The ROS-induced cytotoxicity of ascorbate is attenuated by hypoxia and HIF-1alpha in the NCI60 cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT: Intravenous application of high-dose ascorbate is used in complementary palliative medicine to treat cancer patients. Pharmacological doses of ascorbate in the mM range induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely hydrogen peroxide and ascorbyl radicals. However, little is known about intrinsic or extrinsic factors modulating this ascorbate-mediated cytotoxicity. Under normoxia and hypoxia, ascorbate IC50 values were determined on the NCI60 cancer cells. The cell cycle, the influence of cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) expression (a pro-survival HIF-1?-downstream-target) were analysed after ascorbate exposure under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The amount of ascorbyl radicals increased with rising serum concentrations. Hypoxia (0.1% O2 ) globally increased the IC50 of ascorbate in the 60 cancer cell lines from 4.5 ± 3.6 mM to 10.1 ± 5.9 mM (2.2-fold increase, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney t-test), thus inducing cellular resistance towards ascorbate. This ascorbate resistance depended on HIF-1?-signalling, but did not correlate with cell line-specific expression of the ascorbate transporter GLUT-1. However, under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, ascorbate treatment at the individual IC50 reduced the expression of GLUT-1 in the cancer cells. Our data show a ROS-induced, HIF-1?- and O2 -dependent cytotoxicity of ascorbate on 60 different cancer cells. This suggests that for clinical application, cancer patients should additionally be oxygenized to increase the cytotoxic efficacy of ascorbate.
Project description:Hypoxia serves a crucial role in the development of drug resistance in various cancer cells. Therefore, many attempts targeting hypoxia are underway to overcome the drug resistance mediated by hypoxia. This strategy is useful for multiple myeloma (MM) cells, as MM cells reside within the bone marrow, where oxygen concentrations are relatively low. A natural compound library was screened to identify compounds exerting cytotoxicity in MM cells under hypoxic conditions. Bufalin exhibited marked cytotoxicity to MM cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. No significant toxicity was observed in lymphocytes obtained from healthy donors. Under normoxic conditions, bufalin induced a DNA double strand break (DSB) response, ROS induction and apoptosis within 24 with a rapid response compared with melphalan. Interestingly, the bufalin-induced DSB response was not impaired by low oxygen concentrations while the DSB response by melphalan was reduced. Furthermore, treatment with bufalin abolished HIF-1? expression under hypoxia, suggesting that bufalin exerts cytotoxicity under hypoxia by regulating HIF-1?. These results indicate that bufalin induces apoptosis in MM cells through DSB under hypoxic conditions by inhibiting HIF-1?, suggesting that bufalin could be useful for eradication of drug-resistant MM cells in the hypoxic microenvironment.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) governs cellular adaption to the hypoxic microenvironment and is associated with a proliferative, metastatic, and treatment-resistant tumor phenotype. HIF-1 levels and transcriptional activity are regulated by proline and asparagine hydroxylases, which require ascorbate as cofactor. Ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF-1 activation in vitro, but only limited data are available in relevant animal models. There is no information of the effect of physiological levels of ascorbate on HIF activity and tumor growth, which was measured in this study. C57BL/6 Gulo(-/-) mice (a model of the human ascorbate dependency condition) were supplemented with 3300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L of ascorbate in their drinking water before and during subcutaneous tumor growth of B16-F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2). Ascorbate levels in tumors increased significantly with elevated ascorbate intake and restoration of wild-type ascorbate levels led to a reduction in growth of B16-F10 (log phase P < 0.001) and LL/2 tumors (lag growth P < 0.001, log phase P < 0.05). Levels of HIF-1? protein in tumors decreased as dietary ascorbate supplementation increased for both tumor models (P < 0.001). Similarly, tumor ascorbate was inversely correlated with levels of the HIF-1 target proteins CA-IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF in both B16-F10 and LL/2 tumors (P < 0.05). The extent of necrosis was similar between ascorbate groups but varied between models (30% for B16-F10 and 21% for LL/2), indicating that ascorbate did not affect tumor hypoxia. Our data support the hypothesis that restoration of optimal intracellular ascorbate levels reduces tumor growth via moderation of HIF-1 pathway activity.