Phosphotyrosine profiling of NSCLC cells in response to EGF and HGF reveals network specific mediators of invasion.
ABSTRACT: Growth factor signaling is deregulated in cancer and often leads to invasion, yet receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways driving invasion under different growth factor conditions are not well understood. To identify specific signaling molecules regulating invasion of A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Met, quantitative site-specific mass spectrometric analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation was performed following epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation, at three different growth factor concentrations and at two time points. Through this analysis, the temporal and concentration dependent phosphorylation profiles were obtained for 131 and 139 sites downstream of EGF and HGF stimulation, respectively. To characterize the effect of these signaling network alterations, we quantified 3D cell migration/invasion through Matrigel. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) analysis was performed to identify the tyrosine phosphorylation sites most strongly correlated with EGF and/or HGF mediated invasion. Potential common and specific signaling events required for driving invasion downstream of EGFR and Met were identified using either a combined or two independent PLSR models, based on the quantitative EGF or HGF data. Our data highlight the integration and compartmentalization of signaling required for invasion in cancer.
Project description:Aberrant activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and its receptor, Met, is involved in the development and progression of many human cancers. In the cell-based screening assay, (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited HGF/SF-Met signaling as indicated by its inhibitory activity on HGF/SF-induced cell scattering and uPA activation (IC50=15.8 microgram/ml). Further analysis revealed that EGCG at low doses specifically inhibited HGF/SF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Met but not epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR). On the other hand, high-dose EGCG decreased both Met and EGFR proteins. We also found that EGCG did not act on the intracellular portion of Met receptor tyrosine kinase, i.e., it inhibited InlB-dependent activation of Met but not NGF-induced activation of Trk-Met hybrid receptor. This inhibition decreased HGF-induced migration and invasion by parental or HGF/SF-transfected B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro in either a paracrine or autocrine manner. Furthermore, EGCG inhibited the invasion/metastasis of HGF/SF-transfected B16F10 melanoma cells in mice. Our data suggest the possible use of EGCG in human cancers associated with dysregulated paracrine or autocrine HGF/SF-Met signaling.
Project description:Hrs (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) and STAM (signal-transducing adaptor molecule) form a heterodimeric complex that associates with endosomal membranes and is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to a variety of growth factors including EGF (epidermal growth factor), HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor). Phosphorylation of the Hrs-STAM complex requires receptor endocytosis. We show that an intact UIM (ubiquitin interaction motif) within Hrs is a conserved requirement for Hrs phosphorylation downstream of both EGF and HGF stimulations. Consistent with this, expression of a dominant-negative form of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, c-Cbl, inhibits EGF- and HGF-dependent Hrs phosphorylation. Despite this conservation, kinase inhibitor profiles using PP1 (4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) and SU6656 indicate that distinct non-receptor tyrosine kinases couple EGF, HGF and PDGF stimulation with the tyrosine phosphorylation of the Hrs-STAM complex. Crucially, analysis with phospho-specific antibodies indicates that these kinases generate a signal-specific, combinatorial phosphorylation profile of the Hrs-STAM complex, with the potential of diversifying tyrosine kinase receptor signalling through a common element.
Project description:Recent clinical trials investigating receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors showed a limited clinical response in medulloblastoma. The present study investigated the role of micro-environmental growth factors expressed in the brain, such as HGF and EGF, in relation to the effects of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) and epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB1-4) inhibition in medulloblastoma cell lines. Medulloblastoma cell lines were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors crizotinib or canertinib, targeting MET and ErbB1-4, respectively. Upon treatment, cells were stimulated with VEGF-A, PDGF-AB, HGF, FGF-2 or EGF. Subsequently, we measured cell viability and expression levels of growth factors and downstream signaling proteins. Addition of HGF or EGF phosphorylated MET or EGFR, respectively, and demonstrated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 as well as increased tumor cell viability. Crizotinib and canertinib both inhibited cell viability and phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Specifically targeting MET using shRNA's resulted in decreased cell viability. Interestingly, addition of HGF to canertinib significantly enhanced cell viability as well as phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. The HGF-induced bypass of canertinib was reversed by addition of crizotinib. HGF protein was hardly released by medulloblastoma cells itself. Addition of canertinib did not affect RTK cell surface or growth factor expression levels. This manuscript points to the bypassing capacity of exogenous HGF in medulloblastoma cell lines. It might be of great interest to anticipate on these results in developing novel clinical trials with a combination of MET and EGFR inhibitors in medulloblastoma.
