Oral mycobiome analysis of HIV-infected patients: identification of Pichia as an antagonist of opportunistic fungi.
ABSTRACT: Oral microbiota contribute to health and disease, and their disruption may influence the course of oral diseases. Here, we used pyrosequencing to characterize the oral bacteriome and mycobiome of 12 HIV-infected patients and matched 12 uninfected controls. The number of bacterial and fungal genera in individuals ranged between 8-14 and 1-9, among uninfected and HIV-infected participants, respectively. The core oral bacteriome (COB) comprised 14 genera, of which 13 were common between the two groups. In contrast, the core oral mycobiome (COM) differed between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, with Candida being the predominant fungus in both groups. Among Candida species, C. albicans was the most common (58% in uninfected and 83% in HIV-infected participants). Furthermore, 15 and 12 bacteria-fungi pairs were correlated significantly within uninfected and HIV-infected groups, respectively. Increase in Candida colonization was associated with a concomitant decrease in the abundance of Pichia, suggesting antagonism. We found that Pichia spent medium (PSM) inhibited growth of Candida, Aspergillus and Fusarium. Moreover, Pichia cells and PSM inhibited Candida biofilms (P?=?.002 and .02, respectively, compared to untreated controls). The mechanism by which Pichia inhibited Candida involved nutrient limitation, and modulation of growth and virulence factors. Finally, in an experimental murine model of oral candidiasis, we demonstrated that mice treated with PSM exhibited significantly lower infection score (P?=?.011) and fungal burden (P?=?.04) compared to untreated mice. Moreover, tongues of PSM-treated mice had few hyphae and intact epithelium, while vehicle- and nystatin-treated mice exhibited extensive fungal invasion of tissue with epithelial disruption. These results showed that PSM was efficacious against oral candidiasis in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory activity of PSM was associated with secretory protein/s. Our findings provide the first evidence of interaction among members of the oral mycobiota, and identifies a potential novel antifungal.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microbial flora in several organs of HIV-infected individuals have been characterized; however, the palatine tonsil bacteriome and mycobiome and their relationship with each other remain unclear. Determining the palatine tonsil microbiome may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of oral and systemic complications in HIV-infected individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to characterize the palatine tonsil microbiome in HIV-infected individuals. RESULTS:Palatine tonsillar swabs were collected from 46 HIV-infected and 20 HIV-uninfected individuals. The bacteriome and mycobiome were analyzed by amplicon sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. The palatine tonsil bacteriome of the HIV-infected individuals differed from that of HIV-uninfected individuals in terms of the decreased relative abundances of the commensal genera Neisseria and Haemophilus. At the species level, the relative abundances and presence of Capnocytophaga ochracea, Neisseria cinerea, and Selenomonas noxia were higher in the HIV-infected group than those in the HIV-uninfected group. In contrast, fungal diversity and composition did not differ significantly between the two groups. Microbial intercorrelation analysis revealed that Candida and Neisseria were negatively correlated with each other in the HIV-infected group. HIV immune status did not influence the palatine tonsil microbiome in the HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS:HIV-infected individuals exhibit dysbiotic changes in their palatine tonsil bacteriome, independent of immunological status.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The effect of smoking on microbial dysbiosis and the potential consequence of such shift on markers of HIV disease is unknown. Here we assessed the relationship of microbial dysbiosis with smoking and markers of HIV disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Oral wash was collected from: (1) HIV-infected smokers (HIV-SM, n = 48), (2) HIV-infected non-smokers (HIV-NS, n = 24), or (3) HIV-uninfected smokers (UI-SM, n = 24). Microbial DNA was extracted and their bacterial and fungal microbiota (bacteriome and mycobiome, respectively) were characterized using Ion-Torrent sequencing platform. Sequencing data were compared using clustering, diversity, abundance and inter-kingdom correlations analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Bacteriome was more widely dispersed than mycobiome, there was no noticeable difference in clustering between groups. Richness of oral bacteriome in HIV-SM was significantly lower than that of UI-SM (P ? .03). Diversity of HIV-NS was significantly lower than that of HIV-SM or UI-SM at phylum level (P ? .02). Abundance of Phylum Firmicutes was significantly decreased in HIV-NS compared to HIV-SM and UI-SM (P = .007 and .027, respectively), while abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly increased in HIV-NS compared to HIV-SM and UI-SM (P = .0005 and .011, respectively). Fungal phyla did not differ significantly between the three cohorts. Cumulative smoking was positively correlated with Facklamia but negatively with Enhydrobacter, and current alcohol use was negatively correlated with Geniculata. Bacteria Facklamia exhibited weakly positive correlation with longer PI duration (r = 0.094, P = 0.012), and a negative correlation with nadir CD4 count (r = -0.345; P = 0.004), while Granulicatella was negatively correlated with nadir CD4 count (r = -0.329; P = 0.007). Fungus Stemphylium correlated negatively with nadir CD4 (r = -0.323; P = 0.008).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dysbiosis of the oral microbiota is associated with clinical and immunologic variables in HIV-infected patients.
