Mitochondrial and nucleolar localization of cysteine desulfurase Nfs and the scaffold protein Isu in Trypanosoma brucei.
ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma brucei has a complex life cycle during which its single mitochondrion is subjected to major metabolic and morphological changes. While the procyclic stage (PS) of the insect vector contains a large and reticulated mitochondrion, its counterpart in the bloodstream stage (BS) parasitizing mammals is highly reduced and seems to be devoid of most functions. We show here that key Fe-S cluster assembly proteins are still present and active in this organelle and that produced clusters are incorporated into overexpressed enzymes. Importantly, the cysteine desulfurase Nfs, equipped with the nuclear localization signal, was detected in the nucleolus of both T. brucei life stages. The scaffold protein Isu, an interacting partner of Nfs, was also found to have a dual localization in the mitochondrion and the nucleolus, while frataxin and both ferredoxins are confined to the mitochondrion. Moreover, upon depletion of Isu, cytosolic tRNA thiolation dropped in the PS but not BS parasites.
Project description:Fe-S clusters are critical prosthetic groups for proteins involved in various critical biological processes. Before being transferred to recipient apo-proteins, Fe-S clusters are assembled on the highly conserved scaffold protein Isu, the abundance of which is regulated posttranslationally on disruption of the cluster biogenesis system. Here we report that Isu is degraded by the Lon-type AAA+ ATPase protease of the mitochondrial matrix, Pim1. Nfs1, the cysteine desulfurase responsible for providing sulfur for cluster formation, is required for the increased Isu stability occurring after disruption of cluster formation on or transfer from Isu. Physical interaction between the Isu and Nfs1 proteins, not the enzymatic activity of Nfs1, is the important factor in increased stability. Analysis of several conditions revealed that high Isu levels can be advantageous or disadvantageous, depending on the physiological condition. During the stationary phase, elevated Isu levels were advantageous, resulting in prolonged chronological lifespan. On the other hand, under iron-limiting conditions, high Isu levels were deleterious. Compared with cells expressing normal levels of Isu, such cells grew poorly and exhibited reduced activity of the heme-containing enzyme ferric reductase. Our results suggest that modulation of the degradation of Isu by the Pim1 protease is a regulatory mechanism serving to rapidly help balance the cell's need for critical iron-requiring processes under changing environmental conditions.
Project description:There are a variety of complex metabolic processes ongoing simultaneously in the single, large mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei. Understanding the organellar environment and dynamics of mitochondrial proteins requires quantitative measurement in vivo. In this study, we have validated a method for immobilizing both procyclic stage (PS) and bloodstream stage (BS) T. brucei brucei with a high level of cell viability over several hours and verified its suitability for undertaking fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), with mitochondrion-targeted yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Next, we used this method for comparative analysis of the translational diffusion of mitochondrial RNA-binding protein 1 (MRP1) in the BS and in T. b. evansi. The latter flagellate is like petite mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it lacks organelle-encoded nucleic acids. FRAP measurement of YFP-tagged MRP1 in both cell lines illuminated from a new perspective how the absence or presence of RNA affects proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. This work represents the first attempt to examine this process in live trypanosomes.
Project description:Biogenesis of mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster proteins requires the interaction of multiple proteins with the highly conserved 14-kDa scaffold protein Isu, on which clusters are built prior to their transfer to recipient proteins. For example, the assembly process requires the cysteine desulfurase Nfs1, which serves as the sulfur donor for cluster assembly. The transfer process requires Jac1, a J-protein Hsp70 cochaperone. We recently identified three residues on the surface of Jac1 that form a hydrophobic patch critical for interaction with Isu. The results of molecular modeling of the Isu1-Jac1 interaction, which was guided by these experimental data and structural/biophysical information available for bacterial homologs, predicted the importance of three hydrophobic residues forming a patch on the surface of Isu1 for interaction with Jac1. Using Isu variants having alterations in residues that form the hydrophobic patch on the surface of Isu, this prediction was experimentally validated by in vitro binding assays. In addition, Nfs1 was found to require the same hydrophobic residues of Isu for binding, as does Jac1, suggesting that Jac1 and Nfs1 binding is mutually exclusive. In support of this conclusion, Jac1 and Nfs1 compete for binding to Isu. Evolutionary analysis revealed that residues involved in these interactions are conserved and that they are critical residues for the biogenesis of Fe/S cluster protein in vivo. We propose that competition between Jac1 and Nfs1 for Isu binding plays an important role in transitioning the Fe/S cluster biogenesis machinery from the cluster assembly step to the Hsp70-mediated transfer of the Fe/S cluster to recipient proteins.
