ABSTRACT: The Y-family DNA polymerase Rev1 is required for successful replication of G-quadruplex DNA (G4 DNA) in higher eukaryotes. Here we show that human Rev1 (hRev1) disrupts G4 DNA structures and prevents refolding in vitro. Nucleotidyl transfer by hRev1 is not necessary for mechanical unfolding to occur. hRev1 binds G4 DNA substrates with Kd,DNA values that are 4-15-fold lower than those of non-G4 DNA substrates. The pre-steady-state rate constant of deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) insertion opposite the first tetrad-guanine by hRev1 is ?56% as fast as that observed for non-G4 DNA substrates. Thus, hRev1 can promote fork progression by either dislodging tetrad guanines to unfold the G4 DNA, which could assist in extension by other DNA polymerases, or hRev1 can prevent refolding of G4 DNA structures. The hRev1 mechanism of action against G-quadruplexes helps explain why replication progress is impeded at G4 DNA sites in Rev1-deficient cells and illustrates another unique feature of this enzyme with important implications for genome maintenance.
Project description:We previously reported that human Rev1 (hRev1) bound to a parallel-stranded G-quadruplex (G4) from the c-MYC promoter with high affinity. We have extended those results to include other G4 motifs, finding that hRev1 exhibited stronger affinity for parallel-stranded G4 than either anti-parallel or hybrid folds. Amino acids in the ?E helix of insert-2 were identified as being important for G4 binding. Mutating E466 and Y470 to alanine selectively perturbed G4 binding affinity. The E466K mutant restored wild-type G4 binding properties. Using a forward mutagenesis assay, we discovered that loss of hRev1 increased G4 mutation frequency >200-fold compared to the control sequence. Base substitutions and deletions occurred around and within the G4 motif. Pyridostatin (PDS) exacerbated this effect, as the mutation frequency increased >700-fold over control and deletions upstream of the G4 site more than doubled. Mutagenic replication of G4 DNA (±PDS) was partially rescued by wild-type and E466K hRev1. The E466A or Y470A mutants failed to suppress the PDS-induced increase in G4 mutation frequency. These findings have implications for the role of insert-2, a motif conserved in vertebrates but not yeast or plants, in Rev1-mediated suppression of mutagenesis during G4 replication.
Project description:The Y-family DNA polymerase REV1 is involved in replicative bypass of damaged DNA and G-quadruplex (G4) DNA. In addition to a scaffolding role in the replicative bypass, REV1 acts in a catalytic role as a deoxycytidyl transferase opposite some replication stall sites, e.g., apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, N(2)-guanyl lesions, and G4 sites. We characterized the biochemical properties of 12 reported germline missense variants of human REV1, including the N373S variant associated with high risk of cervical cancer, using the recombinant REV1 (residues 330-833) proteins and DNA templates containing a G, AP site, N(2)-CH2(2-naphthyl)G (N(2)-NaphG), or G4. In steady-state kinetic analyses, the F427L, R434Q, M656V, D700N, R704Q, and P831L variants displayed 2- to 8-fold decreases in kcat/Km for dCTP insertion opposite all four templates, compared to that of wild-type, while the N373S, M407L, and N497S showed 2- to 3-fold increases with all four and the former three or two templates, respectively. The F427L, R434Q, M656V, and R704Q variants also had 2- to 3-fold lower binding affinities to DNA substrates containing G, an AP site, and/or N(2)-NaphG than wild-type. Distinctively, the N373S variant had a 3-fold higher binding affinity to G4 DNA than the wild-type, as well as a 2-fold higher catalytic activity opposite the first tetrad G, suggesting a facilitating effect of this variation on replication of G4 DNA sequences in certain human papillomavirus genomes. Our results suggest that the catalytic function of REV1 is moderately or slightly altered by at least nine genetic variations, and the G4 DNA processing function of REV1 is slightly enhanced by the N373S variation, which might provide the possibility that certain germline missense REV1 variations affect the individual susceptibility to carcinogenesis by modifying the capability of REV1 for replicative bypass past DNA lesions and G4 motifs derived from chemical and viral carcinogens.
