/-/Tdp2-/-/- DT40 cells increases DNA strand break repair rates and cell survival above that observed in Tdp1-/- DT40 cells, suggesting that Tdp2 over-expression can partially complement the defect imposed by loss of Tdp1. Finally, mice lacking both Tdp1 and Tdp2 exhibit greater sensitivity to Top1 poisons than do mice lacking Tdp1 alone, further suggesting that Tdp2 contributes to the repair of Top1-mediated DNA damage in the absence of Tdp1. In contrast, we failed to detect a contribution for Tdp1 to repair Top2-mediated damage. Together, our data suggest that Tdp1 and Tdp2 fulfil overlapping roles following Top1-induced DNA damage, but not following Top2-induced DNA damage, in vivo.
Project description:Human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond at a DNA 3' end linked to a tyrosyl moiety. This type of linkage is found at stalled topoisomerase I (Top1)-DNA covalent complexes, and TDP1 has been implicated in the repair of such complexes. Here we show that Top1-associated DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) induce the phosphorylation of TDP1 at S81. This phosphorylation is mediated by the protein kinases: ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Phosphorylated TDP1 forms nuclear foci that co-localize with those of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX). Both Top1-induced replication- and transcription-mediated DNA damages induce TDP1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that S81 phosphorylation stabilizes TDP1, induces the formation of XRCC1 (X-ray cross-complementing group 1)-TDP1 complexes and enhances the mobilization of TDP1 to DNA damage sites. Finally, we provide evidence that TDP1-S81 phosphorylation promotes cell survival and DNA repair in response to CPT-induced DSBs. Together; our findings provide a new mechanism for TDP1 post-translational regulation by ATM and DNA-PK.
Project description:Genomic damage can feature DNA-protein crosslinks whereby their acute accumulation is utilized to treat cancer and progressive accumulation causes neurodegeneration. This is typified by tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), which repairs topoisomerase-mediated chromosomal breaks. Although TDP1 levels vary in multiple clinical settings, the mechanism underpinning this variation is unknown. We reveal that TDP1 is controlled by ubiquitylation and identify UCHL3 as the deubiquitylase that controls TDP1 proteostasis. Depletion of UCHL3 increases TDP1 ubiquitylation and turnover rate and sensitizes cells to TOP1 poisons. Overexpression of UCHL3, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, suppresses TDP1 ubiquitylation and turnover rate. TDP1 overexpression in the topoisomerase therapy-resistant rhabdomyosarcoma is driven by UCHL3 overexpression. In contrast, UCHL3 is downregulated in spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1), causing elevated levels of TDP1 ubiquitylation and faster turnover rate. These data establish UCHL3 as a regulator of TDP1 proteostasis and, consequently, a fine-tuner of protein-linked DNA break repair.
Project description:Inhibitors of topoisomerase I (Top1) that result in stalled Top1 cleavage complexes (Top1cc) are commonly employed against cancer. Combination chemotherapy with DNA repair inhibitors can potentially improve response to these widely used chemotherapeutics. One line of inquiry focuses on inhibitors of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1), a repair enzyme for Top1cc. Tdp1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of DNA adducts covalently linked to the 3'-phosphate of DNA, including Top1-derived peptides and also 3'-phosphoglycolates. Tdp1 inhibitors should synergize not only with Top1-targeting drugs (camptothecins, indenoisoquinolines), but also with bleomycin, topoisomerase II (Top2) inhibitors (etoposide, doxorubicin) and DNA alkylating agents. Here, we summarize the structure-activity relationship obtained from the reported Tdp1 inhibitors. Better understanding of Top1cc repair in vivo coupled with detailed structural studies on Tdp1-inhibitor interaction will be crucial in guiding the rational design of Tdp1 inhibitors.
