Mammary gland factor (MGF) is a novel member of the cytokine regulated transcription factor gene family and confers the prolactin response.
ABSTRACT: Milk protein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells is regulated by the action of the lactogenic hormones insulin, glucocorticoids and prolactin. The mammary gland factor, MGF, has been shown to be a central mediator in the lactogenic hormone response. The DNA binding activity of MGF is hormonally regulated and essential for beta-casein promoter activity. We have used Red A Sepharose- and sequence-specific DNA affinity chromatography to purify MGF from mammary gland tissue of lactating sheep. Proteins of 84 and 92 kDa were obtained, proteolytically digested and the resulting peptides separated by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The 84 and 92 kDa proteins yielded very similar peptide patterns. The amino acid sequence of two peptides was determined. The sequence information was used to derive oligonucleotide probes. A cDNA library from the mRNA of mammary gland tissue of lactating sheep was screened and a molecular clone encoding MGF was isolated. MGF consists of 734 amino acids and has sequence homology with the 113 (Stat113) and 91 kDa (Stat91) components of ISGF3, transcription factors which are signal transducers of IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma. Two species of MGF mRNA of 6.5 and 4.5 kb were detected in mammary gland tissue of lactating sheep. Lower mRNA expression was found in ovary, thymus, spleen, kidney, lung, muscle and the adrenal gland. MGF cDNA was incorporated into a eukaryotic expression vector and cotransfected with a vector encoding the long form of the prolactin receptor into COS cells. A strong MGF-specific bandshift was obtained with nuclear extracts of COS cells induced with prolactin. Treatment of activated MGF with a tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase resulted in the loss of DNA binding activity. Prolactin-dependent transactivation of a beta-casein promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct was observed in transfected cells.
Project description:Lactogenic hormone regulation of beta-casein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells provides an excellent model in which to study the mechanisms by which steroid and peptide hormone signaling control gene expression. Prolactin- and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of beta-casein gene expression involves two principal regulatory regions, a proximal promoter and a distal enhancer located in the mouse approximately -6 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Using a chromosome conformation capture assay and quantitative real time PCR, we demonstrate that a chromatin loop is created in conjunction with the recruitment of specific transcription factors and p300 in HC11 mammary epithelial cells. Stimulation with both prolactin and hydrocortisone is required for the induction of these long range interactions between the promoter and enhancer, and no DNA looping was observed in nontreated cells or cells treated with each of the hormones separately. The lactogenic hormone-induced interaction between the proximal promoter and distal enhancer was confirmed in hormone-treated primary three-dimensional mammary acini cultures. In addition, the developmental regulation of DNA looping between the beta-casein regulatory regions was observed in lactating but not in virgin mouse mammary glands. Furthermore, beta-casein mRNA induction and long range interactions between these regulatory regions were inhibited in a progestin-dependent manner following stimulation with prolactin and hydrocortisone in HC11 cells expressing human PR-B. Collectively, these data suggest that the communication between these regulatory regions with intervening DNA looping is a crucial step required to both create and maintain active chromatin domains and regulate transcription.
Project description:Prolactin (PRL) induces transcriptional activation of milk protein genes, such as the whey acidic protein (WAP), beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin genes, through a signaling cascade encompassing the Janus kinase Jak2 and the mammary gland factor (MGF; also called Stat5), which belongs to the family of proteins of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT). We isolated and sequenced from mouse mammary tissue Stat5 mRNA and a previously unreported member, which we named Stat5b (Stat5 is renamed to Stat5a). On the protein level Stat5a and Stat5b show a 96% sequence similarity. The 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the two mRNAs are not conserved. Stat5a comprises 793 amino acids and is encoded by a mRNA of 4.2 kb. The Stat5b mRNA has a size of 5.6 kb and encodes a protein of 786 amino acids. Both Stat5a and Stat5b recognized the GAS site (gamma-interferon-activating sequence; TTCNNNGAA) in vitro and mediated PRL-induced transcription in COS cells transfected with a PRL receptor. Stat5b also induced basal transcription in the absence of PRL. Similar levels of Stat5a and Stat5b mRNAs were found in most tissues of virgin and lactating mice, but a differential accumulation of the Stat5 mRNAs was found in muscle and mammary tissue. The two RNAs are present in mammary tissue of immature virgin mice, and their levels increase up to day 16 of pregnancy, followed by a decline during lactation. The increase of Stat5 expression during pregnancy coincides with the activation of the WAP gene.
