Mechanistic studies of FosB: a divalent-metal-dependent bacillithiol-S-transferase that mediates fosfomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: FosB is a divalent-metal-dependent thiol-S-transferase implicated in fosfomycin resistance among many pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. In the present paper, we describe detailed kinetic studies of FosB from Staphylococcus aureus (SaFosB) that confirm that bacillithiol (BSH) is its preferred physiological thiol substrate. SaFosB is the first to be characterized among a new class of enzyme (bacillithiol-S-transferases), which, unlike glutathione transferases, are distributed among many low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria that use BSH instead of glutathione as their major low-molecular-mass thiol. The K(m) values for BSH and fosfomycin are 4.2 and 17.8 mM respectively. Substrate specificity assays revealed that the thiol and amino groups of BSH are essential for activity, whereas malate is important for SaFosB recognition and catalytic efficiency. Metal activity assays indicated that Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) are likely to be the relevant cofactors under physiological conditions. The serine analogue of BSH (BOH) is an effective competitive inhibitor of SaFosB with respect to BSH, but uncompetitive with respect to fosfomycin. Coupled with NMR characterization of the reaction product (BS-fosfomycin), this demonstrates that the SaFosB-catalysed reaction pathway involves a compulsory ordered binding mechanism with fosfomycin binding first followed by BSH which then attacks the more sterically hindered C-1 carbon of the fosfomycin epoxide. Disruption of BSH biosynthesis in S. aureus increases sensitivity to fosfomycin. Together, these results indicate that SaFosB is a divalent-metal-dependent bacillithiol-S-transferase that confers fosfomycin resistance on S. aureus.
Project description:In Staphylococcus aureus, the low-molecular-weight thiol called bacillithiol (BSH), together with cognate S-transferases, is believed to be the counterpart to the glutathione system of other organisms. To explore the physiological role of BSH in S. aureus, we constructed mutants with the deletion of bshA (sa1291), which encodes the glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the first step of BSH biosynthesis, and fosB (sa2124), which encodes a BSH-S-transferase that confers fosfomycin resistance, in several S. aureus strains, including clinical isolates. Mutation of fosB or bshA caused a 16- to 60-fold reduction in fosfomycin resistance in these S. aureus strains. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis, which quantified thiol extracts, revealed some variability in the amounts of BSH present across S. aureus strains. Deletion of fosB led to a decrease in BSH levels. The fosB and bshA mutants of strain COL and a USA300 isolate, upon further characterization, were found to be sensitive to H2O2 and exhibited decreased NADPH levels compared with those in the isogenic parents. Microarray analyses of COL and the isogenic bshA mutant revealed increased expression of genes involved in staphyloxanthin synthesis in the bshA mutant relative to that in COL under thiol stress conditions. However, the bshA mutant of COL demonstrated decreased survival compared to that of the parent in human whole-blood survival assays; likewise, the naturally BSH-deficient strain SH1000 survived less well than its BSH-producing isogenic counterpart. Thus, the survival of S. aureus under oxidative stress is facilitated by BSH, possibly via a FosB-mediated mechanism, independently of its capability to produce staphyloxanthin.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH) has been prepared on the gram scale from the inexpensive starting material, D-glucosamine hydrochloride, in 11 steps and 8-9% overall yield. The BSH was used to survey the substrate and metal-ion selectivity of FosB enzymes from four Gram-positive microorganisms associated with the deactivation of the antibiotic fosfomycin. The in vitro results indicate that the preferred thiol substrate and metal ion for the FosB from Staphylococcus aureus are BSH and Ni(II), respectively. However, the metal-ion selectivity is less distinct with FosB from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus anthracis, or Bacillus cereus.
Project description:The fosfomycin resistance enzymes, FosB, from Gram-positive organisms, are M(2+)-dependent thiol tranferases that catalyze nucleophilic addition of either L-cysteine (L-Cys) or bacillithiol (BSH) to the antibiotic, resulting in a modified compound with no bacteriacidal properties. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of FosB from Bacillus cereus (FosB(Bc)). The overall structure of FosB(Bc), at 1.27 Å resolution, reveals that the enzyme belongs to the vicinal oxygen chelate (VOC) superfamily. Crystal structures of FosB(Bc) cocrystallized with fosfomycin and a variety of divalent metals, including Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Zn(2+), indicate that the antibiotic coordinates to the active site metal center in an orientation similar to that found in the structurally homologous manganese-dependent fosfomycin resistance enzyme, FosA. Surface analysis of the FosB(Bc) structures show a well-defined binding pocket and an access channel to C1 of fosfomycin, the carbon to which nucleophilic addition of the thiol occurs. The pocket and access channel are appropriate in size and shape to accommodate L-Cys or BSH. Further investigation of the structures revealed that the fosfomycin molecule, anchored by the metal, is surrounded by a cage of amino acids that hold the antibiotic in an orientation such that C1 is centered at the end of the solvent channel, positioning the compound for direct nucleophilic attack by the thiol substrate. In addition, the structures of FosB(Bc) in complex with the L-Cys-fosfomycin product (1.55 Å resolution) and in complex with the bacillithiol-fosfomycin product (1.77 Å resolution) coordinated to a Mn(2+) metal in the active site have been determined. The L-Cys moiety of either product is located in the solvent channel, where the thiol has added to the backside of fosfomycin C1 located at the end of the channel. Concomitant kinetic analyses of FosB(Bc) indicated that the enzyme has a preference for BSH over L-Cys when activated by Mn(2+) and is inhibited by Zn(2+). The fact that Zn(2+) is an inhibitor of FosB(Bc) was used to obtain a ternary complex structure of the enzyme with both fosfomycin and L-Cys bound.
