Clinical significance of MYC expression and/or "high-grade" morphology in non-Burkitt, diffuse aggressive B-cell lymphomas: a SWOG S9704 correlative study.
ABSTRACT: The clinicopathologic findings in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may show significant overlap, and MYC abnormalities, found in all BLs, also occur in a subset of DLBCL. The 2008 World Health Organization classification introduced the category of "B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL" (BCLU) in recognition of this overlap, but the clinical significance of BCLU (ie, "high-grade") morphology and the relationship between BCLU morphology and MYC abnormalities remains unclear. In this study, we identified 260 cases of non-Burkitt, diffuse aggressive B-cell lymphomas from SWOG S9704, a phase 3 randomized study of standard immunochemotherapy versus autologous stem cell transplantation. Of these, 31 cases (12%) showed BCLU morphology, and 229 (88%) showed typical DLBCL morphology. Of 198, 27 (14%) were positive for MYC by immunohistochemistry. BCLU morphology was associated with an increased incidence of MYC expression but otherwise was not associated with distinct clinicopathologic features or significantly decreased survival. MYC-positive cases were morphologically and phenotypically heterogenous and were associated with poor progression-free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. These findings confirm that BCLU does not represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity and demonstrate that BCLU morphology alone does not significantly impact survival compared with typical DLBCL. In contrast, MYC protein expression is a poor prognostic factor that may be associated with either BCLU or DLBCL morphology, and MYC immunohistochemistry is suggested for routine prognostic evaluation (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00004031).
Project description:Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are aggressive tumors of mature B cells that are distinguished by a combination of histomorphological, phenotypic, and genetic features. A subset of B-cell lymphomas, however, has one or more characteristics that overlap BL and DLBCL, and are categorized as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable, with features intermediate between BL and DLBCL (BCL-U). Molecular analyses support the concept that there is a biological continuum between BL and DLBCL that includes variable activity of MYC, an oncoprotein once thought to be only associated with BL, but now recognized as a major predictor of survival among patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We tested whether a targeted expression profiling panel could be used to categorize tumors as BL and DLBCL, resolve the molecular heterogeneity of BCL-U, and capture MYC activity using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. A diagnostic molecular classifier accurately predicted pathological diagnoses of BL and DLBCL, and provided more objective subclassification for a subset of BCL-U and genetic double-hit lymphomas as molecular BL or DLBCL. A molecular classifier of MYC activity correlated with MYC IHC and stratified patients with primary DLBCL treated with R-CHOP into high- and low-risk groups. These results establish a framework for classifying and stratifying MYC-driven, aggressive, B-cell lymphomas on the basis of quantitative molecular profiling that is applicable to fixed biopsy specimens.
Project description:Burkitt lymphoma (BL) predominates in pediatric patients, whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncommon. In contrast to adults, BL and DLBCL are treated similarly in children and both entities have superior outcomes in children compared with adults. Gene expression profiling (GEP) and miRNA expression profiling clearly differentiated pediatric DLBCL from BL, forming distinct clusters regardless of patient age. However, pathway analysis of GEP data identified minor differences between corresponding pediatric and adult tumors. Predominance (6:1) of the germinal center B-cell subtype to activated B-cell subtype was found among pediatric DLBCL. Two cases were molecularly classified as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. We observed frequent abnormalities in 8q24 in pediatric DLBCL, including MYC rearrangement in 31% (5 of 16) and gain or amplification in 50% (6 of 12) nonrearranged cases. MYC rearrangement was present in 96% (23 of 24) BL cases. Array-based CGH analysis identified abnormalities that are shared between adult and pediatric DLBCL (+12q15, +19q13, -6q), and abnormalities unique to the pediatric cases (-4p14, -19q13.32, +16p11.2), suggesting distinct pathogenetic mechanisms relative to age. Elucidation of the underlying target genes may provide insight into factors that modulate outcome and could provide potential novel therapeutic targets with less toxicity for pediatric patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Project description:Sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) can be delineated from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by a very homogeneous mRNA expression signature. However, it remained unclear whether all three BL variants-sBL, endemic BL (eBL) and human immunodeficiency virus-associated BL (HIV-BL)-represent a uniform biological entity despite their differences in geographical occurrence, association with immunodeficiency and/or incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To address this issue, we generated micro RNA (miRNA) profiles from 18 eBL, 31 sBL and 15 HIV-BL cases. In addition, we analyzed the miRNA expression of 86 DLBCL to determine whether miRNA profiles recapitulate the molecular differences between BL and DLBCL evidenced by mRNA profiling. A signature of 38 miRNAs containing MYC regulated and nuclear factor-kB pathway-associated miRNAs was obtained that differentiated BL from DLBCL. The miRNA profiles of sBL and eBL displayed only six differentially expressed miRNAs, whereas HIV and EBV infection had no impact on the miRNA profile of BL. In conclusion, miRNA profiling confirms that BL and DLBCL represent distinct lymphoma categories and demonstrates that the three BL variants are representatives of the same biological entity with only marginal miRNA expression differences between eBL and sBL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MYC is a heterogeneously expressed transcription factor that plays a multifunctional role in many biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. It is also associated with many types of cancer including the malignant lymphomas. There are two types of aggressive B-cell lymphoma, namely Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and