Project description:The lactating mammary gland and pancreas of mouse constitute the main tissues for synthesis and secretion of a bile-salt-stimulated lipase called carboxyl ester lipase (CEL). In this paper we have analysed the endogenous CEL gene expression in mammary gland. It is shown that the gene is expressed at day 14 of pregnancy, which is synchronous with that of the whey acidic protein (WAP) gene. Even though the CEL and WAP genes are induced at the same time during mammary gland differentiation, their regulation is different with respect to dependence on lactogenic hormones. The high induction of the WAP gene expression due to the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 by prolactin has not been observed for the CEL gene, even though it has been demonstrated that both STAT5 isoforms interact with one of the gamma-interferon activation sequence sites in the promoter of the CEL gene. Hence we have demonstrated that the prolactin/STAT5 signal is not involved in a general and significant activation of 'milk genes'. Instead of a direct effect of the lactogenic hormones, the up-regulation of the CEL gene is correlated with an increase in the number of differentiated epithelial cells. Furthermore, promoter studies using the mammary-gland-derived cell line, HC11, show that a major positive element in the CEL gene promoter interacts with a member(s) of the CCAAT-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor 1 family, binding to a palindromic site. Binding of this factor(s) is important for the tissue-specific activation of the CEL gene in the mammary gland, because no activation by this factor(s) was seen in cells of pancreatic origin.
Project description:The development of mammary gland as a lactogenic tissue is a highly coordinated multistep process. The epithelial cells of lactiferous tubules undergo profound changes during the developmental window of puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. Several hormones including estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoids and prolactin act in concert, and orchestrate the development of mammary gland. Understanding the gene regulatory networks that coordinate proliferation and differentiation of HC11 Mammary Epithelial stem-like Cells (MEC) under the influence of lactogenic hormones is critical for elucidating the mechanism of lactogenesis in detail. In this study, we analyzed transcriptome profiles of undifferentiated MEC (normal) and compared them with Murine Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) using next-generation mRNA sequencing. Further, we analyzed the transcriptome output during lactogenic differentiation of MEC following treatment with glucocorticoids (primed state) and both glucocorticoids and prolactin together (prolactin state). We established stage-specific gene regulatory networks in ESC and MEC (normal, priming and prolactin states). We validated the top up-and downregulated genes in each stage of differentiation of MEC by RT-PCR and found that they are comparable with that of RNA-seq data. HC11 MEC display decreased expression of Pou5f1 and Sox2, which is crucial for the differentiation of MEC, which otherwise ensure pluripotency to ESC. Cited4 is induced during priming and is involved in milk secretion. MEC upon exposure to both glucocorticoids and prolactin undergo terminal differentiation, which is associated with the expression of several genes, including Xbp1 and Cbp that are required for cell growth and differentiation. Our study also identified differential expression of transcription factors and epigenetic regulators in each stage of lactogenic differentiation. We also analyzed the transcriptome data for the pathways that are selectively activated during lactogenic differentiation. Further, we found that selective expression of chromatin modulators (Dnmt3l, Chd9) in response to glucocorticoids suggests a highly coordinated stage-specific lactogenic differentiation of MEC.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) is important in the maturation and function of the mammary gland and is present in milk. We have examined whether, in addition to inhibiting lactogenesis, TGF beta exerts acute regulatory effects on lactating mammary cells. The isoform TGF beta 1 at 5 and 50 ng/ml suppressed the onset of lactation and the subsequent production of beta-casein by differentiating mouse mammary explants from pregnant mice. By contrast, it did not inhibit protein synthesis or secretion from acini isolated from lactating-mouse mammary gland or protein secretion from explants from lactating mice. These data indicate that TGF beta inhibits the onset of casein secretion, but is not an acute regulator of casein synthesis or secretion from differentiated lactating mammary cells.
