Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore links mitochondrial dysfunction to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but the mechanism by which mitochondria inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the cytoplasm is unclear. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a protein complex that facilitates the exchange of molecules between the mitochondrial matrix and cytoplasm, and opening of the mPTP occurs in response to physiological stressors that are associated with insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether mPTP opening provides a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance by inhibiting the mPTP gatekeeper protein cyclophilin D (CypD) in vivo and in vitro. Mice lacking CypD were protected from high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance due to increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The mitochondria in CypD knockout muscle were resistant to diet-induced swelling and had improved calcium retention capacity compared to controls; however, no changes were observed in muscle oxidative damage, insulin signaling, lipotoxic lipid accumulation or mitochondrial bioenergetics. In vitro, we tested 4 models of insulin resistance that are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured skeletal muscle cells including antimycin A, C2-ceramide, ferutinin, and palmitate. In all models, we observed that pharmacological inhibition of mPTP opening with the CypD inhibitor cyclosporin A was sufficient to prevent insulin resistance at the level of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. The protective effects of mPTP inhibition on insulin sensitivity were associated with improved mitochondrial calcium retention capacity but did not involve changes in insulin signaling both in vitro and in vivo. In sum, these data place the mPTP at a critical intersection between alterations in mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
Project description:The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a key regulator of mitochondrial function that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a critical regulator that directly binds to mPTP constituents to facilitate the pore opening. We previously found that global CypD knockout mice (KO) are protected from diet-induced glucose intolerance; however, the tissue-specific function of CypD and mPTP, particularly in the control of glucose homeostasis, has not been ascertained. To this end, we performed calcium retention capacity (CRC) assay to compare the importance of CypD in the liver versus skeletal muscle. We found that liver mitochondria are more dependent on CypD for mPTP opening than skeletal muscle mitochondria. To ascertain the tissue-specific role of CypD in metabolic homeostasis, we generated liver-specific and muscle-specific CypD knockout mice (LKO and MKO, respectively) and fed them either a chow diet or 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. MKO mice displayed similar body weight gain and glucose intolerance compared with wild type littermates (WT), whereas LKO mice developed greater visceral obesity, glucose intolerance and pyruvate intolerance compared with WT mice. These findings demonstrate that loss of muscle CypD is not sufficient to alter whole body glucose metabolism, while the loss of liver CypD exacerbates obesity and whole-body metabolic dysfunction in mice fed HFD.
Project description:Pathogenic factors associated with aging, such as oxidative stress and hormone depletion converge on mitochondria and impair their function via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The MPTP is a large non-selective pore regulated by cyclophilin D (CypD) that disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity. MPTP involvement has been firmly established in degenerative processes in heart, brain, and muscle. Bone has high energy demands and is therefore expected to be highly sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite this, the role of mitochondria and the MPTP in bone maintenance and bone pathology has not been elucidated. Our goal was to determine whether mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and to see if protecting mitochondria from MPTP opening via CypD deletion protects against bone loss. We found that bone mass, strength, and formation progressively decline over the course of 18 months in C57BL/6J mice. Using metabolomics and electron microscopy, we determined that oxidative metabolism is impaired in aging bone leading to a glycolytic shift, imbalance in nucleotides, and decreased NAD+/NADH ratio. Mitochondria in osteocytes appear swollen which is a major marker of MPTP opening. CypD deletion by CypD knockout mouse model (CypD KO) protects against bone loss in 13- and 18-month-old mice and prevents decline in bone formation and mitochondrial changes observed in wild type C57BL/6J mice. Together, these data demonstrate that mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and that CypD deletion protects against this impairment to prevent bone loss. This implicates CypD-regulated MPTP and mitochondrial dysfunction in the impairment of bone cells and in aging-related bone loss. Our findings suggest mitochondrial metabolism as a new target for bone therapeutics and inhibition of CypD as a novel strategy against bone loss.