Project description:DNA is frequently damaged by various physical and chemical agents. DNA damage can lead to mutations during replication. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the damage-induced mutagenesis pathway requires the Rev1 protein. We have isolated a human cDNA homologous to the yeast REV1 gene. The human REV1 cDNA consists of 4255 bp and codes for a protein of 1251 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 138 248 Da. The human REV1 gene is localized between 2q11.1 and 2q11.2. We show that the human REV1 protein is a dCMP transferase that specifically inserts a dCMP residue opposite a DNA template G. In addition, the human REV1 transferase is able to efficiently and specifically insert a dCMP opposite a DNA template apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site or a uracil residue. These results suggest that the REV1 transferase may play a critical role during mutagenic translesion DNA synthesis bypassing a template AP site in human cells. Consistent with its role as a fundamental mutagenic protein, the REV1 gene is ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues.
Project description:The bypass of AP sites in yeast requires the Rev1 protein in addition to the Pol ? translesion synthesis DNA polymerase. Although Rev1 was originally characterized biochemically as a dCMP transferase during AP-site bypass, the relevance of this activity in vivo is unclear. The current study uses highly sensitive frameshift- and nonsense-reversion assays to monitor the bypass of AP sites created when uracil is excised from chromosomal DNA. In the frameshift-reversion assay, an unselected base substitution frequently accompanies the selected mutation, allowing the relative incorporation of each of the four dNMPs opposite endogenously created AP sites to be inferred. Results with this assay suggest that dCMP is the most frequent dNMP inserted opposite uracil-derived AP sites and demonstrate that dCMP insertion absolutely requires the catalytic activity of Rev1. In the complementary nonsense-reversion assay, dCMP insertion likewise depended on the dCMP transferase activity of Rev1. Because dAMP insertion opposite uracil-derived AP sites does not revert the nonsense allele and hence could not be detected, it also was possible to detect low levels of dGMP or dTMP insertion upon loss of Rev1 catalytic activity. These results demonstrate that the catalytic activity of Rev1 is biologically relevant and is required specifically for dCMP insertion during the bypass of endogenous AP sites.
Project description:Translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases mediate DNA damage bypass during replication. The TLS polymerase Rev1 has two important functions in the TLS pathway, including dCMP transferase activity and acting as a scaffolding protein for other TLS polymerases at the C-terminus. Because of the former activity, Rev1 bypasses apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by incorporating dCMP, whereas the latter activity mediates assembly of multipolymerase complexes at the DNA lesions. We generated rev1 mutants lacking each of these two activities in Oryzias latipes (medaka) fish and analyzed cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in response to the alkylating agent diethylnitrosamine (DENA). Mutant lacking the C-terminus was highly sensitive to DENA cytotoxicity, whereas mutant with reduced dCMP transferase activity was slightly sensitive to DENA cytotoxicity, but exhibited a higher tumorigenic rate than wild-type fish. There was no significant difference in the frequency of DENA-induced mutations between mutant with reduced dCMP transferase activity and wild-type cultured cell. However, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) occurred frequently in cells with reduced dCMP transferase activity. LOH is a common genetic event in many cancer types and plays an important role on carcinogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the involvement of the catalytic activity of Rev1 in suppression of LOH.
Project description:Cancer development often involves mutagenic replication of damaged DNA by the error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway. Aberrant activation of this pathway plays a role in tumorigenesis by promoting genetic mutations. Rev1 controls the function of the TLS pathway, and Rev1 expression levels are associated with DNA damage induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. However, it remains unclear whether deregulated Rev1 expression triggers or promotes tumorigenesis in vivo. In this study, we generated a novel Rev1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse and characterized its susceptibility to tumorigenesis. Using a small intestinal tumor model induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), we found that transgenic expression of Rev1 accelerated intestinal adenoma development in proportion to the Rev1 expression level; however, overexpression of Rev1 alone did not cause spontaneous development of intestinal adenomas. In Rev1 Tg mice, MNU-induced mutagenesis was elevated, whereas apoptosis was suppressed. The effects of hREV1 expression levels on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of MNU were confirmed in the human cancer cell line HT1080. These data indicate that dysregulation of cellular Rev1 levels leads to the accumulation of mutations and suppression of cell death, which accelerates the tumorigenic activities of DNA-damaging agents.
Project description:Rev1 is a member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases and is known for its deoxycytidyl transferase activity that incorporates dCMP into DNA and its ability to function as a scaffold factor for other Y-family polymerases in translesion bypass events. Rev1 also is involved in mutagenic processes during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. In light of the mutation pattern consistent with dCMP insertion observed earlier in mouse fibroblast cells treated with a base excision repair-inducing agent, we questioned whether Rev1 could also be involved in base excision repair (BER). Here, we uncovered a weak 5'-deoxyribose phosphate (5'-dRP) lyase activity in mouse Rev1 and demonstrated the enzyme can mediate BER in vitro The full-length Rev1 protein and its catalytic core domain are similar in their ability to support BER in vitro The dRP lyase activity in both of these proteins was confirmed by NaBH4 reduction of the Schiff base intermediate and kinetics studies. Limited proteolysis, mass spectrometry and deletion analysis localized the dRP lyase active site to the C-terminal segment of Rev1's catalytic core domain. These results suggest that Rev1 could serve as a backup polymerase in BER and could potentially contribute to AID-initiated antibody diversification through this activity.