Project description:1. Explants of mammary tissue from pseudopregnant rabbits were cultured at 37 degrees C in air for 24-48h in Medium 199 buffered with 20mm-Hepes [4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-ethanesulphonic acid]. The medium contained insulin and corticosterone, or insulin, corticosterone and sheep prolactin in the presence or absence of ouabain, an inhibitor of Na(+)/K(+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase. The responses of explants were assessed histologically, by measuring the tissue concentration of K(+), and by rates of synthesis of RNA, protein and fatty acids. The effect of ouabain on Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in slices of lactating rabbit mammary-gland tissue incubated for 1h at 37 degrees C in Krebs bicarbonate buffer was also studied. 2. Prolactin increased the concentration of K(+) in mammary explants, an effect prevented by ouabain. In slices of lactating tissue, there was a linear relationship between the log dose of ouabain (from 0.1 to 10mum) and increased Na(+) and decreased K(+) concentrations in the tissue. 3. Ouabain at concentrations up to 1mum did not affect the rate of synthesis of RNA, protein or fatty acids by explants cultured with insulin and corticosterone. By contrast, the stimulatory effect of prolactin on protein synthesis was diminished and the induction of medium-chain fatty acid synthesis by prolactin was almost abolished. RNA synthesis was unaffected. Histological examination showed no tissue damage by 1mum-ouabain. 4. Explants cultured in the presence of 2mum-ouabain for 24h retained their ability to respond to prolactin when the ouabain was removed from the culture medium. Between 24 and 48h they showed responses to prolactin of a magnitude similar to those of explants never exposed to ouabain. 5. These results show that a fully functional Na(+)/K(+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase system is necessary for prolactin to promote secretory activity in rabbit mammary gland.
Project description:Pten is a tumor suppressor gene regulating many cellular processes, including growth, adhesion, and apoptosis. In the aim of investigating the role of Pten during mammary gland development and lactation of dairy cows, we analyzed Pten expression levels in the mammary glands of dairy cows by using western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) were used to study the function of Pten in vitro. We determined concentrations of ?-casein, triglyceride, and lactose in the culture medium following Pten overexpression and siRNA inhibition. To determine whether Pten affected DCMEC viability and proliferation, cells were analyzed by CASY-TT and flow cytometry. Genes involved in lactation-related signaling pathways were detected. Pten expression was also assessed by adding prolactin and glucose to cell cultures. When Pten was overexpressed, proliferation of DCMECs and concentrations for ?-casein, triglyceride, and lactose were significantly decreased. Overexpression of Pten down-regulated expression of MAPK, CYCLIN D1, AKT, MTOR, S6K1, STAT5, SREBP1, PPAR?, PRLR, and GLUT1, but up-regulated 4EBP1 in DCMECs. The Pten siRNA inhibition experiments revealed results that opposed those from the gene overexpression experiments. Introduction of prolactin (PRL) increased secretion of ?-casein, triglyceride, and lactose, but decreased Pten expression levels. Introduction of glucose also increased ?-casein and triglyceride concentrations, but did not significantly alter Pten expression levels. The Pten mRNA and protein expression levels were decreased 0.3- and 0.4-fold in mammary glands of lactating cows producing high quality milk (milk protein >3.0%, milk fat >3.5%), compared with those cows producing low quality milk (milk protein <3.0%, milk fat <3.5%). In conclusion, Pten functions as an inhibitor during mammary gland development and lactation in dairy cows. It can down-regulate DCMECs secretion of ?-casein, triglyceride, and lactose, and plays a critical role in lactation related signaling pathways.