Project description:We implemented a Systems Biology approach using Correlation Difference Probability Network (CDPN) analysis to provide insights into the statistically significant functional differences between HIV-infected patients and uninfected individuals. The analysis correlates bacterial microbiome ("bacteriome"), fungal microbiome ("mycobiome"), and metabolome data to model the underlying biological processes comprising the Human Oral Metabiome. CDPN highlights the taxa-metabolite-taxa differences between the cohorts that frequently capture quorum-sensing modifications that reflect communication disruptions in the dysbiotic HIV cohort. The results also highlight the significant role of cyclic mono and dipeptides as quorum-sensing (QS) mediators between oral bacteria and fungal genus. The developed CDPN approach allowed us to model the interactions of taxa and key metabolites, and hypothesize their possible contribution to the etiology of Oral Candidiasis (OC).
Project description:Background: Recent studies have reveled the presence of a complex fungal community (mycobiome) in the oral cavity. However, the role of oral mycobiome in dental caries and its interaction with caries-associated bacteria is not yet clear. Methods: Whole-mouth supragingival plaque samples from 30 children (6-10 years old) with no caries, early caries, or advanced caries were sequenced for internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). The mycobiome profiles were correlated with previously published bacteriome counterparts. Interaction among selected fungal and bacterial species was assessed by co-culture or spent media experiments. Results: Fungal load was extremely low. Candida, Malassezia, Cryptococcus, and Trichoderma spp. were the most prevalent/abundant taxa. Advanced caries was associated with significantly higher fungal load and prevalence/abundance of Candida albicans. Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida sake were significantly over-abundant in early caries, while Malassezia globosa was significantly enriched in caries-free subjects. C. albicans correlated with Streptococcus mutans and Scardovia wiggsiae among other caries-associated bacteria, while M. globosa inversely correlated with caries-associated bacteria. In-vitro, M. globosa demonstrated inhibitory properties against S. mutans. Conclusions: the results substantiate the potential role of the oral mycobiome, primarily Candida species, in dental caries. Inter-kingdom correlations and inhibition of S. mutans by M. globosa are worth further investigation.