Project description:Fe/S clusters are part of the active site of many enzymes and are essential for cell viability. In eukaryotes the cysteine desulfurase Nfs (IscS) donates the sulfur during Fe/S cluster assembly and was thought sufficient for this reaction. Moreover, Nfs is indispensable for tRNA thiolation, a modification generally required for tRNA function and protein synthesis. Recently, Isd11 was discovered as an integral part of the Nfs activity at an early step of Fe/S cluster assembly. Here we show, using a combination of genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches, that Isd11, in line with its strong association with Nfs, is localized in the mitochondrion of T. brucei. In addition to its involvement in Fe/S assembly, Isd11 also partakes in both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNA thiolation, whereas Mtu1, another protein proposed to collaborate with Nfs in tRNA thiolation, is required for this process solely within the mitochondrion. Taken together these data place Isd11 at the center of these sulfur transactions and raises the possibility of a connection between Fe/S metabolism and protein synthesis, helping integrate two seemingly unrelated pathways.
Project description:Friedreich ataxia is caused by reduced activity of frataxin, a conserved iron-binding protein of the mitochondrial matrix, thought to supply iron for formation of Fe-S clusters on the scaffold protein Isu. Frataxin binds Isu in an iron-dependent manner in vitro. However, the biological relevance of this interaction and whether in vivo the interaction between frataxin and Isu is mediated by adaptor proteins is a matter of debate. Here, we report that alterations of conserved, surface-exposed residues of yeast frataxin, which have deleterious effects on cell growth, impair Fe-S cluster biogenesis and interaction with Isu while altering neither iron binding nor oligomerization. Our results support the idea that the surface of the beta-sheet, adjacent to the acidic, iron binding ridge, is important for interaction of Yfh1 with the Fe-S cluster scaffold and point to a critical role for frataxin in Fe-S cluster biogenesis.
Project description:Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) are ubiquitously expressed and metabolically interconnected glycerophospholipids in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In Trypanosoma brucei, PE synthesis has been shown to occur mainly via the Kennedy pathway, one of the three routes leading to PE synthesis in eukaryotes, while PS synthesis has not been studied experimentally. We now reveal the importance of T. brucei PS synthase 2 (TbPSS2) and T. brucei PS decarboxylase (TbPSD), two key enzymes involved in aminophospholipid synthesis, for trypanosome viability. By using tetracycline-inducible down-regulation of gene expression and in vivo and in vitro metabolic labeling, we found that TbPSS2 (i) is necessary for normal growth of procyclic trypanosomes, (ii) localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and (iii) represents the unique route for PS formation in T. brucei. In addition, we identified TbPSD as type I PS decarboxylase in the mitochondrion and found that it is processed proteolytically at a WGSS cleavage site into a heterodimer. Down-regulation of TbPSD expression affected mitochondrial integrity in both procyclic and bloodstream form trypanosomes, decreased ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in procyclic form and affected parasite growth.
Project description:Trypanosoma brucei is a kinetoplastid flagellate, the agent of human sleeping sickness and ruminant nagana in Africa. Kinetoplastid flagellates contain their eponym kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), consisting of two types of interlocked circular DNA molecules: scores of maxicircles and thousands of minicircles. Maxicircles have typical mitochondrial genes, most of which are translatable only after RNA editing. Minicircles encode guide RNAs, required for decrypting the maxicircle transcripts. The life cycle of T. brucei involves a bloodstream stage (BS) in vertebrates and a procyclic stage (PS) in the tsetse fly vector. Partial [dyskinetoplastidy (Dk)] or total [akinetoplastidy (Ak)] loss of kDNA locks the trypanosome in the BS form. Transmission between vertebrates becomes mechanical without PS and tsetse mediation, allowing the parasite to spread outside the African tsetse belt. Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are agents of dourine and surra, diseases of horses, camels, and water buffaloes. We have characterized representative strains of T. equiperdum and T. evansi by numerous molecular and classical parasitological approaches. We show that both species are actually strains of T. brucei, which lost part (Dk) or all (Ak) of their kDNA. These trypanosomes are not monophyletic clades and do not qualify for species status. They should be considered two subspecies, respectively T. brucei equiperdum and T. brucei evansi, which spontaneously arose recently. Dk/Ak trypanosomes may potentially emerge repeatedly from T. brucei.