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that induces oxygen-regulated genes in response to reduced oxygen conditions (hypoxia). Expression of the oxygen-regulated HIF-1alpha subunit correlates positively with advanced disease stages and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Green tea catechins are believed to be responsible for the cancer chemopreventive activities of green tea. We found that (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, 1), one of the major green tea catechins, strongly activates HIF-1 in T47D human breast carcinoma cells. Among the green tea catechins tested, 1 demonstrated the strongest HIF-1-inducing activity, while (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 2) was significantly less active. However, 2 is relatively unstable in the in vitro system studied. Compound 1 also increases the expression of HIF-1 target genes including GLUT-1, VEGF, and CDKN1A. In T47D cells, 1 induces nuclear HIF-1alpha protein without affecting HIF-1alpha mRNA. Both the induction of HIF-1alpha protein and activation of HIF-1 by 1 can be blocked by iron and ascorbate, indicating that 1 may activate HIF-1 through the chelation of iron. These results suggest that intended cancer chemoprevention with high-dose green tea extracts may be compromised, by the ability of tea catechins to promote tumor cell survival pathways associated with HIF-1 activation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) experience hypoxic conditions during early brain development. The newly formed capillaries are tight and functional before astrocytes and pericytes join the capillaries and establish the neurovascular unit. Brain endothelial cell phenotype markers P-gp (ABCB1), LAT-1(SLC7A5), GLUT-1(SLC2A1), and TFR(TFRC) have all been described to be hypoxia sensitive. Therefore, we hypothesized that monolayers of BCECs, cultured under hypoxic conditions, would show an increase in LAT-1, GLUT-1 and TFR expression and display tight endothelial barriers.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Primary bovine BCECs were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Chronic hypoxia induced HIF-1α stabilization and translocation to the nucleus, as judged by immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning imaging. Endothelial cell morphology, claudin-5 and ZO-1 localization and barrier integrity were unaffected by hypoxia, indicating that the tight junctions in the BBB model were not compromised. SLC7A5, SLC2A1, and TFRC-mRNA levels were increased in hypoxic cultures, while ABCB1 remained unchanged as shown by real-time qPCR. P-gp, TfR and GLUT-1 were found to be significantly increased at protein levels. An increase in uptake of [<sup>3</sup>H]-glucose was demonstrated, while a non-significant increase in the efflux ratio of the P-gp substrate [3H]-digoxin was observed in hypoxic cells. No changes were observed in functional LAT-1 as judged by uptake studies of [<sup>3</sup>H]-leucine. Stabilization of HIF-1α under normoxic conditions with desferrioxamine (DFO) mimicked the effects of hypoxia on endothelial cells. Furthermore, low concentrations of DFO caused an increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), suggesting that a slight activation of the HIF-1α system may actually increase brain endothelial monolayer tightness. Moreover, exposure of confluent monolayers to hypoxia resulted in markedly increase in TEER after 24 and 48 h, which corresponded to a higher transcript level of CLDN5.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings collectively suggest that hypoxic conditions increase some BBB transporters' expression via HIF-1α stabilization, without compromising monolayer integrity. This may in part explain why brain capillaries show early maturation, in terms of barrier tightness and protein expression, during embryogenesis, and provides a novel methodological tool for optimal brain endothelial culture.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) represents an important tumor-selective therapeutic target for solid tumors. In search of novel small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors, 5400 natural product-rich extracts from plants, marine organisms, and microbes were examined for HIF-1 inhibitory activities using a cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation, followed by structure elucidation, yielded three potent natural product-derived HIF-1 inhibitors and two structurally related inactive compounds. In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, manassantin B1, manassantin A, and 4-O-methylsaucerneol inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 3, 3, and 20 nM, respectively. All three compounds are relatively hypoxia-specific inhibitors of HIF-1 activation, in comparison