53BP1 is a reader of the DNA-damage-induced H2A Lys 15 ubiquitin mark.
ABSTRACT: 53BP1 (also called TP53BP1) is a chromatin-associated factor that promotes immunoglobulin class switching and DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining. To accomplish its function in DNA repair, 53BP1 accumulates at DSB sites downstream of the RNF168 ubiquitin ligase. How ubiquitin recruits 53BP1 to break sites remains unknown as its relocalization involves recognition of histone H4 Lys?20 (H4K20) methylation by its Tudor domain. Here we elucidate how vertebrate 53BP1 is recruited to the chromatin that flanks DSB sites. We show that 53BP1 recognizes mononucleosomes containing dimethylated H4K20 (H4K20me2) and H2A ubiquitinated on Lys?15 (H2AK15ub), the latter being a product of RNF168 action on chromatin. 53BP1 binds to nucleosomes minimally as a dimer using its previously characterized methyl-lysine-binding Tudor domain and a carboxy-terminal extension, termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment (UDR) motif, which interacts with the epitope formed by H2AK15ub and its surrounding residues on the H2A tail. 53BP1 is therefore a bivalent histone modification reader that recognizes a histone 'code' produced by DSB signalling.
Project description:Dynamic regulation of RNF168-mediated ubiquitylation of histone H2A Lys13,15 (H2AK13,15ub) at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is crucial for preventing aberrant DNA repair and maintaining genome stability. However, it remains unclear which deubiquitylating enzyme (DUB) removes H2AK13,15ub. Here we show that USP51, a previously uncharacterized DUB, deubiquitylates H2AK13,15ub and regulates DNA damage response. USP51 depletion results in increased spontaneous DNA damage foci and elevated levels of H2AK15ub and impairs DNA damage response. USP51 overexpression suppresses the formation of ionizing radiation-induced 53BP1 and BRCA1 but not RNF168 foci, suggesting that USP51 functions downstream from RNF168 in DNA damage response. In vitro, USP51 binds to H2A-H2B directly and deubiquitylates H2AK13,15ub. In cells, USP51 is recruited to chromatin after DNA damage and regulates the dynamic assembly/disassembly of 53BP1 and BRCA1 foci. These results show that USP51 is the DUB for H2AK13,15ub and regulates DNA damage response.
Project description:Histone ubiquitinations are critical for the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR). In particular, RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 function in the DDR by ubiquitinating H2A/H2AX on Lys-13/15 and Lys-118/119, respectively. However, it remains to be defined how the ubiquitin pathway engages chromatin to provide regulation of ubiquitin targeting of specific histone residues. Here we identify the nucleosome acid patch as a critical chromatin mediator of H2A/H2AX ubiquitination (ub). The acidic patch is required for RNF168- and RING1B/BMI1-dependent H2A/H2AXub in vivo. The acidic patch functions within the nucleosome as nucleosomes containing a mutated acidic patch exhibit defective H2A/H2AXub by RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 in vitro. Furthermore, direct perturbation of the nucleosome acidic patch in vivo by the expression of an engineered acidic patch interacting viral peptide, LANA, results in defective H2AXub and RNF168-dependent DNA damage responses including 53BP1 and BRCA1 recruitment to DNA damage. The acidic patch therefore is a critical nucleosome feature that may serve as a scaffold to integrate multiple ubiquitin signals on chromatin to compose selective ubiquitinations on histones for DNA damage signaling.