a subgroup of diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which both carry MYC translocations and overexpress MYC but both differ significantly in their clinical outcome. In DLBCL, MYC translocations are associated with an aggressive behavior and poor outcome, whereas MYC-positive BL show a superior outcome. METHODS:To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated the different modes of actions of MYC in aggressive B-cell lymphoma cell lines subdivided into three groups: (i) MYC-positive BL, (ii) DLBCL with MYC translocation (DLBCLpos) and (iii) DLBCL without MYC translocation (DLBCLneg) for control. In order to identify genome-wide MYC-DNA binding sites a chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was performed. In addition, ChIP-Seq for H3K4me3 was used for determination of genomic regions accessible for transcriptional activity. These data were supplemented with gene expression data derived from RNA-Seq. RESULTS:Bioinformatics integration of all data sets revealed different MYC-binding patterns and transcriptional profiles in MYC-positive BL and DLBCL cell lines indicating different functional roles of MYC for gene regulation in aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Based on this multi-omics analysis we identified ADGRE5 (alias CD97) - a member of the EGF-TM7 subfamily of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors - as a MYC target gene, which is specifically expressed in BL but not in DLBCL regardless of MYC translocation. CONCLUSION:Our study describes a diverse genome-wide MYC-DNA binding pattern in BL and DLBCL cell lines with and without MYC translocations. Furthermore, we identified ADREG5 as a MYC target gene able to discriminate between BL and DLBCL irrespectively of the presence of MYC breaks in DLBCL. Since ADGRE5 plays an important role in tumor cell formation, metastasis and invasion, it might also be instrumental to better understand the different pathobiology of BL and DLBCL and help to explain discrepant clinical characteristics of BL and DLBCL.
Project description:Clinical studies showed that advanced stage, high LDH, poor response to reduction therapy and combined bone marrow and central nervous system disease are significantly associated with a decreased event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) treated on FAB/LMB96. Although rearranged MYC/8q24 (R8q24) is characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma (BL), little information is available on other cytogenetic abnormalities and their prognostic importance. We performed an international review of 238 abnormal karyotypes in childhood mature B-NHL treated on FAB/LMB96: 76% BL, 8% Burkitt-like lymphoma, 13% diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The main BL R8q24-associated chromosomal aberrations were +1q (29%), +7q and del(13q) (14% each). The DLBCL appeared heterogeneous and more complex. Incidence of R8q24 (34%) was higher than reported in adult DLBCL. The prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities on EFS was studied by Cox model controlling for the known risk factors: R8q24, +7q and del(13q) were independently associated with a significant inferior EFS (hazard ratio: 6.1 (P=0.030), 2.5 (P=0.015) and 4.0 (P=0.0003), respectively). The adverse prognosis of R8q24 was observed only in DLBCL, whereas del(13q) and +7q had a similar effect in DLBCL and BL. These results emphasize the significant biological heterogeneity and the development of cytogenetic risk-adapted therapy in childhood mature B-NHL.
Project description:BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes commonly deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations (BCL2(+)/MYC(+)) were identified in 54 samples by karyotype and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization with the aim of correlating clinical and cytogenetic characteristics to overall survival. BCL2(+)/MYC(+) lymphomas were diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU; n = 36) with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); DLBCL (n = 17), or follicular lymphoma (n = 1). Despite the presence of a t(14;18), 5 cases were BCL2 protein-negative. Nonimmunoglobulin gene/MYC (non-IG/MYC) translocations occurred in 24 of 54 cases (44%) and were highly associated with DLBCL morphology (P < .001). Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 6 patients remained in remission and 32 died within 6 months of the MYC(+) rearrangement, irrespective of whether MYC(+) occurred at diagnosis (31 of 54) or transformation (23 of 54; P = .53). A non-IG/MYC translocation partner, absent BCL2 protein expression and treatment with rituximab-based chemotherapy, were associated with a more favorable outcome, but a low International Prognostic Index score and DLBCL morphology were independent predictors of overall survival. A comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of BCL2 and MYC status on all aggressive lymphomas may identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens that include rituximab and/or BCL2-targeted therapy.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the value of PTEN, NF-κB, WWP2, p53 and c-Myc expressions in distinguishing B cell lymphomas from reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH), and their abilities to discriminate different B cell lymphoma subtypes. Lymphoma tissue samples were obtained from 30 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients, 30 germinal center B-cell like (GCB) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, 30 non-GCB DLBCL patients and 30 Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) patients. And hyperplasia tissue samples were obtained from and 30 RFH patients. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the expressions of PTEN, NF-κB, WWP2, P53 and c-Myc. PTEN expression was elevated in GCB DLBCL and BL compared with RFH, and in GCB DLBCL, non-GCB DLBCL and BL than that in FL; WWP2 expression was higher in FL, GCB DLBCL, non-GCB DLBCL and BL compared with RFH; p53 expression increased in non-GCB DLBCL compared with RFH, and in BL compared with RFH, FL or GCB DLBCL; c-Myc expression was higher in GCB DLBCL, non-GCB DLBCL and BL compared with RFH; c-Myc expression was elevated in GCB DLBCL, non-GCB DLBCL and BL compared with FL. Additionally, PTEN negatively correlated with p53 expression in FL and CGB DLBCL, whereas NF-κB negatively correlated with WWP2 in GCB DLBCL, but positively associated with PTEN in RFH and c-Myc in BL. PTEN, WWP2, p53 and c-Myc expressions might be served as biomarkers for identification of B cell lymphomas from RFH as well as distinguishing different B cell lymphoma subtypes.
