Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of patients with imprinting disorders identifies differentially methylated regions associated with novel candidate imprinted genes.
ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting is allelic restriction of gene expression potential depending on parent of origin, maintained by epigenetic mechanisms including parent of origin-specific DNA methylation. Among approximately 70 known imprinted genes are some causing disorders affecting growth, metabolism and cancer predisposition. Some imprinting disorder patients have hypomethylation of several imprinted loci (HIL) throughout the genome and may have atypically severe clinical features. Here we used array analysis in HIL patients to define patterns of aberrant methylation throughout the genome.We developed a novel informatic pipeline capable of small sample number analysis, and profiled 10 HIL patients with two clinical presentations (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and neonatal diabetes) using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip array to identify candidate imprinted regions. We used robust statistical criteria to quantify DNA methylation.We detected hypomethylation at known imprinted loci, and 25 further candidate imprinted regions (nine shared between patient groups) including one in the Down syndrome critical region (WRB) and another previously associated with bipolar disorder (PPIEL). Targeted analysis of three candidate regions (NHP2L1, WRB and PPIEL) showed allelic expression, methylation patterns consistent with allelic maternal methylation and frequent hypomethylation among an additional cohort of HIL patients, including six with Silver-Russell syndrome presentations and one with pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B.This study identified novel candidate imprinted genes, revealed remarkable epigenetic convergence among clinically divergent patients, and highlights the potential of epigenomic profiling to expand our understanding of the normal methylome and its disruption in human disease.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is an allelic gene expression phenomenon primarily controlled by allele-specific DNA methylation at the imprinting control region (ICR), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. N-?-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p) catalyzes N-?-acetylation of nascent proteins, and mutation of human Naa10p is linked to severe developmental delays. Here we report that Naa10-null mice display partial embryonic lethality, growth retardation, brain disorders, and maternal effect lethality, phenotypes commonly observed in defective genomic imprinting. Genome-wide analyses further revealed global DNA hypomethylation and enriched dysregulation of imprinted genes in Naa10p-knockout embryos and embryonic stem cells. Mechanistically, Naa10p facilitates binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) to DNA substrates, including the ICRs of the imprinted allele during S phase. Moreover, the lethal Ogden syndrome-associated mutation of human Naa10p disrupts its binding to the ICR of H19 and Dnmt1 recruitment. Our study thus links Naa10p mutation-associated Ogden syndrome to defective DNA methylation and genomic imprinting.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon restricting gene expression in a manner dependent on parent of origin. Imprinted gene products are critical regulators of growth and development, and imprinting disorders are associated with both genetic and epigenetic mutations, including disruption of DNA methylation within the imprinting control regions (ICRs) of these genes. It was recently reported that some patients with imprinting disorders have a more generalised imprinting defect, with hypomethylation at a range of maternally methylated ICRs. We report a cohort of 149 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), including 81 with maternal hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1 ICR. Methylation analysis of 11 ICRs in these patients showed that hypomethylation affecting multiple imprinted loci was restricted to 17 patients with hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1 ICR, and involved only maternally methylated loci. Both partial and complete hypomethylation was demonstrated in these cases, suggesting a possible postzygotic origin of a mosaic imprinting error. Some ICRs, including the PLAGL1 and GNAS/NESPAS ICRs implicated in the aetiology of transient neonatal diabetes and pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b, respectively, were more frequently affected than others. Although we did not find any evidence for mutation of the candidate gene DNMT3L, these results support the hypotheses that trans-acting factors affect the somatic maintenance of imprinting at multiple maternally methylated loci and that the clinical presentation of these complex cases may reflect the loci and tissues affected with the epigenetic abnormalities.