Project description:TDP1 and TDP2 were discovered and named based on the fact they process 3'- and 5'-DNA ends by excising irreversible protein tyrosyl-DNA complexes involving topoisomerases I and II, respectively. Yet, both enzymes have an extended spectrum of activities. TDP1 not only excises trapped topoisomerases I (Top1 in the nucleus and Top1mt in mitochondria), but also repairs oxidative damage-induced 3'-phosphoglycolates and alkylation damage-induced DNA breaks, and excises chain terminating anticancer and antiviral nucleosides in the nucleus and mitochondria. The repair function of TDP2 is devoted to the excision of topoisomerase II- and potentially topoisomerases III-DNA adducts. TDP2 is also essential for the life cycle of picornaviruses (important human and bovine pathogens) as it unlinks VPg proteins from the 5'-end of the viral RNA genome. Moreover, TDP2 has been involved in signal transduction (under the former names of TTRAP or EAPII). The DNA repair partners of TDP1 include PARP1, XRCC1, ligase III and PNKP from the base excision repair (BER) pathway. By contrast, TDP2 repair functions are coordinated with Ku and ligase IV in the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ). This article summarizes and compares the biochemistry, functions, and post-translational regulation of TDP1 and TDP2, as well as the relevance of TDP1 and TDP2 as determinants of response to anticancer agents. We discuss the rationale for developing TDP inhibitors for combinations with topoisomerase inhibitors (topotecan, irinotecan, doxorubicin, etoposide, mitoxantrone) and DNA damaging agents (temozolomide, bleomycin, cytarabine, and ionizing radiation), and as novel antiviral agents.
Project description:Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] damages DNA and causes cancer, but it is unclear which DNA damage responses (DDRs) most critically protect cells from chromate toxicity. Here, genome-wide quantitative functional profiling, DDR measurements and genetic interaction assays in Schizosaccharomyces pombe reveal a chromate toxicogenomic profile that closely resembles the cancer chemotherapeutic drug camptothecin (CPT), which traps Topoisomerase 1 (Top1)-DNA covalent complex (Top1cc) at the 3' end of single-stand breaks (SSBs), resulting in replication fork collapse. ATR/Rad3-dependent checkpoints that detect stalled and collapsed replication forks are crucial in Cr(VI)-treated cells, as is Mus81-dependent sister chromatid recombination (SCR) that repairs single-ended double-strand breaks (seDSBs) at broken replication forks. Surprisingly, chromate resistance does not require base excision repair (BER) or interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair, nor does co-elimination of XPA-dependent nucleotide excision repair (NER) and Rad18-mediated post-replication repair (PRR) confer chromate sensitivity in fission yeast. However, co-elimination of Tdp1 tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase and Rad16-Swi10 (XPF-ERCC1) NER endonuclease synergistically enhances chromate toxicity in top1? cells. Pnk1 polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNKP), which restores 3'-hydroxyl ends to SSBs processed by Tdp1, is also critical for chromate resistance. Loss of Tdp1 ameliorates pnk1? chromate sensitivity while enhancing the requirement for Mus81. Thus, Tdp1 and PNKP, which prevent neurodegeneration in humans, repair an important class of Cr-induced SSBs that collapse replication forks.
Project description:Tyrosyl DNA-phosphodiesterase I (TDP1) repairs type IB topoisomerase (TOP1) cleavage complexes generated by TOP1 inhibitors commonly used as anticancer agents. TDP1 also removes DNA 3' end blocking lesions generated by chain-terminating nucleosides and alkylating agents, and base oxidation both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Combination therapy with TDP1 inhibitors is proposed to synergize with topoisomerase targeting drugs to enhance selectivity against cancer cells exhibiting deficiencies in parallel DNA repair pathways. A crystallographic fragment screening campaign against the catalytic domain of TDP1 was conducted to identify new lead compounds. Crystal structures revealed two fragments that bind to the TDP1 active site and exhibit inhibitory activity against TDP1. These fragments occupy a similar position in the TDP1 active site as seen in prior crystal structures of TDP1 with bound vanadate, a transition state mimic. Using structural insights into fragment binding, several fragment derivatives have been prepared and evaluated in biochemical assays. These results demonstrate that fragment-based methods can be a highly feasible approach toward the discovery of small-molecule chemical scaffolds to target TDP1, and for the first time, we provide co-crystal structures of small molecule inhibitors bound to TDP1, which could serve for the rational development of medicinal TDP1 inhibitors.