Project description:Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. A small subset of DLBCLs has translocations involving the MYC locus and an additional group has a molecular signature resembling Burkitt lymphoma (mBL). Presently, identification of such cases by morphology is unreliable and relies on cytogenetic or complex molecular methods such as gene transcriptional profiling. Herein, we describe an immunohistochemical (IHC) method for identifying DLBCLs with increased MYC protein expression. We tested 77 cases of DLBCL and identified 15 cases with high MYC protein expression (nuclear staining in >50% of tumor cells). All MYC translocation positive cases had increased MYC protein expression by this IHC assay. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the DLBCL transcriptional profiles revealed that tumors with increased MYC protein expression (regardless of underlying MYC translocation status) had coordinate upregulation of MYC target genes, providing molecular confirmation of the IHC results. We then generated a molecular classifier derived from the MYC IHC results in our cases and employed it to successfully classify mBLs from two previously reported independent case series, providing additional confirmation that the MYC IHC results identify clinically important subsets of DLBCLs. Lastly, we found that DLBCLs with high MYC protein expression had inferior overall survival when treated with R-CHOP. In conclusion, the IHC method described herein can be used to readily identify the biologically and clinically distinct cases of MYC-driven DLBCL, which represent a clinically significant subset of DLBCL cases due to their inferior overall survival.
Project description:Comparative genome-wide expression profiling of malignant tumor counterparts across the human-mouse species barrier has a successful track record as a gene discovery tool in liver, breast, lung, prostate and other cancers, but has been largely neglected in studies on neoplasms of mature B-lymphocytes such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). We used global gene expression profiles of DLBCL-like tumors that arose spontaneously in Myc-transgenic C57BL/6 mice as a phylogenetically conserved filter for analyzing the human DLBCL transcriptome. The human and mouse lymphomas were found to have 60 concordantly deregulated genes in common, including 8 genes that Cox hazard regression analysis associated with overall survival in a published landmark dataset of DLBCL. Genetic network analysis of the 60 genes followed by biological validation studies indicate FOXM1 as a candidate DLBCL and BL gene, supporting a number of studies contending that FOXM1 is a therapeutic target in mature B cell tumors. Our findings demonstrate the value of the "mouse filter" for genomic studies of human B-lineage neoplasms for which a vast knowledge base already exists.
Project description:Sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) can be delineated from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by a very homogeneous mRNA expression signature. However, it remained unclear whether all three BL variants – sBL, endemic BL (eBL) and immunodeficiency-associated BL (HIV-BL) – represent a uniform biological entity despite their differences in geographical occurrence, association with immunodeficiency and/or incidence of EBV infection. To address this issue, we generated micro RNA (miRNA) profiles from 18 eBL, 31 sBL and 15 HIV-BL cases. In addition, we analyzed the miRNA expression of 86 DLBCL to determine whether miRNA profiles recapitulate the molecular differences between BL and DLBCL evidenced by mRNA profiling. A signature of 38 miRNAs enriched in MYC regulated and NF-kB pathway associated miRNAs was obtained that differentiated BL from DLBCL. The miRNA profiles of sBL and eBL displayed only 6 differentially expressed miRNAs, whereas HIV and EBV infection had no impact on the miRNA profile of BL. In conclusion, miRNA profiling confirms that BL and DLBCL represent distinct lymphoma categories and demonstrates that the three BL variants are representatives of the same biological entity with only marginal miRNA expression differences between eBL and sBL. Overall design: Archival tumor specimens of 86 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 64 Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients were obtained. The DLBCL samples have previously been reviewed by a panel of expert hematopathologists and their clinical data were published as part of the RiCOVER-60 trial. The diagnosis of all BL cases was confirmed by histopathology review according to the criteria of the WHO classification. Based on their geographical origin, 31 BL samples were designated as sporadic BL (sBL) and 18 samples as endemic BL (eBL). Fifteen BL cases were diagnosed as immunodeficiency-associated BL (HIV-BL). Of the 18 eBL 14 cases were EBV+ (87.5%), 2 samples were EBV- (12.5%) and for 2 eBL cases the EBV status was unknown. Of the sBL samples 26 were EBV- (86.7%), 4 cases were EBV+ (13.3%) and for 1 case the EBV status was not evaluable. Among the HIV-BL 5 (33.3%) were EBV+, whereas 10 (66.7%) were EBV-.