Diiron oxidation state control of substrate access to the active site of soluble methane monooxygenase mediated by the regulatory component.
ABSTRACT: The regulatory component (MMOB) of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) has a unique N-terminal tail not found in regulatory proteins of other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases. This N-terminal tail is indispensable for proper function, yet its solution structure and role in catalysis remain elusive. Here, by using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, we show that the oxidation state of the hydroxylase component, MMOH, modulates the conformation of the N-terminal tail in the MMOH-2MMOB complex, which in turn facilitates catalysis. The results reveal that the N-terminal tail switches from a relaxed, flexible conformational state to an ordered state upon MMOH reduction from the diiron(III) to the diiron(II) state. This observation suggests that some of the crystallographically observed allosteric effects that result in the connection of substrate ingress cavities in the MMOH-2MMOB complex may not occur in solution in the diiron(III) state. Thus, O2 may not have easy access to the active site until after reduction of the diiron center. The observed conformational change is also consistent with a higher binding affinity of MMOB to MMOH in the diiron(II) state, which may allow MMOB to displace more readily the reductase component (MMOR) from MMOH following reduction.
Project description:Methanotrophs consume methane as their major carbon source and have an essential role in the global carbon cycle by limiting escape of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. These bacteria oxidize methane to methanol by soluble and particulate methane monooxygenases (MMOs). Soluble MMO contains three protein components, a 251-kilodalton hydroxylase (MMOH), a 38.6-kilodalton reductase (MMOR), and a 15.9-kilodalton regulatory protein (MMOB), required to couple electron consumption with substrate hydroxylation at the catalytic diiron centre of MMOH. Until now, the role of MMOB has remained ambiguous owing to a lack of atomic-level information about the MMOH-MMOB (hereafter termed H-B) complex. Here we remedy this deficiency by providing a crystal structure of H-B, which reveals the manner by which MMOB controls the conformation of residues in MMOH crucial for substrate access to the active site. MMOB docks at the ?(2)?(2) interface of ?(2)?(2)?(2) MMOH, and triggers simultaneous conformational changes in the ?-subunit that modulate oxygen and methane access as well as proton delivery to the diiron centre. Without such careful control by MMOB of these substrate routes to the diiron active site, the enzyme operates as an NADH oxidase rather than a monooxygenase. Biological catalysis involving small substrates is often accomplished in nature by large proteins and protein complexes. The structure presented in this work provides an elegant example of this principle.
Project description:The multicomponent soluble form of methane monooxygenase (sMMO) catalyzes the oxidation of methane through the activation of O 2 at a nonheme biferrous center in the hydroxylase component, MMOH. Reactivity is limited without binding of the sMMO effector protein, MMOB. Past studies show that mutations of specific MMOB surface residues cause large changes in the rates of individual steps in the MMOH reaction cycle. To define the structural and mechanistic bases for these observations, CD, MCD, and VTVH MCD spectroscopies coupled with ligand-field (LF) calculations are used to elucidate changes occurring near and at the MMOH biferrous cluster upon binding of MMOB and the MMOB variants. Perturbations to both the CD and MCD are observed upon binding wild-type MMOB and the MMOB variant that similarly increases O 2 reactivity. MMOB variants that do not greatly increase O 2 reactivity fail to cause one or both of these changes. LF calculations indicate that reorientation of the terminal glutamate on Fe2 reproduces the spectral perturbations in MCD. Although this structural change allows O 2 to bridge the diiron site and shifts the redox active orbitals for good overlap, it is not sufficient for enhanced O 2 reactivity of the enzyme. Binding of the T111Y-MMOB variant to MMOH induces the MCD, but not CD changes, and causes only a small increase in reactivity. Thus, both the geometric rearrangement at Fe2 (observed in MCD) coupled with a more global conformational change that may control O 2 access (probed by CD), induced by MMOB binding, are critical factors in the reactivity of sMMO.