Project description:The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Like many multi-drug-resistant organisms, S. aureus contains antibiotic-modifying enzymes that facilitate resistance to a multitude of antimicrobial compounds. FosB is a Mn(2+)-dependent fosfomycin-inactivating enzyme found in S. aureus that catalyzes nucleophilic addition of either l-cysteine (l-Cys) or bacillithiol (BSH) to the antibiotic, resulting in a modified compound with no bactericidal properties. The three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of FosB from S. aureus (FosB(Sa)) has been determined to a resolution of 1.15 Å. Cocrystallization of FosB(Sa) with either l-Cys or BSH results in a disulfide bond between the exogenous thiol and the active site Cys9 of the enzyme. An analysis of the structures suggests that a highly conserved loop region of the FosB enzymes must change conformation to bind fosfomycin. While two crystals of FosB(Sa) contain Zn(2+) in the active site, kinetic analyses of FosB(Sa) indicated that the enzyme is inhibited by Zn(2+) for l-Cys transferase activity and only marginally active for BSH transferase activity. Fosfomycin-treated disk diffusion assays involving S. aureus Newman and the USA300 JE2 methicillin-resistant S. aureus demonstrate a marked increase in the sensitivity of the organism to the antibiotic in either the BSH or FosB null strains, indicating that both are required for survival of the organism in the presence of the antibiotic. This work identifies FosB as a primary fosfomycin-modifying pathway of S. aureus and establishes the enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for increased efficacy of fosfomycin against the pathogen.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH), the alpha-anomeric glycoside of L-cysteinyl-D-glucosamine with L-malic acid, is a major low-molecular-weight thiol in Bacillus subtilis and related bacteria. Here, we identify genes required for BSH biosynthesis and provide evidence that the synthetic pathway has similarities to that established for the related thiol (mycothiol) in the Actinobacteria. Consistent with a key role for BSH in detoxification of electrophiles, the BshA glycosyltransferase and BshB1 deacetylase are encoded in an operon with methylglyoxal synthase. BshB1 is partially redundant in function with BshB2, a deacetylase of the LmbE family. Phylogenomic profiling identified a conserved unknown function protein (COG4365) as a candidate cysteine-adding enzyme (BshC) that co-occurs in genomes also encoding BshA, BshB1, and BshB2. Additional evolutionarily linked proteins include a thioredoxin reductase homolog and two thiol:disulfide oxidoreductases of the DUF1094 (CxC motif) family. Mutants lacking BshA, BshC, or both BshB1 and BshB2 are devoid of BSH. BSH is at least partially redundant in function with other low-molecular-weight thiols: redox proteomics indicates that protein thiols are largely reduced even in the absence of BSH. At the transcriptional level, the induction of genes controlled by two thiol-based regulators (OhrR, Spx) occurs normally. However, BSH null cells are significantly altered in acid and salt resistance, sporulation, and resistance to electrophiles and thiol reactive compounds. Moreover, cells lacking BSH are highly sensitive to fosfomycin, an epoxide-containing antibiotic detoxified by FosB, a prototype for bacillithiol-S-transferase enzymes.
Project description:Mycobacterium abscessus belongs to a group of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and accounts for approximately 65-80% of lung disease caused by RGM. It is highly pathogenic and is considered the prominent Mycobacterium involved in pulmonary infection in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic pulmonary disease (CPD). FosM is a putative 134 amino acid fosfomycin resistance enzyme from M. abscessus subsp. bolletii that shares approximately 30-55% sequence identity with other vicinal oxygen chelate (VOC) fosfomycin resistance enzymes and represents the first of its type found in any Mycobacterium species. Genes encoding VOC fosfomycin resistance enzymes have been found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Given that FosA enzymes from Gram-negative bacteria have evolved optimum activity towards glutathione (GSH) and FosB enzymes from Gram-positive bacteria have evolved optimum activity towards bacillithiol (BSH), it was originally suggested that FosM might represent a fourth class of enzyme that has evolved to utilize mycothiol (MSH). However, a sequence similarity network (SSN) analysis identifies FosM as a member of the FosX subfamily, indicating that it may utilize water as a substrate. Here we have synthesized MSH and characterized FosM with respect to divalent metal ion activation and nucleophile selectivity. Our results indicate that FosM is a Mn2+-dependent FosX-type hydrase with no selectivity toward MSH or other thiols as analyzed by NMR and mass spectroscopy.
