TLR9 and MyD88 are crucial for the maturation and activation of dendritic cells by paromomycin-miltefosine combination therapy in visceral leishmaniasis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The combination of paromomycin-miltefosine is a successful anti-leishmanial therapy in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This encouraged us to study its effect on Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immunomodulation of dendritic cells (DC), as DC maturation and activation is crucial for anti-leishmanial activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In silico protein-ligand interaction and biophysical characterization of TLR9-drug interaction was performed. Interaction assays of HEK293 cells with different concentrations of miltefosine and/or paromomycin were performed, and NF-?B promoter activity measured. The role of TLR9 and MyD88 in paromomycin/miltefosine-induced maturation and activation of DCs was evaluated through RNA interference techniques. The effect of drugs on DCs was measured in terms of counter-regulatory production of IL-12 over IL-10, and characterized by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay at the molecular level. KEY RESULTS: Computational and biophysical studies revealed that paromomycin/miltefosine interact with TLR9. Both drugs, as a monotherapy/combination, induced TLR9-dependent NF-?B promoter activity through MyD88. Moreover, the drug combination induced TLR9/MyD88-dependent functional maturation of DCs, evident as an up-regulation of co-stimulatory markers, enhanced antigen presentation by increasing MHC II expression, and increased stimulation of naive T-cells to produce IFN-?. Both drugs, by modifying histone H3 at the promoter level, increased the release of IL-12, but down-regulated IL-10 in a TLR9-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results provide the first evidence that the combination of paromomycin-miltefosine critically modifies the maturation, activation and development of host DCs through a mechanism dependent on TLR9 and MyD88. This has implications for evaluating the success of other combination anti-leishmanial therapies that act by targeting host DCs.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent of septicemia and meningitis. Knowledge on host immune responses towards S. suis, and strategies used by this pathogen for subversion of these responses is scarce. The objective of this study was to identify the immune receptors involved in S. suis recognition by dendritic cells (DCs). Production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules by DCs were shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize S. suis and become activated mostly through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Supporting this fact, TLR2(-/-) DCs were severely impaired in the release of several cytokines and the surface expression of CD86 and MHC-II. The release of IL-12p70 and CXC10, and the expression of CD40 were found to depend on signaling by both TLR2 and TLR9. The release of IL-23 and CXCL1 were partially dependent on NOD2. Finally, despite the fact that MyD88 signaling was crucial for DC activation and maturation, MyD88-dependent pathways were not implicated in S. suis internalization by DCs. This first study on receptors involved in DC activation by S. suis suggests a major involvement of MyD88 signaling pathways, mainly (but not exclusively) through TLR2. A multimodal recognition involving a combination of different receptors seems essential for DC effective response to S. suis.
Project description:Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that induces MyD88-dependent IL-12 production in dentritic cells (DCs) and a subsequent protective Th1 immune response. Previous studies have shown that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is required for tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) production, whereas TLR9 is responsible for IL-12 induction in DCs after exposure to heat-killed Brucella abortus (HKBA). TLR2 is located on the cell surface and is required for optimal microorganism-induced phagocytosis by innate immune cells; thus, phagocytosis is an indispensable preliminary step for bacterial genomic DNA recognition by TLR9 in late-endosomal compartments. Here, we hypothesized that TLR2-triggered signals after HKBA stimulation might cross-regulate TLR9 signaling through the indirect modulation of the phagocytic function of DCs or the direct modulation of cytokine gene expression. Our results indicate that HKBA phagocytosis was TLR2-dependent and an essential step for IL-12p40 induction. In addition, HKBA exposure triggered the TLR2-mediated activation of both p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Interestingly, although p38 was required for HKBA phagocytosis and phagosome maturation, ERK1/2 did not affect these processes but negatively regulated IL-12 production. Although p38 inhibitors tempered both TNF and IL-12 responses to HKBA, pre-treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor significantly increased IL-12p40 and abrogated TNF production in HKBA-stimulated DCs. Further experiments showed that the signaling events that mediated ERK1/2 activation after TLR2 triggering also required HKBA-induced Ras activation. Furthermore, Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1) mediated the TLR2-induced ERK1/2 activation and inhibition of IL-12p40 production. Taken together, our results demonstrated that HKBA-mediated TLR2-triggering activates both the p38 and ERK1/2 signaling subpathways, which divergently regulate TLR9 activation at several levels to induce an appropriate protective IL-12 response.