Project description:Oral candidiasis is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy. To better understand predisposing factors, we followed forty-five subjects who received 5-fluorouracil- or doxorubicin-based treatment, during one chemotherapy cycle. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, prior to the first infusion, and at three additional visits within a two-week window. We assessed the demographic, medical and oral health parameters, neutrophil surveillance, and characterized the salivary bacteriome and mycobiome communities through amplicon high throughput sequencing. Twenty percent of all subjects developed oral candidiasis. Using multivariate statistics, we identified smoking, amount of dental plaque, low bacteriome and mycobiome alpha-diversity, and the proportions of specific bacterial and fungal taxa as baseline predictors of oral candidiasis development during the treatment cycle. All subjects who developed oral candidiasis had baseline microbiome communities dominated by Candida and enriched in aciduric bacteria. Longitudinally, oral candidiasis was associated with a decrease in salivary flow prior to lesion development, and occurred simultaneously or before oral mucositis. Candidiasis was also longitudinally associated with a decrease in peripheral neutrophils but increased the neutrophil killing capacity of Candida albicans. Oral candidiasis was not found to be associated with mycobiome structure shifts during the cycle but was the result of an increase in Candida load, with C. albicans and Candida dubliniensis being the most abundant species comprising the salivary mycobiome of the affected subjects. In conclusion, we identified a set of clinical and microbiome baseline factors associated with susceptibility to oral candidiasis, which might be useful tools in identifying at risk individuals, prior to chemotherapy.
Project description:The etiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is not fully understood. While risk factors such as positive human papilloma virus (HPV) status, smoking and tobacco use have been identified, they do not account for all cases of the disease. We aimed to characterize the bacteriome, mycobiome and mycobiome-bacteriome interactions of oral wash in HNSCC patients and to determine if they are distinct from those of the oral wash of matched non-HNSCC patients. Oral wash samples were collected from 46 individuals with HNSCC and 46 controls for microbiome analyses. We identified three fungal phyla and eleven bacterial phyla of which Ascomycota (fungi, 72%) and Firmicutes (bacteria, 39%) were the most dominant, respectively. A number of organisms were identified as being differentially abundant between oral wash samples from patients with HNSCC and oral wash samples from those without HNSCC. Of note, strains of Candida albicans and Rothia mucilaginosa were differentially abundant and Schizophyllum commune was depleted in those with HNSCC compared to oral wash from those without HNSCC. Our results suggest that the oral cavity of HNSCC patients harbors unique differences in the mycobiome, bacteriome, and microbiome interactions when compared to those of control patients.
Project description:Although the term "microbiome" refers to all microorganisms, the majority of microbiome studies focus on the bacteriome. Here, we characterize the oral mycobiome, including mycobiome-bacteriome interactions, in the setting of remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Oral samples (n?=?299) were prospectively collected twice weekly from 39 AML patients during RIC until neutrophil recovery. Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene (V4) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequencing were used to determine bacterial and fungal diversity and community composition. Intrakingdom and interkingdom network connectivity at baseline (T1) and at midpoint (T3) and a later time point (T6) were assessed via SPIEC-EASI (sparse inverse covariance estimation for ecological association inference). In this exploratory study, mycobiome ?-diversity was not significantly associated with antibiotic or antifungal receipt. However, postchemotherapy mycobiome ?-diversity was lower in subjects receiving high-intensity chemotherapy. Additionally, greater decreases in Malassezia levels were seen over time among patients on high-intensity RIC compared to low-intensity RIC (P?=?0.003). A significantly higher relative abundance of Candida was found among patients who had infection (P?=?0.008), while a significantly higher relative abundance of Fusarium was found among patients who did not get an infection (P?=?0.03). Analyses of intrakingdom and interkingdom relationships at T1, T3, and T6 indicated that interkingdom connectivity increased over the course of IC as bacterial ?-diversity diminished. In (to our knowledge) the first longitudinal mycobiome study performed during AML RIC, we found that mycobiome-bacteriome interactions are highly dynamic. Our study data suggest that inclusion of mycobiome analysis in the design of microbiome studies may be necessary to optimally understand the ecological and functional role of microbial communities in clinical outcomes.IMPORTANCE This report highlights the importance of longitudinal, parallel characterization of oral fungi and bacteria in order to better elucidate the dynamic changes in microbial community structure and interkingdom functional interactions during the injury of chemotherapy and antibiotic exposure as well as the clinical consequences of these interrelated alterations.