Project description:DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) and Rev1 are essential for the repair of DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage. We have used yeast DNA polymerases ?, ? and Rev1 to study translesion synthesis (TLS) past a nitrogen mustard-based interstrand crosslink (ICL) with an 8-atom linker between the crosslinked bases. The Rev1-Pol ? complex was most efficient in complete bypass synthesis, by 2-3 fold, compared to Pol ? alone or Pol ?. Rev1 protein, but not its catalytic activity, was required for efficient TLS. A dCMP residue was faithfully inserted across the ICL-G by Pol ?, Pol ?, and Rev1-Pol ?. Rev1-Pol ?, and particularly Pol ? alone showed a tendency to stall before the ICL, whereas Pol ? stalled just after insertion across the ICL. The stalling of Pol ? directly past the ICL is attributed to its autoinhibitory activity, caused by elongation of the short ICL-unhooked oligonucleotide (a six-mer in our study) by Pol ? providing a barrier to further elongation of the correct primer. No stalling by Rev1-Pol ? directly past the ICL was observed, suggesting that the proposed function of Pol ? as an extender DNA polymerase is also required for ICL repair.
Project description:DNA polymerase zeta (Polzeta) and Rev1 contribute to the bypassing of DNA lesions, termed translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Polzeta consists of two subunits, one encoded by REV3 (the catalytic subunit) and the other encoded by REV7. Rev1 acts as a deoxycytidyl transferase, inserting dCMP opposite lesions. Polzeta and Rev1 have been shown to operate in the same TLS pathway in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that budding yeast Polzeta and Rev1 form a complex and associate together with double-strand breaks (DSBs). As a component of the Polzeta-Rev1 complex, Rev1 plays a noncatalytic role in the association with DSBs. In budding yeast, the ATR-homolog Mec1 plays a central role in the DNA-damage checkpoint response. We further show that Mec1-dependent phosphorylation promotes the Polzeta-Rev1 association with DSBs. Rev1 association with DSBs requires neither the function of the Rad24 checkpoint-clamp loader nor the Rad6-Rad18-mediated ubiquitination of PCNA. Our results reveal a novel role of Mec1 in the localization of the Polzeta-Rev1 complex to DNA lesions and highlight a linkage of TLS polymerases to the checkpoint response.
Project description:3-(2'-Deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido-[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one (M(1)dG) is the major adduct derived from the reaction of DNA with the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and the DNA peroxidation product base propenal. M(1)dG is mutagenic in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells, inducing base-pair substitutions (M(1)dG → A and M(1)dG → T) and frameshift mutations. Y-family polymerases may contribute to the mutations induced by M(1)dG in vivo. Previous reports described the bypass of M(1)dG by DNA polymerases η and Dpo4. The present experiments were conducted to evaluate bypass of M(1)dG by the human Y-family DNA polymerases κ, ι, and Rev1. M(1)dG was incorporated into template-primers containing either dC or dT residues 5' to the adduct, and the template-primers were subjected to in vitro replication by the individual DNA polymerases. Steady-state kinetic analysis of single nucleotide incorporation indicates that dCMP is most frequently inserted by hPol κ opposite the adduct in both sequence contexts, followed by dTMP and dGMP. dCMP and dTMP were most frequently inserted by hPol ι, and only dCMP was inserted by Rev1. hPol κ extended template-primers in the order M(1)dG:dC > M(1)dG:dG > M(1)dG:dT ∼ M(1)dG:dA, but neither hPol ι nor Rev1 extended M(1)dG-containing template-primers. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the products of hPol κ-catalyzed extension verified this preference in the 3'-GXC-5' template sequence but revealed the generation of a series of complex products in which dAMP is incorporated opposite M(1)dG in the 3'-GXT-5' template sequence. The results indicate that DNA hPol κ or the combined action of hPol ι or Rev1 and hPol κ bypass M(1)dG residues in DNA and generate products that are consistent with some of the mutations induced by M(1)dG in mammalian cells.