Project description:The mechanisms and biological implications of coordinated receptor tyrosine kinase coactivation remain poorly appreciated. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met are frequently coexpressed in cancers, including those associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, such as malignant astrocytoma. In a previous analysis of the HGF-induced transcriptome, we found that two EGFR agonists, transforming growth factor-alpha and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), are prominently up-regulated by HGF in human glioma cells. We now report that stimulating human glioblastoma cells with recombinant HGF induces biologically relevant EGFR activation. EGFR phosphorylation at Tyr(845) and Tyr(1068) increased 6 to 24 h after cell stimulation with HGF and temporally coincided with the induction of transforming growth factor-alpha (~5-fold) and HB-EGF (~23-fold) expression. Tyr(845) and Tyr(1068) phosphorylation, in response to HGF, was inhibited by cycloheximide and actinomycin D, consistent with a requirement for DNA transcription and RNA translation. Specifically, blocking HB-EGF binding to EGFR with the antagonist CRM197 inhibited HGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation by 60% to 80% and inhibited HGF-induced S-G(2)-M transition. CRM197 also inhibited HGF-induced anchorage-dependent cell proliferation but had no effect on HGF-mediated cytoprotection. These findings establish that EGFR can be activated with functional consequences by HGF as a result of EGFR ligand expression. This transcription-dependent cross-talk between the HGF receptor c-Met and EGFR expands our understanding of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling networks and may have considerable consequences for oncogenic mechanisms and cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Cabozantinib is known as an inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases mainly targeting AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL), MET proto-oncogene-encoded receptor tyrosine kinase (MET), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. Growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the natural ligands of AXL and MET, respectively, are associated with the induction of cancer cell proliferation or metastasis. Currently, it is still unclear how cabozantinib regulates cancer cell migration and invasion by inhibiting AXL and MET. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of cabozantinib through regulation of AXL and MET signaling. The results of Boyden chamber assays showed that cancer cell migration was induced by GAS6 and HGF in SKOV3 cells in serum-free medium. Combinatorial treatment with GAS6 and HGF exerted an additive effect on cell migration. Furthermore, we examined the role of AXL and MET signaling in cell migration. Short interfering RNA targeting AXL and MET inhibited GAS6- and HGF-induced migration, respectively. Double knockdown of AXL and MET completely suppressed cell migration induced by combination treatment with GAS6 and HGF compared to AXL or MET inhibition alone. Finally, we investigated the effects of cabozantinib on cell migration and invasion. Cabozantinib inhibited AXL and MET phosphorylation and downregulated the downstream mediators, phosphorylated SRC in the presence of both GAS6 and HGF in SKOV3 cells. The cell migration and invasion induced by combined GAS6 and HGF treatment were suppressed by cabozantinib, but not by capmatinib, a selective MET inhibitor. Our data indicate that the GAS6-AXL and HGF-MET signal pathways markedly contribute to cancer cell migration and invasion in an independent manner, suggesting that simultaneous inhibition of these two pathways contributes to the anti-cancer effects of cabozantinib.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand, the Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scattor Factor (HGF/SF), are essential to the migration, morphogenesis, and survival of epithelial cells. In addition, dysregulation of MET signaling has been shown to promote tumor progression and invasion in many cancers. Therefore, HGF/SF and MET are major targets for chemotherapies. Improvement of targeted therapies requires a perfect understanding of tumor microenvironment that strongly modifies half-life, bio-accessibility and thus, efficacy of treatments. In particular, hypoxia is a crucial microenvironmental phenomenon promoting invasion and resistance to treatments. Under hypoxia, MET auto-phosphorylation resulting from ligand stimulation or from receptor overexpression is drastically decreased within minutes of oxygen deprivation but is quickly reversible upon return to normoxia. Besides a decreased phosphorylation of its proximal adaptor GAB1 under hypoxia, activation of the downstream kinases Erk and Akt is maintained, while still being dependent on MET receptor. Consistently, several cellular responses induced by HGF/SF, including motility, morphogenesis, and survival are effectively induced under hypoxia. Interestingly, using a semi-synthetic ligand, we show that HGF/SF binding to MET is strongly impaired during hypoxia but can be quickly restored upon reoxygenation. Finally, we show that two MET-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are less efficient on MET signalling under hypoxia. Like MET loss of phosphorylation, this hypoxia-induced resistance to TKIs is reversible under normoxia. Thus, although hypoxia does not affect downstream signaling or cellular responses induced by MET, it causes immediate resistance to TKIs. These results may prove useful when designing and evaluation of MET-targeted therapies against cancer.