Project description:Although defective repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) leads to neurodegenerative diseases, the processes underlying their production and signaling in non-replicating cells are largely unknown. Stabilized topoisomerase I cleavage complexes (Top1cc) by natural compounds or common DNA alterations are transcription-blocking lesions whose repair depends primarily on Top1 proteolysis and excision by tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase-1 (TDP1). We previously reported that stabilized Top1cc produce transcription-dependent DSBs that activate ATM in neurons. Here, we use camptothecin (CPT)-treated serum-starved quiescent cells to induce transcription-blocking Top1cc and show that those DSBs are generated during Top1cc repair from Top1 peptide-linked DNA single-strand breaks generated after Top1 proteolysis and before excision by TDP1. Following DSB induction, ATM activates DNA-PK whose inhibition suppresses H2AX and H2A ubiquitination and the later assembly of activated ATM into nuclear foci. Inhibition of DNA-PK also reduces Top1 ubiquitination and proteolysis as well as resumption of RNA synthesis suggesting that DSB signaling further enhances Top1cc repair. Finally, we show that co-transcriptional DSBs kill quiescent cells. Together, these new findings reveal that DSB production and signaling by transcription-blocking Top1 lesions impact on non-replicating cell fate and provide insights on the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as SCAN1 and AT syndromes, which are caused by TDP1 and ATM deficiency, respectively.
Project description:Human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterases (TDP) hydrolyze the phosphodiester bond between DNA and the catalytic tyrosine of Top1 to excise topoisomerase I cleavage complexes (Top1cc) that are trapped by camptothecin (CPT) and by genotoxic DNA alterations. Here we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 enhances the repair of Top1cc by direct binding to TDP1 and arginine dimethylation of TDP1 at residues R361 and R586. Top1-induced replication-mediated DNA damage induces TDP1 arginine methylation, enhancing its 3'- phosphodiesterase activity. TDP1 arginine methylation also increases XRCC1 association with TDP1 in response to CPT, and the recruitment of XRCC1 to Top1cc DNA damage foci. PRMT5 knockdown cells exhibit defective TDP1 activity with marked elevation in replication-coupled CPT-induced DNA damage and lethality. Finally, methylation of R361 and R586 stimulate TDP1 repair function and promote cell survival in response to CPT. Together, our findings provide evidence for the importance of PRMT5 for the post-translational regulation of TDP1 and repair of Top1cc.
Project description:Tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) repairs 3'-blocking DNA lesions by catalytically hydrolyzing the tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiester bond of trapped topoisomerase I (Top1) cleavage complexes (Top1cc). It also removes 3'-blocking residues derived from oxidative damage or incorporation of chain terminating anticancer and antiviral nucleosides. Thus, TDP1 is regarded as a determinant of resistance to Top1 inhibitors and chain terminating nucleosides, and possibly of genomic stability. In the 60 cell lines of the NCI Developmental Therapeutic Anticancer Screen (the NCI-60), whose whole genome transcriptome and mutations have recently been characterized, we discovered two human lung cancer cell lines deficient for TDP1 (NCI_H522 and HOP_62). HOP_62 shows undetectable TDP1 mRNA and NCI_H522 bears a homozygous deleterious mutation of TDP1 at a highly conserved amino acid residue (K292E). Absence of TDP1 protein and lack of TDP1 catalytic activity were demonstrated in cell lysates from both cell lines. Lack of TDP1 expression in HOP_62 was shown to be due to TDP1 promoter hypermethylation. Our study provides insights into the possible inactivation of TDP1 in cancers and its relationship to cellular response to Top1-targeted drugs. It also reveals two TDP1 knockout lung cancer cell lines for further TDP1 functional analyses.