Project description:PURPOSE: Expression of imprinted genes is regulated by DNA methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is an imprinting disorder caused by epimutations of DMRs at 11p15.5. To date, multiple methylation defects have been reported in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations; however, limited numbers of DMRs have been analyzed. The susceptibility of DMRs to aberrant methylation, alteration of gene expression due to aberrant methylation, and causative factors for multiple methylation defects remain undetermined. METHODS: Comprehensive methylation analysis with two quantitative methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and bisulfite pyrosequencing, was conducted across 29 DMRs in 54 Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome patients with epimutations. Allelic expressions of three genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed. All DMRs with aberrant methylation were sequenced. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of KvDMR1-loss of methylation patients and 30% of H19DMR-gain of methylation patients showed multiple methylation defects. Maternally methylated DMRs were susceptible to aberrant hypomethylation in KvDMR1-loss of methylation patients. Biallelic expression of the genes was associated with aberrant methylation. Cis-acting pathological variations were not found in any aberrantly methylated DMR. CONCLUSION: Maternally methylated DMRs may be vulnerable to DNA demethylation during the preimplantation stage, when hypomethylation of KvDMR1 occurs, and aberrant methylation of DMRs affects imprinted gene expression. Cis-acting variations of the DMRs are not involved in the multiple methylation defects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genome-wide studies have begun to link subtle variations in both allelic DNA methylation and parent-of-origin genetic effects with early development. Numerous reports have highlighted that the placenta plays a critical role in coordinating fetal growth, with many key functions regulated by genomic imprinting. With the recent description of wide-spread polymorphic placenta-specific imprinting, the molecular mechanisms leading to this curious polymorphic epigenetic phenomenon is unknown, as is their involvement in pregnancies complications. RESULTS:Profiling of 35 ubiquitous and 112 placenta-specific imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using high-density methylation arrays and pyrosequencing revealed isolated aberrant methylation at ubiquitous DMRs as well as abundant hypomethylation at placenta-specific DMRs. Analysis of the underlying chromatin state revealed that the polymorphic nature is not only evident at the level of allelic methylation, but DMRs can also adopt an unusual epigenetic signature where the underlying histones are biallelically enrichment of H3K4 methylation, a modification normally mutually exclusive with DNA methylation. Quantitative expression analysis in placenta identified two genes, GPR1-AS1 and ZDBF2, that were differentially expressed between IUGRs and control samples after adjusting for clinical factors, revealing coordinated deregulation at the chromosome 2q33 imprinted locus. CONCLUSIONS:DNA methylation is less stable at placenta-specific imprinted DMRs compared to ubiquitous DMRs and contributes to privileged state of the placenta epigenome. IUGR-associated expression differences were identified for several imprinted transcripts independent of allelic methylation. Further work is required to determine if these differences are the cause IUGR or reflect unique adaption by the placenta to developmental stresses.
Project description:The supernumerary chromosome 21 in Down syndrome differentially affects the methylation statuses at CpG dinucleotide sites and creates genome-wide transcriptional dysregulation of parental alleles, ultimately causing diverse pathologies. At present, it is unknown whether those effects are dependent or independent of the parental origin of the nondisjoined chromosome 21. Linkage analysis is a standard method for the determination of the parental origin of this aneuploidy, although it is inadequate in cases with deficiency of samples from the progenitors. Here, we assessed the reliability of the epigenetic 5mCpG imprints resulting in the maternally (oocyte)-derived allele methylation at a differentially methylated region (DMR) of the candidate imprinted WRB gene for asserting the parental origin of chromosome 21. We developed a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-specific PCR assay, based on the WRB DMR, across single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the methylation statuses in the parental alleles. In genomic DNA from blood cells of either disomic or trisomic subjects, the maternal alleles were consistently methylated, while the paternal alleles were unmethylated. However, the supernumerary chromosome 21 did alter the methylation patterns at the RUNX1 (chromosome 21) and TMEM131 (chromosome 2) CpG sites in a parent-of-origin-independent manner. To evaluate the 5mCpG imprints, we conducted a computational comparative epigenomic analysis of transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and histone modification expression patterns. We found allele fractions consistent with the transcriptional biallelic expression of WRB and ten neighboring genes, despite the similarities in the confluence of both a 17-histone modification activation backbone module and a 5-histone modification repressive module between the WRB DMR and the DMRs of six imprinted genes. We concluded that the maternally inherited 5mCpG imprints at the WRB DMR are uncoupled from the parental allele expression of WRB and ten neighboring genes in several tissues and that trisomy 21 alters DNA methylation in parent-of-origin-dependent and -independent manners.
