Characterisation of genetic variation in ST8SIA2 and its interaction region in NCAM1 in patients with bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT: Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SIA2) is an enzyme responsible for the transfer of polysialic acid (PSA) to glycoproteins, principally the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1), and is involved in neuronal plasticity. Variants within ST8SIA2 have previously shown association with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism. In addition, altered PSA-NCAM expression in brains of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder indicates a functional dysregulation of glycosylation in mental illness. To explore the role of sequence variation affecting PSA-NCAM formation, we conducted a targeted re-sequencing study of a ? 100 kb region--including the entire ST8SIA2 gene and its region of interaction with NCAM1--in 48 Caucasian cases with bipolar disorder using the Roche 454 platform. We identified over 400 DNA variants, including 47 putative novel variants not described in dbSNP. Validation of a subset of variants via Sequenom showed high reliability of Roche 454 genotype calls (97% genotype concordance, with 80% of novel variants independently verified). We did not observe major loss-of-function mutations that would affect PSA-NCAM formation, either by ablating ST8SIA2 function or by affecting the ability of NCAM1 to be glycosylated. However, we identified 13 SNPs in the UTRs of ST8SIA2, a synonymous coding SNP in exon 5 (rs2305561, P207P) and many additional non-coding variants that may influence splicing or regulation of ST8SIA2 expression. We calculated nucleotide diversity within ST8SIA2 on specific haplotypes, finding that the diversity on the specific "risk" and "protective" haplotypes was lower than other non-disease-associated haplotypes, suggesting that putative functional variation may have arisen on a spectrum of haplotypes. We have identified common and novel variants (rs11074064, rs722645, 15:92961050) that exist on a spectrum of haplotypes, yet are plausible candidates for conferring the effect of risk and protective haplotypes via multiple enhancer elements. A Galaxy workflow/pipeline for sequence analysis used herein is available at: https://main.g2.bx.psu.edu/u/a-shaw-neura/p/next-generation-resources.
Project description:The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1) is a multifunction transmembrane protein involved in synaptic plasticity, neurodevelopment, and neurogenesis. Multiple NCAM1 proteins were differentially altered in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NCAM1 gene were significantly associated with bipolar disorder in the Japanese population. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia may share common vulnerability or susceptibility risk factors for shared features in each disorder.Both SNPs and splice variants in the NCAM1 gene were analysed in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A case-control study design for association of SNPs and differential exon expression in the NCAM1 gene was used.A genotypic association between bipolar disorder and SNP b (rs2303377 near mini-exon b) and a suggestive association between schizophrenia and SNP 9 (rs646558) were found. Three of the two marker haplotypes for SNP 9 and SNP b showed varying frequencies between bipolar and controls (P<0.0001) as well as between schizophrenia and controls (P<0.0001). There were nine NCAM1 transcripts present in postmortem brain samples that involve alternative splicing of NCAM1 mini-exons (a, b, c) and the secreted (SEC) exon. Significant differences in the amounts of four alternatively spliced isoforms were found between NCAM1 SNP genotypes. In exploratory analysis, the c-SEC alternative spliced isoform was significantly decreased in bipolar disorder compared to controls for NCAM1 SNP b heterozygotes (P=0.013).Diverse NCAM1 transcripts were found with possibly different functions. The results suggest that SNPs within NCAM1 contribute differential risk for both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia possibly by alternative splicing of the gene.
Project description:Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward ?-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of ?-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP.
Project description:We previously identified a significant bipolar spectrum disorder linkage peak on 15q25-26 using 35 extended families with a broad clinical phenotype, including bipolar disorder (types I and II), recurrent unipolar depression and schizoaffective disorder. However, the specific gene(s) contributing to this signal had not been identified. By a fine mapping association study in an Australian case-control cohort (n?=?385), we find that the sialyltransferase 8B (ST8SIA2) gene, coding for an enzyme that glycosylates proteins involved in neuronal plasticity which has previously shown association to both schizophrenia and autism, is associated with increased risk to bipolar spectrum disorder. Nominal single point association was observed with SNPs in ST8SIA2 (rs4586379, P?=?0.0043; rs2168351, P?=?0.0045), and a specific risk haplotype was identified (frequency: bipolar vs controls?=?0.41 vs 0.31; ?(2)?=?6.46, P?=?0.011, OR?=?1.47). Over-representation of the specific risk haplotype was also observed in an Australian schizophrenia case-control cohort (n?=?256) (?(2)?=?8.41, P?=?0.004, OR?=?1.82). Using GWAS data from the NIMH bipolar disorder (n?=?2055) and NIMH schizophrenia (n?=?2550) cohorts, the equivalent haplotype was significantly over-represented in bipolar disorder (?(2)?=?5.91, P?=?0.015, OR?=?1.29), with the same direction of effect in schizophrenia, albeit non-significant (?(2)?=?2.3, P?=?0.129, OR?=?1.09). We demonstrate marked down-regulation of ST8SIA2 gene expression across human brain development and show a significant haplotype×diagnosis effect on ST8SIA2 mRNA levels in adult cortex (ANOVA: F(1,87)?=?6.031, P?=?0.016). These findings suggest that variation the ST8SIA2 gene is associated with increased risk to mental illness, acting to restrict neuronal plasticity and disrupt early neuronal network formation, rendering the developing and adult brain more vulnerable to secondary genetic or environmental insults.