Project description:Bacillithiol is a low-molecular weight thiol produced by many gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. It is the major thiol responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis and cellular detoxification, including inactivation of the antibiotic fosfomycin. The metal-dependent bacillithiol transferase BstA is likely involved in these sorts of detoxification processes, but the exact substrates and enzyme mechanism have not been identified. Here we report the 1.34 Å resolution X-ray crystallographic structure of BstA from S. aureus. Our structure confirms that BstA belongs to the YfiT-like metal-dependent hydrolase superfamily. Like YfiT, our structure contains nickel within its active site, but our functional data suggest that BstA utilizes zinc for activity. Although BstA and YfiT both contain a core four helix bundle and coordinate their metal ions in the same fashion, significant differences between the protein structures are described here.
Project description:The intracellular redox environment of Staphylococcus aureus is mainly buffered by bacillithiol (BSH), a low molecular weight thiol. The identity of enzymes responsible for the recycling of oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) to the reduced form (BSH) remains elusive. We examined YpdA, a putative bacillithiol reductase, for its role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. The ypdA mutant showed increased levels of BSSB and a lower bacillithiol redox ratio vs. the isogenic parent, indicating a higher level of oxidative stress within the bacterial cytosol. We showed that YpdA consumed NAD(P)H; and YpdA protein levels were augmented in response to stress. Wild type strains overexpressing YpdA showed increased tolerance to oxidants and electrophilic agents. Importantly, YpdA overexpression in the parental strain caused an increase in BSH levels accompanied by a decrease in BSSB concentration in the presence of stress, resulting in an increase in bacillithiol redox ratio vs. the vector control. Additionally, the ypdA mutant exhibited decreased survival in human neutrophils (PMNs) as compared with the parent, while YpdA overexpression protected the resulting strain from oxidative stress in vitro and from killing by human neutrophils ex vivo. Taken together, these data present a new role for YpdA in S. aureus physiology and virulence through the bacillithiol system.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH) is utilized as a major thiol-redox buffer in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Under oxidative stress, BSH forms mixed disulfides with proteins, termed as S-bacillithiolation, which can be reversed by bacilliredoxins (Brx). In eukaryotes, glutaredoxin-fused roGFP2 biosensors have been applied for dynamic live imaging of the glutathione redox potential. Here, we have constructed a genetically encoded bacilliredoxin-fused redox biosensor (Brx-roGFP2) to monitor dynamic changes in the BSH redox potential in S. aureus.The Brx-roGFP2 biosensor showed a specific and rapid response to low levels of bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) in vitro that required the active-site Cys of Brx. Dynamic live imaging in two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 and COL strains revealed fast and dynamic responses of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor under hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress and constitutive oxidation of the probe in different BSH-deficient mutants. Furthermore, we found that the Brx-roGFP2 expression level and the dynamic range are higher in S. aureus COL compared with the USA300 strain. In phagocytosis assays with THP-1 macrophages, the biosensor was 87% oxidized in S. aureus COL. However, no changes in the BSH redox potential were measured after treatment with different antibiotics classes, indicating that antibiotics do not cause oxidative stress in S. aureus. Conclusion and Innovation: This Brx-roGFP2 biosensor catalyzes specific equilibration between the BSH and roGFP2 redox couples and can be applied for dynamic live imaging of redox changes in S. aureus and other BSH-producing Firmicutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 835-848.
Project description:Bacillithiol is a low-molecular-weight thiol analogous to glutathione and is found in several Firmicutes, including Staphylococcus aureus. Since its discovery in 2009, bacillithiol has been a topic of interest because it has been found to contribute to resistance during oxidative stress and detoxification of electrophiles, such as the antibiotic fosfomycin, in S. aureus. The rapid increase in resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to available therapeutic agents is a great health concern, and many research efforts are focused on identifying new drugs and targets to combat this organism. This review describes the discovery of bacillithiol, studies that have elucidated the physiological roles of this molecule in S. aureus and other Bacilli, and the contribution of bacillithiol to S. aureus fitness during pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacillithiol biosynthesis pathway is evaluated as a novel drug target that can be utilized in combination with existing therapies to treat S. aureus infections.