Project description:Soluble methane monooxygenase in methanotrophs converts methane to methanol under ambient conditions. The maximum catalytic activity of hydroxylase (MMOH) is achieved through the interplay of its regulatory protein (MMOB) and reductase. An additional auxiliary protein, MMOD, functions as an inhibitor of MMOH; however, its inhibitory mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the MMOH-MMOD complex from Methylosinus sporium strain 5 (2.6 Å). Its structure illustrates that MMOD associates with the canyon region of MMOH where MMOB binds. Although MMOD and MMOB recognize the same binding site, each binding component triggers different conformational changes toward MMOH, which then respectively lead to the inhibition and activation of MMOH. Particularly, MMOD binding perturbs the di-iron geometry by inducing two major MMOH conformational changes, i.e., MMOH ? subunit disorganization and subsequent His147 dissociation with Fe1 coordination. Furthermore, 1,6-hexanediol, a mimic of the products of sMMO, reveals the substrate access route.
Project description:During a single turnover of the hydroxylase component (MMOH) of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, several discrete intermediates are formed. The diiron cluster of MMOH is first reduced to the Fe(II)Fe(II) state (H(red)). O? binds rapidly at a site away from the cluster to form the Fe(II)Fe(II) intermediate O, which converts to an Fe(III)Fe(III)-peroxo intermediate P and finally to the Fe(IV)Fe(IV) intermediate Q. Q binds and reacts with methane to yield methanol and water. The rate constants for these steps are increased by a regulatory protein, MMOB. Previously reported transient kinetic studies have suggested that an intermediate P* forms between O and P in which the g = 16 EPR signal characteristic of the reduced diiron cluster of H(red) and O is lost. This was interpreted as signaling oxidation of the cluster, but a low level of accumulation of P* prevented further characterization. In this study, three methods for directly detecting and trapping P* are applied together to allow its spectroscopic and kinetic characterization. First, the MMOB mutant His33Ala is used to specifically slow the decay of P* without affecting its formation rate, leading to its nearly quantitative accumulation. Second, spectra-kinetic data collection is used to provide a sensitive measure of the formation and decay rate constants of intermediates as well as their optical spectra. Finally, the substrate furan is included to react with Q and quench its strong chromophore. The optical spectrum of P* closely mimics those of H(red) and O, but it is distinctly different from that of P. The reaction cycle rate constants allowed prediction of the times for maximal accumulation of the intermediates. Mössbauer spectra of rapid freeze-quench samples at these times show that the intermediates are formed at almost exactly the predicted levels. The Mössbauer spectra show that the diiron cluster of P*, quite unexpectedly, is in the Fe(II)Fe(II) state. Thus, the loss of the g = 16 EPR signal results from a change in the electronic structure of the Fe(II)Fe(II) center rather than oxidation. The similarity of the optical and Mössbauer spectra of H(red), O, and P* suggests that only subtle changes occur in the electronic and physical structure of the diiron cluster as P* forms. Nevertheless, the changes that do occur are necessary for O? to be activated for hydrocarbon oxidation.
Project description:Phenol hydroxylase (PH) belongs to a family of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) with carboxylate-bridged diiron active sites. Included are toluene/o-xylene (ToMO) and soluble methane (sMMO) monooxygenase. PH hydroxylates aromatic compounds, but unlike sMMO, it cannot oxidize alkanes despite having a similar dinuclear iron active site. Important for activity is formation of a complex between the hydroxylase and a regulatory protein component. To address how structural features of BMM hydroxylases and their component complexes may facilitate the catalytic mechanism and choice of substrate, we determined X-ray structures of native and SeMet forms of the PH hydroxylase (PHH) in complex with its regulatory protein (PHM) to 2.3 A resolution. PHM binds in a canyon on one side of the (alphabetagamma)2 PHH dimer, contacting alpha-subunit helices A, E, and F approximately 12 A above the diiron core. The structure of the dinuclear iron center in PHH resembles that of mixed-valent MMOH, suggesting an Fe(II)Fe(III) oxidation state. Helix E, which comprises part of the iron-coordinating four-helix bundle, has more pi-helical character than analogous E helices in MMOH and ToMOH lacking a bound regulatory protein. Consequently, conserved active site Thr and Asn residues translocate to the protein surface, and an approximately 6 A pore opens through the four-helix bundle. Of likely functional significance is a specific hydrogen bond formed between this Asn residue and a conserved Ser side chain on PHM. The PHM protein covers a putative docking site on PHH for the PH reductase, which transfers electrons to the PHH diiron center prior to O2 activation, suggesting that the regulatory component may function to block undesired reduction of oxygenated intermediates during the catalytic cycle. A series of hydrophobic cavities through the PHH alpha-subunit, analogous to those in MMOH, may facilitate movement of the substrate to and/or product from the active site pocket. Comparisons between the ToMOH and PHH structures provide insights into their substrate regiospecificities.