Project description:The c-Met receptor is a potential therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Signaling interactions between c-Met and the mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been studied extensively, but signaling intermediates and biological consequences of lateral signaling to c-Met in EGFR wild-type tumors are minimally understood. Our observations indicate that delayed c-Met activation in NSCLC cell lines is initiated by wild-type EGFR, the receptor most often found in NSCLC tumors. EGFR ligands induce accumulation of activated c-Met, which begins at 8?h and continues for 48?h. This effect is accompanied by an increase in c-Met expression and phosphorylation of critical c-Met tyrosine residues without activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt. Gene transcription is required for delayed c-Met activation; however, phosphorylation of c-Met by EGFR occurs without production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or another secreted factor, supporting a ligand-independent mechanism. Lateral signaling is blocked by two selective c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), PF2341066 and SU11274, or with gefitinib, an EGFR TKI, suggesting kinase activity of both receptors is required for this effect. Prolonged c-Src phosphorylation is observed, and c-Src pathway is essential for EGFR to c-Met communication. Pretreatment with pan-Src family kinase inhibitors, PP2 and dasatinib, abolishes delayed c-Met phosphorylation. A c-Src dominant-negative construct reduces EGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation compared with control, further confirming a c-Src requirement. Inhibition of c-Met with PF2341066 and siRNA decreases EGF-induced phenotypes of invasion by ~86% and motility by ~81%, suggesting that a novel form of c-Met activation is utilized by EGFR to maximize these biological effects. Combined targeting of c-Met and EGFR leads to increased xenograft antitumor activity, demonstrating that inhibition of downstream and lateral signaling from the EGFR-c-Src-c-Met axis might be effective in treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Both TGF-? and the PI3K-AKT signaling pathways are known activators of various intracellular pathways that regulate critical cellular functions, including cancer cell survival and proliferation. The interplay between these two oncogenic pathways plays a major role in promoting the initiation, growth, and progression of tumors, including breast cancers. The molecular underpinning of the inter-relationship between these pathways is, however, not fully understood, as is the role of WAVE3 phosphorylation in the regulation of tumor growth and progression. WAVE3 has been established as a major driver of the invasion-metastasis cascade in breast cancer and other tumors of epithelial origin. WAVE3 phosphorylation downstream of PI3K was also shown to regulate cell migration. Here we show that, in addition to PI3K, WAVE3 tyrosine phosphorylation can also be achieved downstream of TGF-? and EGF and that WAVE3 tyrosine phosphorylation is required for its oncogenic activity. Our in vitro analyses found loss of WAVE3 phosphorylation to significantly inhibit cell migration, as well as tumorsphere growth and invasion. In mouse models for breast cancer, loss of WAVE3 phosphorylation inhibited tumor growth of two aggressive breast cancer cell lines of triple-negative subtype. More importantly, we found that WAVE3 phosphorylation is also required for the activation of PI3K, TGF-?, and EGF signaling and their respective downstream effectors. Therefore, our study identified a novel function for WAVE3 in the regulation of breast cancer development and progression through the modulation of a positive feedback loop between WAVE3 and PI3K-TGF-?-EGF signaling pathways.
Project description:During breast cancer progression, alternative mRNA splicing produces functionally distinct isoforms of Mena, an actin regulator with roles in cell migration and metastasis. Aggressive tumor cell subpopulations express Mena(INV), which promotes tumor cell invasion by potentiating EGF responses. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we report that Mena associates constitutively with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and mediates a novel negative feedback mechanism that attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. On EGF stimulation, complexes containing Mena and PTP1B are recruited to the EGFR, causing receptor dephosphorylation and leading to decreased motility responses. Mena also interacts with the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP2, which is important for the recruitment of the Mena-PTP1B complex to the EGFR. When Mena(INV) is expressed, PTP1B recruitment to the EGFR is impaired, providing a mechanism for growth factor sensitization to EGF, as well as HGF and IGF, and increased resistance to EGFR and Met inhibitors in signaling and motility assays. In sum, we demonstrate that Mena plays an important role in regulating growth factor-induced signaling. Disruption of this attenuation by Mena(INV) sensitizes tumor cells to low-growth factor concentrations, thereby increasing the migration and invasion responses that contribute to aggressive, malignant cell phenotypes.
Project description:Aberrant activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and its receptor, Met, is involved in the development and progression of many human cancers. In the screening assay of extracts from the root tuber of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg, isoquercitrin inhibited HGF/SF-Met signaling as indicated by its inhibitory activity on HGF/SF-induced cell scattering. Further analysis revealed that isoquercitrin specifically inhibited HGF/SF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Met. We also found that isoquercitrin decreased HGF-induced migration and invasion by parental or HGF/SF-transfected bladder carcinoma cell line NBT-II cells. Furthermore, isoquercitrin inhibited HGF/SF-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in vitro and the invasion/metastasis of HGF/SF-transfected NBT-II cells in vivo. Our data suggest the possible use of isoquercitrin in human cancers associated with dysregulated HGF/SF-Met signaling.