Project description:In mitochondria FeS clusters, prosthetic groups critical for the activity of many proteins, are first assembled on Isu, a 14-kDa scaffold protein, and then transferred to recipient apoproteins. The assembly process involves interaction of Isu with both Nfs1, the cysteine desulfurase serving as a sulfur donor, and the yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) serving as a regulator of desulfurase activity and/or iron donor. Here, based on the results of biochemical experiments with purified wild-type and variant proteins, we report that interaction of Yfh1 with both Nfs1 and Isu are required for formation of a stable tripartite assembly complex. Disruption of either Yfh1-Isu or Nfs1-Isu interactions destabilizes the complex. Cluster transfer to recipient apoprotein is known to require the interaction of Isu with the J-protein/Hsp70 molecular chaperone pair, Jac1 and Ssq1. Here we show that the Yfh1 interaction with Isu involves the PVK sequence motif, which is also the site key for the interaction of Isu with Hsp70 Ssq1. Coupled with our previous observation that Nfs1 and Jac1 binding to Isu is mutually exclusive due to partially overlapping binding sites, we propose that such mutual exclusivity of cluster assembly factor (Nfs1/Yfh1) and cluster transfer factor (Jac1/Ssq1) binding to Isu has functional consequences for the transition from the assembly process to the transfer process, and thus regulation of the biogenesis of FeS cluster proteins.
Project description:The ubiquitous mitochondrial J-protein Jac1, called HscB in Escherichia coli, and its partner Hsp70 play a critical role in the transfer of Fe-S clusters from the scaffold protein Isu to recipient proteins. Biochemical results from eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems indicate that formation of the Jac1-Isu complex is important for both targeting of the Isu for Hsp70 binding and stimulation of Hsp70's ATPase activity. However, in apparent contradiction, we previously reported that an 8-fold decrease in Jac1's affinity for Isu1 is well tolerated in vivo, raising the question as to whether the Jac1:Isu interaction actually plays an important biological role. Here, we report the determination of the structure of Jac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Taking advantage of this information and recently published data from the homologous bacterial system, we determined that a total of eight surface-exposed residues play a role in Isu binding, as assessed by a set of biochemical assays. A variant having alanines substituted for these eight residues was unable to support growth of a jac1-? strain. However, replacement of three residues caused partial loss of function, resulting in a significant decrease in the Jac1:Isu1 interaction, a slow growth phenotype, and a reduction in the activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Thus, we conclude that the Jac1:Isu1 interaction plays an indispensable role in the essential process of mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza A Virus (IAV) causes respiratory disease in swine and is a zoonotic pathogen. Uncontrolled IAV in swine herds not only affects animal health, it also impacts production through increased costs associated with treatment and prevention efforts. The Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL) diagnoses influenza respiratory disease in swine and provides epidemiological analyses on samples submitted by veterinarians. DESCRIPTION:To assess the incidence of IAV in swine and inform stakeholders, the ISU FLUture website was developed as an interactive visualization tool that allows the exploration of the ISU VDL swine IAV aggregate data in the clinical diagnostic database. The information associated with diagnostic cases has varying levels of completeness and is anonymous, but minimally contains: sample collection date, specimen type, and IAV subtype. Many IAV positive samples are sequenced, and in these cases, the hemagglutinin (HA) sequence and genetic classification are completed. These data are collected and presented on ISU FLUture in near real-time, and more than 6,000 IAV positive diagnostic cases and their epidemiological and evolutionary information since 2003 are presented to date. The database and web interface provides rapid and unique insight into the trends of IAV derived from both large- and small-scale swine farms across the United States of America. CONCLUSION:ISU FLUture provides a suite of web-based tools to allow stakeholders to search for trends and correlations in IAV case metadata in swine from the ISU VDL. Since the database infrastructure is updated in near real-time and is integrated within a high-volume veterinary diagnostic laboratory, earlier detection is now possible for emerging IAV in swine that subsequently cause vaccination and control challenges. The access to real-time swine IAV data provides a link with the national USDA swine IAV surveillance system and allows veterinarians to make objective decisions regarding the management and control of IAV in swine. The website is publicly accessible at http://influenza.cvm.iastate.edu .