Project description:Stopped-flow kinetic investigations of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. capsulatus (Bath) have clarified discrepancies that exist in the literature regarding several aspects of catalysis by this enzyme. The development of thorough kinetic analytical techniques has led to the discovery of two novel oxygenated iron species that accumulate in addition to the well-established intermediates H(peroxo) and Q. The first intermediate, P*, is a precursor to H(peroxo) and was identified when the reaction of reduced MMOH and MMOB with O(2) was carried out in the presence of >or=540 microM methane to suppress the dominating absorbance signal due to Q. The optical properties of P* are similar to those of H(peroxo), with epsilon(420) = 3500 M(-1) cm(-1) and epsilon(720) = 1250 M(-1) cm(-1). These values are suggestive of a peroxo-to-iron(III) charge-transfer transition and resemble those of peroxodiiron(III) intermediates characterized in other carboxylate-bridged diiron proteins and synthetic model complexes. The second identified intermediate, Q*, forms on the pathway of Q decay when reactions are performed in the absence of hydrocarbon substrate. Q* does not react with methane, forms independently of buffer composition, and displays a unique shoulder at 455 nm in its optical spectrum. Studies conducted at different pH values reveal that rate constants corresponding to P* decay/H(peroxo) formation and H(peroxo) decay/Q formation are both significantly retarded at high pH and indicate that both events require proton transfer. The processes exhibit normal kinetic solvent isotope effects (KSIEs) of 2.0 and 1.8, respectively, when the reactions are performed in D(2)O. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the observations of these novel intermediates and the proton dependencies of P* to H(peroxo) and H(peroxo) to Q conversion.
Project description:Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) catalyzes O2-dependent release of the terminal carbon of a biological substrate, octadecanal, to yield formate and heptadecane in a reaction that requires external reducing equivalents. We show here that ADO also catalyzes incorporation of an oxygen atom from O2 into the alkane product to yield alcohol and aldehyde products. Oxygenation of the alkane product is much more pronounced with C9-10 aldehyde substrates, so that use of nonanal as the substrate yields similar amounts of octane, octanal, and octanol products. When using doubly-labeled [1,2-13C]-octanal as the substrate, the heptane, heptanal and heptanol products each contained a single 13C-label in the C-1 carbons atoms. The only one-carbon product identified was formate. [18O]-O2 incorporation studies demonstrated formation of [18O]-alcohol product, but rapid solvent exchange prevented similar determination for the aldehyde product. Addition of [1-13C]-nonanol with decanal as the substrate at the outset of the reaction resulted in formation of [1-13C]-nonanal. No 13C-product was formed in the absence of decanal. ADO contains an oxygen-bridged dinuclear iron cluster. The observation of alcohol and aldehyde products derived from the initially formed alkane product suggests a reactive species similar to that formed by methane monooxygenase (MMO) and other members of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase family. Accordingly, characterization by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies shows that the electronic structure of the ADO cluster is similar, but not identical, to that of MMO hydroxylase component. In particular, the two irons of ADO reside in nearly identical environments in both the oxidized and fully reduced states, whereas those of MMOH show distinct differences. These favorable characteristics of the iron sites allow a comprehensive determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters describing the electronic state of the diferrous cluster for the first time for any biological system. The nature of the diiron cluster and the newly recognized products from ADO catalysis hold implications for the mechanism of C-C bond cleavage.