Project description:Schizophrenia has been proposed to have a neurodevelopmental aetiology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (NCAM1) is involved in several neurodevelopmental processes and abnormal expression of this gene has been associated in the pathology of schizophrenia and, thus, altered NCAM1 expression may be characteristic of the early stages of the illness. Alternative splicing of the NCAM1 transcript produces 3 major isoforms. Using qPCR we analysed mRNA expression of one of these isoforms; the 180 kDa isoform of NCAM1 (NCAM-180), in Brodmann Area (BA) 46, BA10 and BA17, post-mortem, from 15 subjects with a short duration of illness of schizophrenia (<7 years) and 15 control subjects. NCAM-180 mRNA expression was increased in BA46 from subjects with schizophrenia compared to controls (p=0.013). By contrast, there were no significant differences in the expression of NCAM-180 mRNA in BA10 (p=0.575) or BA17 (p=0.772). We then analysed NCAM-180 mRNA expression in BA46 from 15 subjects with a longer duration of illness of schizophrenia (>22 years) and 15 controls. There was no significant difference in NCAM-180 mRNA expression in this second cohort. This data suggests NCAM-180 mRNA expression is altered in a regionally-specific manner in schizophrenia and these changes are associated with the early period following diagnosis.
Project description:Findings from family studies and recent genome-wide association studies have indicated overlap in the risk genes between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). After finding a linkage between the ST8SIA2 (ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2, 8-sicalyltransferase 2 gene) locus (15q26) and mixed families with schizophrenia and BD, several studies have reported a significant association between this gene and schizophrenia or BD. We investigated the genetic association between ST8SIA2 and both schizophrenia and BD in the Korean population.A total of 582 patients with schizophrenia, 339 patients with BD, and 502 healthy controls were included. Thirty-one tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the ST8SIA2 region and three other SNPs showing significant associations in previous studies were genotyped. The associations were evaluated by logistic regression analysis using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models.Fourteen of 34 SNPs showed a nominally significant association (p < 0.05) with at least one diagnostic group. These association trends were strongest for the schizophrenia and combined schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) groups. The strongest association was observed in rs11637898 for schizophrenia (p = 0.0033) and BD-I (p = 0.0050) under the dominant model. The association between rs11637898 and the combined schizophrenia and BD-I group (p = 0.0006, under the dominant model) remained significant after correcting for multiple testing.We identified a possible role of ST8SIA2 in the common susceptibility of schizophrenia and BD-I. However, no association trend was observed for bipolar II disorder. Further efforts are needed to identify a specific phenotype associated with this gene crossing the current diagnostic categories.
Project description:ST8SIA2 is a polysialyltransferase that attaches polysialic acid to the glycoproteins NCAM1 and CADM1. Polysialylation is involved in brain development and plasticity. ST8SIA2 is a schizophrenia candidate gene, and St8sia2(-/-) mice exhibit schizophrenia-like behavior. We sought to identify new pathological consequences of ST8SIA2 deficiency. Our proteomic analysis suggested myelin impairment in St8sia2(-/-) mice. Histological and immune staining together with Western blot revealed that the onset of myelination was not delayed in St8sia2(-/-) mice, but the content of myelin was lower. Ultrastructure analysis of the corpus callosum showed thinner myelin sheaths, smaller and irregularly shaped axons, and white matter lesions in adult St8sia2(-/-) mice. Then we evaluated oligodendrocyte differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Fewer OLIG2+ cells in the cortex and corpus callosum, together with the higher percentage of undifferentiated oligodenroglia in St8sia2(-/-) mice suggested an impairment in oligodendrocyte generation. Experiment on primary cultures of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) confirmed a cell-autonomous effect of ST8SIA2 in oligodendroglia, and demonstrated that OPC to oligodendrocyte transition is inhibited in St8sia2(-/-) mice. Concluding, ST8SIA2-mediated polysialylation influences on oligodendrocyte differentiation, and oligodendrocyte deficits in St8sia2 mice are a possible cause of the demyelination and degeneration of axons, resembling nerve fiber alterations in schizophrenia. GLIA 2016;65:34-49.
Project description:Aggression is frequently observed in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, and bipolar disorder. Due to a lack of understanding of its underlying mechanisms, effective treatments for abnormal aggression are still missing. Recently, genetic variations in Sialyltransferase 2 (St8sia2) have been linked to these disorders and aggression. Here we identify abnormal aggressive behaviors and concomitant blunted fear learning in St8sia2 knockout (-/-) mice. It is worth noting that the amygdala of St8sia2-/- mice shows diminished threat-induced activation, as well as alterations in synaptic structure and function, including impaired GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity. Pharmacological rescue of NMDA receptor activity in the amygdala of St8sia2-/- mice with the partial agonist D-cycloserine restores synaptic plasticity and normalizes behavioral aberrations. Pathological aggression and associated traits were recapitulated by specific amygdala neonatal St8sia2 silencing. Our results establish a developmental link between St8sia2 deficiency and a pathological aggression syndrome, specify synaptic targets for therapeutic developments, and highlight D-cycloserine as a plausible treatment.