Project description:In response to DNA damage, cells initiate complex signalling cascades leading to growth arrest and DNA repair. The recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged sites requires the activation of the ubiquitination cascade controlled by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, and methylation of histone H4 on lysine 20. However, molecular events that regulate the accessibility of methylated histones, to allow the recruitment of 53BP1 to DNA breaks, are unclear. Here, we show that like 53BP1, the JMJD2A (also known as KDM4A) tandem tudor domain binds dimethylated histone H4K20; however, JMJD2A is degraded by the proteasome following the DNA damage in an RNF8-dependent manner. We demonstrate that JMJD2A is ubiquitinated by RNF8 and RNF168. Moreover, ectopic expression of JMJD2A abrogates 53BP1 recruitment to DNA damage sites, indicating a role in antagonizing 53BP1 for methylated histone marks. The combined knockdown of JMJD2A and JMJD2B significantly rescued the ability of RNF8- and RNF168-deficient cells to form 53BP1 foci. We propose that the RNF8-dependent degradation of JMJD2A regulates DNA repair by controlling the recruitment of 53BP1 at DNA damage sites.
Project description:Recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin flanking double strand breaks (DSBs) requires ?H2AX/MDC1/RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of chromatin and interaction of 53BP1 with histone H4 methylated on lysine 20 (H4K20me). Several histone methyltransferases have been implicated in 53BP1 recruitment, but their quantitative contributions to the 53BP1 response are unclear. We have developed a multi-photon laser (MPL) system to target DSBs to subfemtoliter nuclear volumes and used this to mathematically model DSB response kinetics of MDC1 and of 53BP1. In contrast to MDC1, which revealed first order kinetics, the 53BP1 MPL-DSB response is best fitted by a Gompertz growth function. The 53BP1 MPL response shows the expected dependency on MDC1 and RNF8. We determined the impact of altered H4K20 methylation on 53BP1 MPL response kinetics in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking key H4K20 histone methyltransferases. This revealed no major requirement for the known H4K20 dimethylases Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2 in 53BP1 recruitment or DSB repair function, but a key role for the H4K20 monomethylase, PR-SET7. The histone methyltransferase MMSET/WHSC1 has recently been implicated in 53BP1 DSB recruitment. We found that WHSC1 homozygous mutant MEFs reveal an alteration in balance of H4K20 methylation patterns; however, 53BP1 DSB responses in these cells appear normal.
Project description:The ubiquitin system regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) by modifying histone H2A at Lys15 (H2AK15ub) and triggering downstream signaling events. Here, we find that phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Thr12 (pUbT12) controls the DDR by inhibiting the function of 53BP1, a key factor for DNA double-strand break repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Detectable as a chromatin modification on H2AK15ub, pUbT12 accumulates in nuclear foci and is increased upon DNA damage. Mutating Thr12 prevents the removal of ubiquitin from H2AK15ub by USP51 deubiquitinating enzyme, leading to a pronounced accumulation of ubiquitinated chromatin. Chromatin modified by pUbT12 is inaccessible to 53BP1 but permissive to the homologous recombination (HR) proteins RNF169, RAD51, and the BRCA1/BARD1 complex. Phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Thr12 in the chromatin context is a new histone mark, H2AK15pUbT12, that regulates the DDR by hampering the activity of 53BP1 at damaged chromosomes.
Project description:53BP1 performs essential functions in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and it was recently reported that Tudor interacting repair regulator (TIRR) negatively regulates 53BP1 during DSB repair. Here, we present the crystal structure of the 53BP1 tandem Tudor domain (TTD) in complex with TIRR. Our results show that three loops from TIRR interact with 53BP1 TTD and mask the methylated lysine-binding pocket in TTD. Thus, TIRR competes with histone H4K20 methylation for 53BP1 binding. We map key interaction residues in 53BP1 TTD and TIRR, whose mutation abolishes complex formation. Moreover, TIRR suppresses the relocation of 53BP1 to DNA lesions and 53BP1-dependent DNA damage repair. Finally, despite the high-sequence homology between TIRR and NUDT16, NUDT16 does not directly interact with 53BP1 due to the absence of key residues required for binding. Taken together, our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism underlying TIRR-mediated suppression of 53BP1-dependent DNA damage repair.