Project description:Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is expressed intracellularly by dendritic cells (DCs) and specifically recognizes unmethylated CpG motif. Recognition of TLR9 to CpG DNA can induce DC maturation followed by the subsequent immune responses. Here, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to identify the effect of CpG DNA signaling on DC function. The results showed that transfection of DCs with siRNA specific for TLR9 gene significantly down-regulated TLR9 expression. Immature DCs transfected with TLR9 siRNA did not differentiate into mature DCs with exposure to CpG. TLR9 siRNA-treated DCs expressed low levels of MHC II and CD40 without reducing endocytosis. Furthermore, TLR9 siRNA-transfected DCs exhibited a decreased allostimulatory capacity in a lymphocyte proliferation assay and attenuated Th1 responses by decreasing IL-12p70 production. Our findings indicate that siRNA in silencing TLR9 gene in DCs may offer a potential tool to study the TLR9-CpG pathway.
Project description:The innate immune system of humans recognizes the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans via sugar polymers present in the cell wall, such as mannan and beta-glucan. Here, we examined whether nucleic acids from C. albicans activate dendritic cells. C. albicans DNA induced interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40) production and CD40 expression by murine bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells (BM-DCs) in a dose-dependent manner. BM-DCs that lacked Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and dectin-1, which are pattern recognition receptors for fungal cell wall components, produced IL-12p40 at levels comparable to the levels produced by BM-DCs from wild-type mice, and DNA from a C. albicans pmr1Delta null mutant, which has a gross defect in mannosylation, retained the ability to activate BM-DCs. This stimulatory effect disappeared completely after DNase treatment. In contrast, RNase treatment increased production of the cytokine. A similar reduction in cytokine production was observed when BM-DCs from TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice were used. In a luciferase reporter assay, NF-kappaB activation was detected in TLR9-expressing HEK293T cells stimulated with C. albicans DNA. Confocal microscopic analysis showed similar localization of C. albicans DNA and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) in BM-DCs. Treatment of C. albicans DNA with methylase did not affect its ability to induce IL-12p40 synthesis, whereas the same treatment completely eliminated the ability of CpG-ODN to induce IL-12p40 synthesis. Finally, impaired clearance of this fungal pathogen was not found in the kidneys of TLR9(-/-) mice. These results suggested that C. albicans DNA activated BM-DCs through a TLR9-mediated signaling pathway using a mechanism independent of the unmethylated CpG motif.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>AmBisome therapy for VL has an excellent efficacy and safety profile and has been adopted as a first-line regimen in Bangladesh. Second-line treatment options are limited and should preferably be given in short course combinations in order to prevent the development of resistant strains. Combination regimens including AmBisome, paromomycin and miltefosine have proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of VL in India. In the present study, the safety and efficacy of these same combinations were assessed in field conditions in Bangladesh.<h4>Methods</h4>The safety and efficacy of three combination regimens: a 5 mg/kg single dose of AmBisome + 7 subsequent days of miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day), a 5 mg/kg single dose of AmBisome + 10 subsequent days of paromomycin (15 mg/kg/day) and 10 days of paromomycin (15 mg/kg/day) + miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day), were compared with a standard regimen of AmBisome 15 mg/kg given in 5 mg/kg doses on days 1, 3 and 5. This was a phase III open label, individually randomized clinical trial. Patients from 5 to 60 years with uncomplicated primary VL were recruited from the Community Based Medical College Bangladesh (CBMC,B) and the Upazila Health Complexes of Trishal, Bhaluka and Fulbaria (all located in Mymensingh district), and randomly assigned to one of the treatments. The objective was to assess safety and definitive cure at 6 months after treatment.