Project description:In all structurally characterized bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) hydroxylase proteins, a series of hydrophobic cavities in the ?-subunit trace a conserved path from the protein exterior to the carboxylate-bridged diiron active site. This study examines these cavities as a potential route for transport of dioxygen to the active site by crystallographic characterization of a xenon-pressurized sample of the hydroxylase component of phenol hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. OX1. Computational analyses of the hydrophobic cavities in the hydroxylase ?-subunits of phenol hydroxylase (PHH), soluble methane monooxygenase (MMOH), and toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMOH) are also presented. The results, together with previous findings from crystallographic studies of xenon-pressurized sMMO hydroxylase, clearly identify the propensity for these cavities to bind hydrophobic gas molecules in the protein interior. This proposed functional role is supported by recent stopped flow kinetic studies of ToMOH variants [Song, W. J., et al. (2011) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 14795-14800]. In addition to information about the Xe sites, the structure determination revealed significantly weakened binding of regulatory protein to the hydroxylase in comparison to that in the previously reported structure of PHH, as well as the presence of a newly identified metal-binding site in the ?-subunit that adopts a linear coordination environment consistent with Cu(I), and a glycerol molecule bound to Fe1 in a fashion that is unique among hydrocarbon-diiron site adducts reported to date in BMM hydroxylase structures. Finally, a comparative analysis of the ?-subunit structures of PHH, MMOH, and ToMOH details proposed routes for the other three BMM substrates, the hydrocarbon, electrons, and protons, comprising cavities, channels, hydrogen-bonding networks, and pores in the structures of their ?-subunits.
Project description:At its carboxylate-bridged diiron active site, the hydroxylase component of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase activates dioxygen for subsequent arene hydroxylation. In an I100W variant of this enzyme, we characterized the formation and decay of two species formed by addition of dioxygen to the reduced, diiron(II) state by rapid-freeze quench (RFQ) EPR, Mössbauer, and ENDOR spectroscopy. The dependence of the formation and decay rates of this mixed-valent transient on pH and the presence of phenol, propylene, or acetylene was investigated by double-mixing stopped-flow optical spectroscopy. Modification of the alpha-subunit of the hydroxylase after reaction of the reduced protein with dioxygen-saturated buffer was investigated by tryptic digestion coupled mass spectrometry. From these investigations, we conclude that (i) a diiron(III,IV)-W* transient, kinetically linked to a preceding diiron(III) intermediate, arises from the one-electron oxidation of W100, (ii) the tryptophan radical is deprotonated, (iii) rapid exchange of either a terminal water or hydroxide ion with water occurs at the ferric ion in the diiron(III,IV) cluster, and (iv) the diiron(III,IV) core and W* decay to the diiron(III) product by a common mechanism. No transient radical was observed by stopped-flow optical spectroscopy for reactions of the reduced hydroxylase variants I100Y, L208F, and F205W with dioxygen. The absence of such species, and the deprotonated state of the tryptophanyl radical in the diiron(III,IV)-W* transient, allow for a conservative estimate of the reduction potential of the diiron(III) intermediate as lying between 1.1 and 1.3 V. We also describe the X-ray crystal structure of the I100W variant of ToMOH.
Project description:The soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO; EC 188.8.131.52) from the pseudothermophile Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a three-component enzyme system that catalyzes the selective oxidation of methane to methanol. We have used NMR spectroscopy to produce a highly refined structure of MMOB, the 16-kDa regulatory protein of this system. This structure has a unique and intricate fold containing seven beta-strands forming two beta-sheets oriented perpendicular to each other and bridged by three alpha-helices. The rate and efficiency of the methane hydroxylation by sMMO depend on dynamic binding interactions of the hydroxylase with the reductase and regulatory protein components during catalysis. We have monitored by NMR the binding of MMOB to the hydroxylase in the presence and absence of the reductase. The results of these studies provide structural insight into how the regulatory protein interacts with the hydroxylase.