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Ras mitogenic signal transduction pathways are frequently activated in breast carcinoma and inhibit mammary differentiation and apoptosis. HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells, which differentiate and synthesize beta-casein following growth to confluency and stimulation with lactogenic hormones, were used to study EGF-dependent signaling during differentiation. Blocking Mek-Erk or phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) signaling with specific chemical inhibitors enhanced beta-casein promotor-driven luciferase activity. Because EGF stimulation of HC11 cells resulted in the activation of Ras, the effect of activated Ras (RasV12) or dominant negative (DNRasN17) on lactogen induced differentiation was examined. HC11 cell lines expressing RasV12 or DNRasN17 under the control of a tetracycline (tet)-responsive promotor were constructed. Activated RasV12 expression resulted in reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 and a delay in beta-casein expression in response to prolactin. However, the expression of tet-regulated DNRasN17 and adenovirus-encoded DNRasN17 enhanced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation, Stat5 DNA binding, and beta-casein transcription. The expression of DNRasN17 blocked the activation of the Mek-Erk pathway by EGF but did not prevent the phosphorylation of AKT, a measure of activation of the PI-3-kinase pathway. Moreover, the expression of DNRasN17 prevented the block to lactogenic differentiation induced by EGF. Stimulation of HC11 cells with prolactin resulted in the association of the SHP2 phosphatase with Stat5, and this association was prevented by DNRasN17 expression. These results demonstrate that in HC11 cells DNRas inhibits the Mek-Erk pathway and enhances lactogenic hormone-induced differentiation. This occurs, in part, by inhibiting the association of the SHP2 phosphatase with Stat5.
Project description:The study of the development of the mammary gland at the molecular level in the animal is difficult because of the complex tissue organization of the gland. We have previously developed an in vitro system for genetic analysis of mammary cell differentiation, based on the cell line LA7 clonally derived from a rat mammary adenocarcinoma. This cell line, after induction with DMSO, differentiates forming structures called domes. This process is under strict gene regulation, and we have previously identified several of the genes involved. In the present paper, we have defined the meaning of dome formation in relation to mammary development, by showing that treatment of LA7 cells with the lactogenic hormones hydrocortisone and prolactin induces dome formation; in the animal, these hormones precede and accompany milk production. Moreover, dome formation is accompanied by expression within the cells of the milk protein genes WDMN1 and beta-casein, which are differentiation markers for the gland during pregnancy and lactation. We also show that two proteins, highly expressed in the mammary gland during lactation, HSP90-beta and annexin I, are strongly expressed in DMSO-induced LA7 cells. Both proteins are essential in the formation of domes because when their synthesis is blocked by antisense RNA oligonucleotides, dome formation is abolished. Thus our in vitro system is a model for lobulo-alveolar development, and the genes identified in the pathway of dome formation are likely to be involved in the early differentiation steps occurring in the rat mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation.
Project description:The production of therapeutic proteins from transgenic animals is one of the most important successes of animal biotechnology. Milk is presently the most mature system for production of therapeutic proteins from a transgenic animal. Specifically, ?-casein is a major component of cow, goat and sheep milk, and its promoter has been used to regulate the expression of transgenic genes in the mammary gland of transgenic animals. Here, we cloned the porcine ?-casein gene and analyzed the transcriptional activity of the promoter and intron 1 region of the porcine ?-casein gene. Sequence inspection of the 5'-flanking region revealed potential DNA elements including SRY, CdxA, AML-a, GATA-3, GATA-1 and C/EBP ?. In addition, the first intron of the porcine ?-casein gene contained the transcriptional enhancers Oct-1, SRY, YY1, C/EBP ?, and AP-1, as well as the retroviral TATA box. We estimated the transcriptional activity for the 5'-proximal region with or without intron 1 of the porcine ?-casein gene in HC11 cells stimulated with lactogenic hormones. High transcriptional activity was obtained for the 5'-proximal region with intron 1 of the porcine ?-casein gene. The ?-casein gene containing the mutant TATA box (CATAAAA) was also cloned from another individual pig. Promoter activity of the luciferase vector containing the mutant TATA box was weaker than the same vector containing the normal TATA box. Taken together, these findings suggest that the transcription of porcine ?-casein gene is regulated by lactogenic hormone via intron 1 and promoter containing a mutant TATA box (CATAAAA) has poor porcine ?-casein gene activity.