<h4>Results</h4>601 patients recruited between July 2010 and September 2013 received either AmBisome monotherapy (n = 158), AmBisome + paromomycin (n = 159), AmBisome + miltefosine (n = 142) or paromomycin + miltefosine (n = 142). At 6 months post- treatment, final cure rates for the intention-to-treat population were 98.1% (95%CI 96.0-100) for AmBisome monotherapy, 99.4% (95%CI 98.2-100) for the AmBisome + paromomycin arm, 94.4% (95%CI 90.6-98.2) for the AmBisome + miltefosine arm, and 97.9% (95%CI 95.5-100) for paromomycin + miltefosine arm. There were 12 serious adverse events in the study in 11 patients that included 3 non-study drug related deaths. There were no relapses or PKDL up to 6 months follow-up. All treatments were well tolerated with no unexpected side effects. Adverse events were most frequent during treatment with miltefosine + paromomycin, three serious adverse events related to the treatment occurred in this arm, all of which resolved.<h4>Conclusion</h4>None of the combinations were inferior to AmBisome in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. All the combinations demonstrated excellent overall efficacy, were well tolerated and safe, and could be deployed under field conditions in Bangladesh. The trial was conducted by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) and the Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College (ShSMC), Dhaka, in collaboration with the trial sites and sponsored by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi).<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01122771.
Project description:Excessive type 2 helper T cell responses to environmental antigens can cause immunopathology such as asthma and allergy, but how such immune responses are induced remains unclear. We studied this process in the airways by immunizing mice intranasally with the antigen ovalbumin together with either of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We found the TLR5 ligand flagellin promoted a type 2 helper T cell response, whereas, a TLR9 ligand CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) promoted a type 1 helper T cell response. CpG ODN induced mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-12 p40, whereas, flagellin caused IL-33 secretion and induced mRNAs encoding IL-1 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). By using mice deficient in the TLR and IL-1R signaling molecule, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs), and by cell sorting different lung populations after 2 hours of in vivo stimulation, we characterized the cell types that rapidly produced inflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation. CpG ODN was likely recognized by TLR9 on cDCs and AMs, which made mRNA encoding IL-12. IL-12 was necessary for the subsequent innate and adaptive interferon-γ production. In contrast, flagellin stimulated multiple cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin, including AMs, DCs, monocytes, and lung epithelial cells. AMs were largely responsible for IL-1α, whereas lung epithelial cells made TSLP. Multiple hematopoietic cells, including AMs, DCs, and monocytes contributed to other cytokines, including IL-1β and TNFα. MyD88-dependent signals, likely through IL-1R and IL-33R, and MyD88-independent signals, likely from TSLP, were necessary in cDCs for promotion of the early IL-4 response by CD4 T cells in the draining lymph node. Thus, the cell types that responded to TLR ligands were a critical determinant of the innate cytokines produced and the character of the resulting adaptive immune response in the airways.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pentavalent antimonials are still the first choice treatment for leishmaniasis, but with low efficacy and resistance is emerging. In the present study, the effect of meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime) combined with paromomycin, miltefosine or allopurinol on in vitro susceptibility of Leishmania tropica resistant isolate was evaluated. METHOD:The drugs were obtained from commercial sources and diluents of each drug in medium were prepared on the day of experiment. J774 A.1 murine macrophage cell lines were attached to the cultured on slide and incubated at 37 °C with 5% CO2 for 24 h. Then the stationary phase promastigotes were added to the cells and after 4 hrs of incubation different concentrations of MA, paromomycin, miltefosine or allopurinol were added and incubated for an additional of 72 h. Then the slides were dried and fixed with methanol, stained by Giemsa and studied under a light microscope. Drug activity was evaluated by assessing the macrophage infection rate and the number of amastigotes per infected macrophage was done by examining 100 macrophages. The experiment was done in triplicates. RESULT:Various concentrations of MA along with paromomycin, miltefosine or allopurinol significantly inhibited (P<0.01) the proliferation of L. tropica amastigote stage in the macrophage cell line as compared with MA alone or positive control. CONCLUSION:Combination of Glucantime with paromomycin, miltefosine or allopurinol showed a synergistic effect on the clinical isolate of L. tropica in vitro. Use of combination therapy is a new hope and a logical basis for therapy of the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of these drugs on the CL patients.