Project description:The NuA4/TIP60 acetyltransferase complex is a key regulator of genome expression and stability. Here we identified MBTD1 as a stable subunit of the complex, and we reveal that, via a histone reader domain for H4K20me1/2, MBTD1 allows TIP60 to associate with specific gene promoters and to promote the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. It was previously suggested that TIP60-dependent acetylation of H4 regulates binding of the non-homologous end joining factor 53BP1, which engages chromatin through simultaneous binding of H4K20me2 and H2AK15ub. We find that the TIP60 complex regulates association of 53BP1 partly by competing for H4K20me2 and by regulating H2AK15ub. Ubiquitylation of H2AK15 by RNF168 inhibits chromatin acetylation by TIP60, while this residue can be acetylated by TIP60 in vivo, blocking its ubiquitylation. Altogether, these results uncover an intricate mechanism orchestrated by the TIP60 complex to regulate 53BP1-dependent repair through competitive bivalent binding and modification of chromatin.
Project description:The mammalian E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 facilitate recruitment of the DNA damage response protein 53BP1 to sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The mechanism involves recruitment of RNF8, followed by recruitment of RNF168, which ubiquitinates histones H2A/H2AX on K15. 53BP1 then binds to nucleosomes at sites of DNA DSBs by recognizing, in addition to methyl marks, histone H2A/H2AX ubiquitinated on K15. We report here that expressing H2AX fusion proteins with N-terminal bulky moieties can rescue 53BP1 recruitment to sites of DNA DSBs in cells lacking RNF8 or RNF168 or in cells treated with proteasome inhibitors, in which histone ubiquitination at sites of DNA DSBs is compromised. The rescue required S139 at the C-terminus of the H2AX fusion protein and was occasionally accompanied by partial rescue of ubiquitination at sites of DNA DSBs. We conclude that recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA DSBs is possible in the absence of RNF8 or RNF168, but still dependent on chromatin ubiquitination.
Project description:Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) is a DNA repair protein essential for the detection, assessment, and resolution of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The presence of a DSB is signaled to 53BP1 via a local histone modification cascade that triggers the binding of 53BP1 dimers to chromatin flanking this type of lesion. While biochemical studies have established that 53BP1 exists as a dimer, it has never been shown in a living cell when or where 53BP1 dimerizes upon recruitment to a DSB site, or upon arrival at this nuclear location, how the DSB histone code to which 53BP1 dimers bind regulates retention and self-association into higher-order oligomers. Thus, here in live-cell nuclear architecture we quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of 53BP1 oligomerization during a DSB DNA damage response by coupling fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) with the DSB inducible via AsiSI cell system (DIvA). From adopting this multiplexed approach, we find that preformed 53BP1 dimers relocate from the nucleoplasm to DSB sites, where consecutive recognition of ubiquitinated lysine 15 of histone 2A (H2AK15ub) and di-methylated lysine 20 of histone 4 (H4K20me2), leads to the assembly of 53BP1 oligomers and a mature 53BP1 foci structure.
Project description:DNA double strand break (DSB) responses depend on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 plus E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 to specifically generate histone Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains in DSB signaling. Here, we defined the activated RNF8-Ubc13?ubiquitin complex by x-ray crystallography and its functional solution conformations by x-ray scattering, as tested by separation-of-function mutations imaged in cells by immunofluorescence. The collective results show that the RING E3 RNF8 targets E2 Ubc13 to DSB sites and plays a critical role in damage signaling by stimulating polyubiquitination through modulating conformations of ubiquitin covalently linked to the Ubc13 active site. Structure-guided separation-of-function mutations show that the RNF8 E2 stimulating activity is essential for DSB signaling in mammalian cells and is necessary for downstream recruitment of 53BP1 and BRCA1. Chromatin-targeted RNF168 rescues 53BP1 recruitment involved in non-homologous end joining but not BRCA1 recruitment for homologous recombination. These findings suggest an allosteric approach to targeting the ubiquitin-docking cleft at the E2-E3 interface for possible interventions in cancer and chronic inflammation, and moreover, they establish an independent RNF8 role in BRCA1 recruitment.