to other stimuli. The hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes CDKN1A, VEGF, and GLUT-1 were also inhibited. These compounds inhibit HIF-1 by blocking hypoxia-induced nuclear HIF-1alpha protein accumulation without affecting HIF-1alpha mRNA levels. In addition, preliminary structure-activity studies suggest specific structural requirements for this class of HIF-1 inhibitors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple myeloma (MM) is defined as plasma cells malignancy, developing in the bone marrow. At the beginning of the disease, the malignant plasma cells are dependent on bone marrow microenvironment, providing growth and survival factors. Importantly, the recent studies pointed hypoxia as an important factor promoting progression of MM. In particular, hypoxia-triggered HIF-1 signaling was shown to promote chemoresistance, angiogenesis, invasiveness and induction of immature phenotype, suggesting that strategies targeting HIF-1 may contribute to improvement of anti-myeloma therapies. METHODS:The Western Blot and RT-PCR techniques were applied to analyze the influence of metformin on HIF-1 pathway in MM cells. To evaluate the effect of metformin on the growth of MM cell lines in normoxic and hypoxic conditions the MTT assay was used. The apoptosis induction in metformin treated hypoxic and normoxic cells was verified by Annexin V/PI staining followed by FACS analysis. RESULTS:Our results showed, for the first time, that metformin inhibits HIF-1 signaling in MM cells. Moreover, we demonstrated the effect of metformin to be mainly oxygen dependent, since the HIF-1 pathway was not significantly affected by metformin in anoxic conditions as well as after application of hypoxic mimicking compound, CoCl2. Our data also revealed that metformin triggers the growth arrest without inducing apoptosis in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our study indicates metformin as a promising candidate for developing new treatment strategies exploiting HIF-1 signaling inhibition to enhance the overall anti-MM effect of currently used therapies, that may considerably benefit MM patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hypoxia is a hallmark of the solid tumor microenvironment and is associated with poor outcomes in cancer patients. The present study was performed to investigate mechanisms underlying the hypoxia-induced phenotypic changes using human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) cells.<h4>Methods</h4>Hypoxic conditions were achieved by incubating HMM cells in the air chamber. The effect of hypoxia on phenotype changes in HMM cells was investigated by performing in vitro clonogenicity, drug resistance, migration, and invasion assays. Signaling pathways and molecules involved in the more aggressive behaviors of HMM cells under hypoxia were investigated. A two-tailed unpaired Student's t-test or one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test correction was used in this study.<h4>Results</h4>Hypoxic conditions upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) and HIF-2? in parallel with the upregulation of its target, Glut-1, in HMM cells. In vitro clonogenicity of HMM cells was significantly increased in hypoxic conditions, but the proliferation of cells at a high density in hypoxia was lower than that in normoxic conditions. The expression levels of HIF-2? and Oct4 were increased in hypoxic HMM cells. The percentage of cells with high CD44 expression was significantly higher in HMM cells cultured in hypoxia than those cultured in normoxia. Hypoxia significantly enhanced the resistance of HMM cells to cisplatin, which occurred through cytoprotection against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. While cisplatin treatment decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in normoxic condition, hypoxia conversely increased the ratio in HMM cells treated with cisplatin. Hypoxia increased the mobility and invasiveness of HMM cells. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition was promoted, which was indicated by the repression of E-cadherin and the concomitant increase of vimentin in HMM cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The data illustrated that hypoxic conditions augmented the aggressive phenotypes of HMM cells at the biological and molecular levels. The present study provides valuable background information beginning to understand aggressiveness of HMM in tumor microenvironments, suggesting that a control measure for tumor hypoxia may be an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce the aggressiveness of cancer cells in HMM patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of HIF-1-associated proteins in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, (2) investigate the role of HIF-1 in PDT-treated human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma cells, and (3) determine whether HIF-1 inhibition reduces survival signaling and enhances PDT efficacy. RESULTS:Increased expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was confirmed in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine caused HIF-1? stabilization in SK-ChA-1 cells and increased transcription of HIF-1? downstream genes. Acriflavine was taken up by SK-ChA-1 cells and translocated to the nucleus under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, pretreatment of SK-ChA-1 cells with acriflavine enhanced PDT efficacy via inhibition of HIF-1 and topoisomerases I and II. METHODS:The expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. In addition, the response of human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (SK-ChA-1) cells to PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine was investigated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Acriflavine, a HIF-1?/HIF-1? dimerization inhibitor and a potential dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor, was evaluated for its adjuvant effect on PDT efficacy. CONCLUSIONS:HIF-1, which is activated in human hilar cholangiocarcinomas, contributes to tumor cell survival following PDT in vitro. Combining PDT with acriflavine pretreatment improves PDT efficacy in cultured cells and therefore warrants further preclinical validation for therapy-recalcitrant perihilar cholangiocarcinomas.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for about 38% of primary brain tumors in the United States. GBM is characterized by extensive angiogenesis induced by vascular growth factors and cytokines. The transcription of these growth factors and cytokines is regulated by the Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1(HIF-1), which is a key regulator mediating the cellular response to hypoxia. It is known that Factor Inhibiting HIF-1, or FIH-1, is also involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and has the capability to physically interact with HIF-1 and block its transcriptional activity under normoxic conditions. Delineation of the regulatory role of FIH-1 will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism responsible for tumor growth and progression and may lead to the design of new therapies targeting cellular pathways in response to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that the chromosomal region of 10q24 containing the FIH-1 gene is often deleted in GBM, suggesting a role for the FIH-1 in GBM tumorigenesis and progression. In the current study, we found that FIH-1 is able to inhibit HIF-mediated transcription of GLUT1 and VEGF-A, even under hypoxic conditions in human glioblastoma cells. FIH-1 has been found to be more potent in inhibiting HIF function than PTEN. This observation points to the possibility that deletion of 10q23-24 and loss or decreased expression of FIH-1 gene may lead to a constitutive activation of HIF-1 activity, an alteration of HIF-1 targets such as GLUT-1 and VEGF-A, and may contribute to the survival of cancer cells in hypoxia and the development of hypervascularization observed in GBM. Therefore FIH-1 can be potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM patients with poor prognosis.
Project description:Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in human tumors is associated with poor prognosis and poor outcome to radiation therapy. Inhibition of HIF-1alpha is considered as a promising approach in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a novel HIF-1alpha inhibitor PX-478 as a radiosensitizer under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in vitro. PC3 and DU 145 prostate carcinoma cells were treated with PX-478 for 20 hr, and HIF-1alpha protein level and clonogenic cell survival were determined under normoxia and hypoxia. Effects of PX-478 on cell cycle distribution and phosphorylation of H2AX histone were evaluated. PX-478 decreased HIF-1alpha protein in PC3 and DU 145 cells. PX-478 produced cytotoxicity in both cell lines with enhanced toxicity under hypoxia for DU-145. PX-478 (20 mumol/L) enhanced the radiosensitivity of PC3 cells irradiated under normoxic and hypoxic condition with enhancement factor (EF) 1.4 and 1.56, respectively. The drug was less effective in inhibiting HIF-1alpha and enhancing radiosensitivity of DU 145 cells compared to PC3 cells with EF 1.13 (normoxia) and 1.25 (hypoxia) at 50 mumol/L concentration. PX-478 induced S/G2M arrest in PC3 but not in DU 145 cells. Treatment of PC3 and DU 145 cells with the drug resulted in phosphorylation of H2AX histone and prolongation of gammaH2AX expression in the irradiated cells. PX-478 is now undergoing Phase I clinical trials as an oral agent. Although the precise mechanism of enhancement of radiosensitivity remains to be identified, this study suggests a potential role for PX-478 as a clinical radiation enhancer.