Project description:Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral (mobile) tongue (OMTC), a non-human papilloma virus-associated oral cancer, is rapidly increasing without clear etiology. Poor oral hygiene has been associated with oral cancers, suggesting that oral bacteriome (bacterial community) and mycobiome (fungal community) could play a role. While the bacteriome is increasingly recognized as an active participant in health, the role of the mycobiome has not been studied in OMTC. Tissue DNA was extracted from 39 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from patients with OMTC. Microbiome profiling, principal coordinate, and dissimilarity index analyses showed bacterial diversity and richness, and fungal richness, were significantly reduced in tumor tissue (TT) compared to their matched non-tumor tissues (NTT, P<0.006). Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial phylum, which was significantly increased in TT compared to NTT (48% vs. 40%, respectively; P=0.004). Abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were significantly decreased in TT compared to matched NTT (P?0.003 for both). Abundance of 22 bacterial and 7 fungal genera was significantly different between the TT and NTT, including Streptococcus, which was the most abundant and significantly increased in the tumor group (34% vs. 22%, P<0.001). Abundance of fungal genus Aspergillus in TT correlated negatively with bacteria (Actinomyces, Prevotella, Streptococcus), but positively with Aggregatibacter. Patients with high T-stage disease had lower mean differences between TT and NTT compared with patients with low T-stage disease (0.07 vs. 0.21, P=0.04). Our results demonstrate differences in bacteriome and mycobiome between OMTC and their matched normal oral epithelium, and their association with T-stage.
Project description:Microbiome studies typically focus on bacteria, but fungal species are common in many body sites and can have profound effects on the host. Wide gaps exist in the understanding of the fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and its relationship to lung disease.To characterize the mycobiome at different respiratory tract levels in persons with and without HIV infection and in HIV-infected individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Oral washes (OW), induced sputa (IS), and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were collected from 56 participants. We performed 18S and internal transcribed spacer sequencing and used the neutral model to identify fungal species that are likely residents of the lung. We used ubiquity-ubiquity plots, random forest, logistic regression, and metastats to compare fungal communities by HIV status and presence of COPD.Mycobiomes of OW, IS, and BAL shared common organisms, but each also had distinct members. Candida was dominant in OW and IS, but BAL had 39 fungal species that were disproportionately more abundant than in the OW. Fungal communities in BAL differed significantly by HIV status and by COPD, with Pneumocystis jirovecii significantly overrepresented in both groups. Other fungal species were also identified as differing in HIV and COPD.This study systematically examined the respiratory tract mycobiome in a relatively large group. By identifying Pneumocystis and other fungal species as overrepresented in the lung in HIV and in COPD, it is the first to determine alterations in fungal communities associated with lung dysfunction and/or HIV, highlighting the clinical relevance of these findings. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00870857).
Project description:Bacterial infection of the root canal system causes apical periodontitis. Less is known about the role of fungi in these infections. This study aimed to assess the fungal prevalence, abundance, and diversity of root canal infections, as well as the relation between fungi and bacteria present in different parts of the root canal.Twenty-six teeth with primary apical periodontitis were extracted, split in apical and coronal root segments, and cryo-pulverized. Bacteriome profiles of 23 teeth were analyzed based on the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Mycobiome profiles of six teeth were analyzed based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 or ITS2 region. Samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform.A total of 338 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 28 ITS1 OTUs, and 24 ITS2 OTUs were identified. Candida and Malassezia were the most frequently identified fungi. No differences could be found between the bacteriome and mycobiome profiles of the apical and coronal root segments. The bacteriome of fungi-positive root segments contained more Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, four different Lactobacillus OTUs, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus. A Spearman correlation matrix between bacteriomes and mycobiomes identified no correlations, but separate clusters could be observed.A considerable proportion of the root canal infections contain fungi, although fungal diversity is limited. However, when fungi are present, the composition of the bacteriome is clearly different.Interaction between bacteria and fungi in root canal infections may complicate the infection and require alternative treatment strategies.