Project description:In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress form a vicious cycle that promotes neurodegeneration and muscle wasting. To quantify the disease-stage-dependent changes of mitochondrial function and their relationship to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we generated double transgenic mice (G93A/cpYFP) that carry human ALS mutation SOD1G93A and mt-cpYFP transgenes, in which mt-cpYFP detects dynamic changes of ROS-related mitoflash events at individual mitochondria level. Compared with wild type mice, mitoflash activity in the SOD1G93A (G93A) mouse muscle showed an increased flashing frequency prior to the onset of ALS symptom (at the age of 2 months), whereas the onset of ALS symptoms (at the age of 4 months) is associated with drastic changes in the kinetics property of mitoflash signal with prolonged full duration at half maximum (FDHM). Elevated levels of cytosolic ROS in skeletal muscle derived from the SOD1G93A mice were confirmed with fluorescent probes, MitoSOX™ Red and ROS Brite™570. Immunoblotting analysis of subcellular mitochondrial fractionation of G93A muscle revealed an increased expression level of cyclophilin D (CypD), a regulatory component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), at the age of 4 months but not at the age of 2 months. Transient overexpressing of SOD1G93A in skeletal muscle of wild type mice directly promoted mitochondrial ROS production with an enhanced mitoflash activity in the absence of motor neuron axonal withdrawal. Remarkably, the SOD1G93A-induced mitoflash activity was attenuated by the application of cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of CypD. Similar to the observation with the SOD1G93A transgenic mice, an increased expression level of CypD was also detected in skeletal muscle following transient overexpression of SOD1G93A. Overall, this study reveals a disease-stage-dependent change in mitochondrial function that is associated with CypD-dependent mPTP opening; and the ALS mutation SOD1G93A directly contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in the absence of motor neuron axonal withdrawal.
Project description:Mitoflashes are spontaneous transients of the biosensor mt-cpYFP. In cardiomyocytes, mitoflashes are associated with the cyclophilin D (CypD) mediated opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), while in skeletal muscle they are considered hallmarks of mitochondrial respiration burst under physiological conditions. Here, we evaluated the potential association between mitoflashes and the mPTP opening at different CypD levels and phosphorylation status by generating three CypD derived fusion constructs with a red shifted, pH stable Ca<sup>2+</sup> sensor jRCaMP1b. We observed perinuclear mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> efflux accompanying mitoflashes in CypD and CypDS42A (a phosphor-resistant mutation at Serine 42) overexpressed myofibers but not the control myofibers expressing the mitochondria-targeting sequence of CypD (CypDN30). Assisted by a newly developed analysis program, we identified shorter, more frequent mitoflash activities occurring over larger areas in CypD and CypDS42A overexpressed myofibers than the control CypDN30 myofibers. These observations provide an association between the elevated CypD expression and increased mitoflash activities in hindlimb muscles in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model previously observed. More importantly, feeding the mice with sodium butyrate reversed the CypD-associated mitoflash phenotypes and protected against ectopic upregulation of CypD, unveiling a novel molecular mechanism underlying butyrate mediated alleviation of ALS progression in the mouse model.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The pulmonary vascular tone and hypoxia-induced alterations of the pulmonary vasculature may be regulated by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) that controls mitochondrial calcium load and apoptosis. We thus investigated, if the mitochondrial proteins p66shc and cyclophilin D (CypD) that regulate mPTP opening affect the pulmonary vascular tone.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Mice deficient for p66shc (p66shc-/-), CypD (CypD-/-), or both proteins (p66shc/CypD-/-) exhibited decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) compared to wild-type mice determined in isolated lungs and in vivo. In contrast, systemic arterial pressure was only lower in CypD-/- mice. As cardiac function and pulmonary vascular remodelling did not differ between genotypes, we determined alterations of vascular contractility in isolated lungs and calcium handling in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) as underlying reason for decreased PVR. Potassium chloride (KCl)-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and KCl-induced cytosolic calcium increase determined by Fura-2 were attenuated in all gene-deficient mice. In contrast, KCl-induced mitochondrial calcium increase determined by the genetically encoded Mito-Car-GECO and calcium retention capacity were increased only in CypD-/- and p66shc/CypD-/- mitochondria indicating that decreased mPTP opening affected KCl-induced intracellular calcium peaks in these cells. All mouse strains showed a similar pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia, while acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was decreased in gene-deficient mice indicating that CypD and p66shc regulate vascular contractility but not remodelling.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We conclude that p66shc specifically regulates the pulmonary vascular tone, while CypD also affects systemic pressure. However, only CypD acts via regulation of mPTP opening and mitochondrial calcium regulation.
Project description:Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are stochastic events in the mitochondrial matrix detected by mitochondrial-targeted cpYFP (mt-cpYFP). Mitoflashes are quantal bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accompanied by modest matrix alkalinization and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitoflashes are fundamental events present in a wide range of cell types. To date, the precise mechanisms for mitoflash generation and termination remain elusive. Transient opening of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) during a mitoflash is proposed to account for the mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. Here, we set out to compare the tissue-specific effects of cyclophilin D (CypD)-deficiency and mitochondrial substrates on mitoflash activity in skeletal and cardiac muscle. In contrast to previous reports, we found that CypD knockout did not alter the mitoflash frequency or other mitoflash properties in acutely isolated cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle fibers, or isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle and the heart. However, in skeletal muscle fibers, CypD deficiency resulted in a parallel increase in both activity-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and activity-dependent mitoflash activity. Increases in both mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and mitoflash activity following electrical stimulation were abolished by inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. We also found that mitoflash frequency and amplitude differ greatly between intact skeletal muscle fibers and cardiac myocytes, but that this difference is absent in isolated mitochondria. We propose that this difference may be due, in part, to differences in substrate availability in intact skeletal muscle fibers (primarily glycolytic) and cardiac myocytes (largely oxidative). Overall, we find that CypD does not contribute significantly in mitoflash biogenesis under basal conditions in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but does regulate mitoflash events during muscle activity. In addition, tissue-dependent differences in mitoflash frequency are strongly regulated by mitochondrial substrate availability.