Project description:We previously identified a human monoclonal antibody, termed HIgM12 that stimulates spontaneous locomotor activity in a chronically demyelinating mouse model of multiple sclerosis. When tested as a molecular substrate, HIgM12 stimulated neurite outgrowth in vitro. We recently reported that polysialic acid (PSA) attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is one of the cellular antigens for HIgM12. Fluorescent double-labeling of astrocytes using HIgM12 and commercially available anti-PSA antibody showed dramatic co-localization. Neural tissue homogenates and primary CNS cultures from mice lacking the three major NCAM splice variants NCAM180, NCAM140 and NCAM120 (NCAM KO) were no longer able to bind HIgM12. Furthermore, enzymatic digestion of PSA on wild type (WT) glia abolished HIgM12-binding. Moreover, neurons and glia from NCAM KO animals did not attach to HIgM12-coated nitrocellulose in neurite outgrowth assays. We conclude that HIgM12 targets PSA attached to NCAM, and that the PSA moiety mediates neuronal and glial adhesion and subsequent neurite outgrowth in our in vitro assay. Therefore, this anti-PSA antibody may serve as a future therapeutic to stimulate functional improvement in multiple sclerosis patients and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:The extracellular glycan polysialic acid linked to neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is principally expressed in the developing brain and the adult neurogenic regions. Although colocalization of PSA-NCAM with cholecystokinin (CCK) was found in the adult brain, the role of PSA-NCAM remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of PSA-NCAM in the CA1 region of the male mouse hippocampus. Combined fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that few vesicular glutamate transporter 3-negative/CCK-positive (VGluT3-/CCK+) cells were colocalized with PSA-NCAM, but most of the VGluT3+/CCK+ cells were colocalized with PSA-NCAM. The somata of PSA-NCAM+/CCK+ cells were highly innervated by serotonergic boutons than those of PSA-NCAM-/CCK+ cells. The expression ratios of 5-HT3A receptors and p11, a serotonin receptor-interacting protein, were higher in PSA-NCAM+/CCK+ cells than in PSA-NCAM-/CCK+ cells. Pharmacological digestion of PSA-NCAM impaired the efficacy of antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, but not the efficacy of benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam. A Western blot showed that restraint stress decreased the expressions of p11 and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and FLX increased them. Interestingly, the FLX-induced elevation of expression of p11, but not mature BDNF, was impaired by the digestion of PSA-NCAM. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that restraint stress reduced the expression of polysialyltransferase ST8Sia IV and FLX elevated it. Collectively, PSA-NCAM colocalized with VGluT3+/CCK+ cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus may play a unique role in the regulation of antidepressant efficacy via the serotonergic pathway.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Polysialic acid (PSA) is composed of eight or more ?2,8-linked sialic acids. Here, we examined the functional significance of polysialic acid linked to the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the adult mouse hippocampus. Few vesicular glutamate transporter 3-negative/cholecystokinin-positive (VGluT3-/CCK+) cells were colocalized with PSA-NCAM, but most of the VGluT3+/CCK+ cells were colocalized with PSA-NCAM. The expression ratios of 5-HT3A receptors and p11, a serotonin receptor-interacting protein, were higher in PSA-NCAM+/CCK+ cells than in PSA-NCAM-/CCK+ cells. The efficacy of antidepressants, but not anxiolytics, was impaired by the digestion of PSA-NCAM. The antidepressant-induced increase in p11 expression was inhibited following PSA-NCAM digestion. We hence hypothesize that PSA-NCAM colocalized with VGluT3+/CCK+ cells may play a unique role in regulating antidepressant efficacy.
Project description:The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the major carrier of polysialic acid (PSA) which modulates NCAM functions of neural cells at the cell surface. In previous studies, we have shown that stimulation of cultured neurons with surrogate NCAM ligands leads to the generation and nuclear import of PSA-lacking and -carrying NCAM fragments. Here, we show that the nuclear import of the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is mediated by positive cofactor 4 and cofilin, which we identified as novel PSA-binding proteins. In the nucleus, the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment interacts via PSA with PC4 and cofilin, which are involved in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. Microarray analysis revealed that the nuclear PSA-carrying and -lacking NCAM fragments affect expression of different genes. By qPCR and immunoblot analysis we verified that the nuclear PSA-carrying NCAM fragment increases mRNA and protein expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6, whereas the PSA-lacking NCAM fragment increases mRNA and protein expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 and ?-synuclein. Differential gene expression evoked by nuclear NCAM fragments without and with PSA indicates that PSA-carrying and -lacking NCAM play different functional roles in the nervous system.