Project description:Effective resolution of malaria infection by avoiding pathogenesis requires regulated pro- to anti-inflammatory responses and the development of protective immunity. TLRs are known to be critical for initiating innate immune responses, but their roles in the regulation of immune responses and development of protective immunity to malaria remain poorly understood. In this study, using wild-type, TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), TLR9(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, we show that TLR9 and MyD88 regulate pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines, Th1/Th2 development, and cellular and humoral responses. Dendritic cells from TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice produced significantly lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines than dendritic cells from wild-type mice. NK and CD8(+) T cells from TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice showed markedly impaired cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, mice deficient in TLR9 and MyD88 showed higher Th2-type and lower Th1-type IgGs. Consequently, TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice exhibited compromised ability to control parasitemia and were susceptible to death. Our data also show that TLR9 and MyD88 distinctively regulate immune responses to malaria infection. TLR9(-/-) but not MyD88(-/-) mice produced significant levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1? and IL-18, by other TLRs/inflammasome- and/or IL-1R/IL-18R-mediated signaling. Thus, whereas MyD88(-/-) mice completely lacked cell-mediated immunity, TLR9(-/-) mice showed low levels of cell-mediated immunity and were slightly more resistant to malaria infection than MyD88(-/-) mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that TLR9 and MyD88 play central roles in the immune regulation and development of protective immunity to malaria, and have implications in understanding immune responses to other pathogens.
Project description:The systemic clinical symptoms of Plasmodium falciparum infection such as fever and chills correspond to the proinflammatory cytokines produced in response to the parasite components released during the synchronized rupture of schizonts. We recently demonstrated that, among the schizont-released products, merozoites are the predominant components that activate dendritic cells (DCs) by TLR9-specific recognition to induce the maturation of cells and to produce proinflammatory cytokines. We also demonstrated that DNA is the active constituent and that formation of a DNA-protein complex is essential for the entry of parasite DNA into cells for recognition by TLR9. However, the nature of endogenous protein-DNA complex in the parasite is not known. In this study, we show that parasite nucleosome constitute the major protein-DNA complex involved in the activation of DCs by parasite nuclear material. The parasite components were fractionated into the nuclear and non-nuclear materials. The nuclear material was further fractionated into chromatin and the proteins loosely bound to chromatin. Polynucleosomes and oligonucleosomes were prepared from the chromatin. These were tested for their ability to activate DCs obtained by the FLT3 ligand differentiation of bone marrow cells from the wild type, and TLR2(-/-), TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice. DCs stimulated with the nuclear material and polynucleosomes as well as mono- and oligonucleosomes efficiently induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in a TLR9-dependent manner, demonstrating that nucleosomes (histone-DNA complex) represent the major TLR9-specific DC-immunostimulatory component of the malaria parasite nuclear material. Thus, our data provide a significant insight into the activation of DCs by malaria parasites and have important implications for malaria vaccine development.
Project description:CpG-ODN stimulates dendritic cells (DCs) to produce cytokines, which are important for pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders and vaccine strategy for cancer. CpG-ODN activates the TLR9/MyD88/TRAF6 cascade leading to activation of IKK-NF-?B and JNK, which are critical for production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, whether other molecules are involved in activation of CpG-ODN signaling is still not clear. Here we report that the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is involved in this activation process. DNA-PKcs-deficient DCs exhibited a defect in the IL-6 and IL-12 response to CpG-ODN in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Loss of DNA-PKcs impaired phosphorylation of IKK, I?B?, NF-?B and JNK in response to CpG-ODN. Interestingly, CpG-ODN was able to bind DNA-PKcs and induce its association and co-localization with TRAF6 in the absence of TLR9. Our data suggest that DNA-PKcs is a player in CpG-ODN signaling and may explain why DNA-PKcs is implicated in the pathogenic process of autoimmune disease.