Project description:Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with complex pathophysiology. Much evidence confirms that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is related with mitochondrial dysfunction to apoptosis in ischemic stroke, thus elucidating its signaling mechanism and screening novel MPTP inhibitor is therefore of paramount importance. Our earlier studies identified that gallic acid (GA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, endows with effect on inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, which has significant neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, its molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial dysfunction remain elusive. Here, we uncover a role of GA in protecting mitochondria via MPTP inhibition. In addition to inhibit CypD binding to adenine nucleotide translocator, GA potentiates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in cyclophilin D (CypD) expression, resulting in a desensitization to induction of MPTP, thus inhibiting caspase activation and ultimately giving rise to cellular survival. Our study firstly identifies ERK-CypD axis is one of the cornerstones of the cell death pathways following ischemic stroke, and confirms GA is a novel inhibitor of MPTP, which inhibits apoptosis depending on regulating the ERK-CypD axis.
Project description:Cardiac failure is a leading cause of age-related death, though its root cause remains unknown. Mounting evidence implicates a decline in mitochondrial function due to increased opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here we report that the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT3 deacetylates the regulatory component of the mPTP, cyclophilin D (CypD) on lysine 166, adjacent to the binding site of cyclosporine A, a CypD inhibitor. Cardiac myocytes from mice lacking SIRT3 exhibit an age-dependent increase in mitochondrial swelling due to increased mPTP opening, a phenotype that is rescued by cyclosporine A. SIRT3 knockout mice show accelerated signs of aging in the heart including cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis at 13 months of age. SIRT3 knockout mice are also hypersensitive to heart stress induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), as evidenced by cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and increased mortality. Together, these data show for the first time that SIRT3 activity is necessary to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy during aging and shed light on new pharmacological approaches to delaying aging and treating diseases in cardiac muscle and possibly other post-mitotic tissues.
Project description:Ginkgolide K (GK) belongs to the ginkgolide family of natural compounds found in Ginkgo biloba leaves, which have been used for centuries to treat cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the protective effects of GK against neuronal apoptosis by assessing its ability to sustain mitochondrial integrity and function. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that Drp1 binding to GSK-3? was increased after an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) insult in cultured neuroblastoma cells. This induced Drp1 and GSK-3? translocation to mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction, which was attenuated by GK. GK also reduced mitochondrial fission by increasing Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser637 and inhibiting mitochondrial Drp1 recruitment. In addition, GK exposure induced GSK-3? phosphorylation at Ser9 and enhanced the interaction between adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and p-GSK-3?. This interaction suppressed the interaction between ANT and cyclophilin D (CypD), which inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Similarly, suppression of mitochondrial fission by Mdivi-1 also inhibited GSK-3?-induced mPTP opening. Treating mice with GK prevented GSK-3? and Drp1 translocation to mitochondria and attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction after middle cerebral artery occlusion. We therefore propose that by inhibiting mitochondrial fission and attenuating mPTP opening, GK exerts neuroprotective effects that mitigate or prevent neuronal damage secondary to ischemic stroke.
Project description:Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) plays a major role in cell death during cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion. Adult isolated rodent cardiomyocytes are valuable cells to study the effect of drugs targeting mPTP. This study investigated whether the use of Ca2+ ionophores (A23187, ionomycin and ETH129) represent a reliable model to study inhibition of mPTP opening in cardiomyocytes. We monitored mPTP opening using the calcein/cobalt fluorescence technique in adult rat and wild type or cyclophilin D (CypD) knock-out mice cardiomyocytes. Cells were either treated with Ca2+ ionophores or subjected to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. The ionophores induced mPTP-dependent swelling in isolated mitochondria. A23187, but not ionomycin, induced a decrease in calcein fluorescence. This loss could not be inhibited by CypD deletion and was explained by a direct interaction between A23187 and cobalt. ETH129 caused calcein loss, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death but CypD deletion did not alleviate these effects. In the hypoxia-reoxygenation model, CypD deletion delayed both mPTP opening and cell death occurring at the time of reoxygenation. Thus, Ca2+ ionophores are not suitable to induce CypD-dependent mPTP opening in adult murine cardiomyocytes. Hypoxia-reoxygenation conditions appear therefore as the most reliable model to investigate mPTP opening in these cells.