Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Current Perspectives and Future Direction in Disease pathogenesis, Treatment and Diagnosis.
ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases in the world. An important implication of this disease is the progression of the disease to a more complicated condition called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the wide variety of clinical presentations. Over the past 5 years, remarkable progresses have been made in understanding the genetic basis for the disease. Recent clinical trials in pharmacotherapy for the disease have been encouraging as well. It is anticipated that the integration of the wide spectrum information retrieved from genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics studies conducted in NAFLD and NASH will mediate a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and facilitate the postulation of disease pathobiology pathways. Genetic and biological markers identified from the omics studies may hold promise for diagnosis, personalized treatment, early prevention and new drug development.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifaceted metabolic disorder, whose spectrum covers clinical, histological and pathophysiological developments ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, potentially evolving into cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD, while there are no specific treatments. An ever-increasing number of high-throughput Omics investigations on the molecular pathobiology of NAFLD at the cellular, tissue and system levels produce comprehensive biochemical patient snapshots. In the clinical setting, these applications are considerably enhancing our efforts towards obtaining a holistic insight on NAFLD pathophysiology. Omics are also generating non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the distinct stages of NAFLD, that remain though to be validated in multiple, large, heterogenous and independent cohorts, both cross-sectionally as well as prospectively. Finally, they aid in developing novel therapies. By tracing the flow of information from genomics to epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics and glycomics, the chief contributions of these techniques in understanding, diagnosing and treating NAFLD are summarized herein.
Project description:Global gene expression patterns of 2 human steatosis and 9 human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) together with their respective control patterns were analyzed to define the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression molecular characteristics and to define NASH early markers from steatosis. Human liver samples of steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. This dataset is part of the TransQST collection.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to a third of the population in many developed countries. Between 10% and 30% of patients with NAFLD have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that can progress to cirrhosis. There are metabolic risk factors common to both NAFLD and cardiovascular disease, so patients with NASH have an increased risk of liver-related and cardiovascular death. Management of patients with NAFLD depends largely on the stage of disease, emphasising the importance of careful risk stratification. There are four main areas to focus on when thinking about management strategies in NAFLD: lifestyle modification, targeting the components of the metabolic syndrome, liver-directed pharmacotherapy for high risk patients and managing the complications of cirrhosis.
Project description:CONTEXT: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver". RESULTS: NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by "multiple parallel hits": environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH.
Project description:Global gene expression patterns of 2 human steatosis and 9 human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) together with their respective control patterns were analyzed to define the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression molecular characteristics and to define NASH early markers from steatosis. Overall design: Human liver samples of steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) has the potential to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or to promote type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, NASH and T2DM do not always develop coordinately. We established rat models of NAFL, NASH, and NAFL + T2DM to recapitulate different phenotypes associated with NAFLD and its progression. Microarrays were used to identify hepatic gene expression changes in each of these models. The goal is to identify a predictor of different NAFLD progressions. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a low-grade systemic inflammatory state with both hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations. We aimed to identify common key regulators and adaptive pathways in different NAFLD phenotypes. NAFL, NASH and NAFL+T2DM rat models were used to represent simple fatty liver, fatty liver with severe hepatic manifestations, and fatty liver with severe metabolic manifestations, respectively. We applied microarray analysis to characterize the key regulators and adaptive pathways in different NAFLD phenotypes. There are 12 samples in our study which belonged to 4 groups, and each group contains 3 different samples.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represent a growing unmet medical need and an increasingly prevalent cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death in Japan. The aim of this review was to characterize the epidemiology of NAFLD and NASH in Japan. An English and Japanese literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and ICHUSHI Web, identifying 6553 studies, 67 of which were included. Prevalence of NAFLD in the Japanese population rose from the early 1990s (12.6-12.9%) to the early 2000s (24.6-34.7% of the population). Japanese NASH prevalence is estimated to be 1.9-2.7%. NAFLD and NASH are more common among males than females; however, females experience more severe disease than males. While obese patients had higher prevalence of NAFLD/NASH, nonobese individuals (body mass index [BMI] <25?kg/m2) consistently comprised 20% to >35% of NAFLD and NASH patients. The evidence shows that, despite obesity being linked with worse disease stages, "lean-NASH" also plays an important role in NASH epidemiology. Besides obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome appeared to be reliably associated with disease severity. The prevalence of advanced fibrosis or cirrhotic disease was the highest in patients with NASH-HCC (44-80% with stage F3/F4 disease), while 21-50% of patients with NASH had F3/F4 disease. NAFLD/NASH is common in the Japanese population, and the prevalence of these conditions has tripled in the last two decades. Furthermore, these NAFLD/NASH patients have a high comorbidity burden. Early and efficient identification of safe and effective treatments for NAFLD/NASH patients is urgently needed.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of chronic liver injury that has gained concern in clinical hepatology. The principal aim of this study was to find differences in protein expression between patients with NAFLD and healthy controls.Changes in protein expression of liver samples from each of the three groups of subjects, controls, non-alcoholic steatosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were analyzed by DIGE combined with MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, a proteomic approach that allows to compare hundreds of proteins simultaneously.Forty-three proteins exhibiting significant changes (ratio ?1.5, p<0.05) were characterized, 22 comparing steatosis samples versus control samples and 21 comparing NASH versus control samples. Ten of these proteins were further analyzed by Western blot in tissue samples to confirm the observed changes of protein expression using DIGE. The proteins validated were further tested in serum samples of different cohorts of patients.Following this approach we identified two candidate markers, carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and 78? kDa glucose-regulated protein, differentially expressed between control and NASH. This proteomics approach demonstrates that DIGE combined with MALDI TOF/TOF and Western blot analysis of tissue and serum samples is a useful approach to identify candidate markers associated with NAFLD, resulting in proteins whose level of expression can be correlated to a disease state.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major chronic liver disease that can lead to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and ultimately death. NAFLD is pathologically classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) based on the existence of ballooned hepatocytes, although the states have been known to transform into each other. Moreover, since the detection of ballooned hepatocytes may be difficult with limited biopsied specimens, its clinical significance needs reconsideration. Repeated liver biopsy to assess histological NAFLD activity for therapeutic response is also impractical, creating the need for body fluid biomarkers and less invasive imaging modalities. Recent longitudinal observational studies have emphasized the importance of advanced fibrosis as a determinant of NAFLD outcome. Thus, identifying predictors of fibrosis progression and developing better screening methods will enable clinicians to isolate high-risk NAFLD patients requiring early intensive intervention. Despite the considerable heterogeneity of NAFLD with regard to underlying disease, patient age, and fibrosis stage, several clinical trials are underway to develop a first-in-class drug. In this review, we summarize the present status and future direction of NAFLD/NASH research towards solving unmet medical needs.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the West. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of NAFLD and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. Multiple components and risk factors are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH. Optimal therapy has not yet been found, but many advances have been made with the discovery of potential therapeutic options. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of approved, studied, and upcoming treatment options for NAFLD and NASH. Non-pharmacologic therapy (lifestyle modifications and bariatric surgery) and pharmacologic therapy are both reviewed. Pharmacologic therapy target components thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease process including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and fibrosis are reviewed in this paper. Results of the emerging treatment targets in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials are also included.