Project description:Various genes located at imprinted loci and regulated by epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the control of growth and differentiation. The broad phenotypic variability of imprinting disorders suggests that individuals with inborn errors of imprinting might remain undetected among patients born small for gestational age (SGA). We evaluated quantitative DNA methylation analysis at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of 10 imprinted loci (PLAGL1, IGF2R DMR2, GRB10, H19 DMR, IGF2, MEG3, NDN, SNRPN, NESP, NESPAS) by bisulphite pyrosequencing in 98 patients born SGA and 50 controls. For IGF2R DMR2, methylation patterns of additional 47 parent pairs and one mother (95 individuals) of patients included in the SGA cohort were analyzed. In six out of 98 patients born SGA, we detected DNA methylation changes at single loci. In one child, the diagnosis of upd(14)mat syndrome owing to an epimutation of the MEG3 locus in 14q32 could be established. The remaining five patients showed hypomethylation at GRB10 (n=2), hypomethylation at the H19 3CTCF-binding site (n=1), hypermethylation at NDN (n=1) and hypermethylation at IGF2 (n=1). IGF2R DMR2 hypermethylation was detected in five patients, six parents of patients in the SGA cohort and two controls. We conclude that aberrant methylation at imprinted loci in children born SGA exists but seems to be rare if known imprinting syndromes are excluded. Further investigations on the physiological variations and the functional consequences of the detected aberrant methylation are necessary before final conclusions on the clinical impact can be drawn.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedeman syndrome (BWS) and Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) are different human disorders characterized, among other features, by tissue overgrowth. Deregulation of one or more imprinted genes located at chromosome 11p15.5, of which insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is the most likely candidate, is believed to cause BWS, whereas the etiology of KTWS is completely obscure. We report a case of BWS and a case of KTWS in a single family. The probands, sons of two sisters, showed relaxation of the maternal IGF2 imprinting, although they inherited different 11p15.5 alleles from their mothers and did not show any chromosome rearrangement. The patient with BWS also displayed hypomethylation at KvDMR1, a maternally methylated CpG island within an intron of the KvLQT1 gene. The unaffected brother of the BWS proband shared the same maternal and paternal 11p15.5 haplotype with his brother, but the KvDMR1 locus was normally methylated. Methylation of the H19 gene was normal in both the BWS and KTWS probands. Linkage between the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene and the tissue overgrowth was also excluded. These results raise the possibility that a defective modifier or regulatory gene unlinked to 11p15.5 caused a spectrum of epigenetic alterations in the germ line or early development of both cousins, ranging from the relaxation of IGF2 imprinting in the KTWS proband to disruption of both the imprinted expression of IGF2 and the imprinted methylation of KvDMR1 in the BWS proband. Analysis of these data also indicates that loss of IGF2 imprinting is not necessarily linked to alteration of methylation at the KvDMR1 or H19 loci and supports the notion that IGF2 overexpression is involved in the etiology of the tissue hypertrophy observed in different overgrowth disorders, including KTWS.
Project description:A cluster of imprinted genes at chromosome 11p15.5 is associated with the growth disorders, Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). The cluster is divided into two domains with independent imprinting control regions (ICRs). We describe two maternal 11p15.5 microduplications with contrasting phenotypes. The first is an inverted and in cis duplication of the entire 11p15.5 cluster associated with the maintenance of genomic imprinting and with the SRS phenotype. The second is a 160 kb duplication also inverted and in cis, but resulting in the imprinting alteration of the centromeric domain. It includes the centromeric ICR (ICR2) and the most 5' 20 kb of the non-coding KCNQ1OT1 gene. Its maternal transmission is associated with ICR2 hypomethylation and the BWS phenotype. By excluding epigenetic mosaicism, cell clones analysis indicated that the two closely located ICR2 sequences resulting from the 160 kb duplication carried discordant DNA methylation on the maternal chromosome and supported the hypothesis that the ICR2 sequence is not sufficient for establishing imprinted methylation and some other property, possibly orientation-dependent, is needed. Furthermore, the 1.2 Mb duplication demonstrated that all features are present for correct imprinting at ICR2 when this is duplicated and inverted within the entire cluster. In the individuals maternally inheriting the 160 kb duplication, ICR2 hypomethylation led to the expression of a truncated KCNQ1OT1 transcript and to down-regulation of CDKN1C. We demonstrated by chromatin RNA immunopurification that the KCNQ1OT1 RNA interacts with chromatin through its most 5' 20 kb sequence, providing a mechanism likely mediating the silencing activity of this long non-coding RNA.
Project description:DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting that XIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mark than imprinting. To test this hypothesis, we induced acute hypomethylation in HCT116 cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment (HCT116-5-aza-CdR) and compared that to DKO cells, evaluating DNA methylation by microarray and monitoring the expression of XIST and imprinted genes IGF2, H19, and PEG10. Whereas imprinted genes showed biallelic expression in HCT116-5-aza-CdR and DKO cells, the XIST locus was hypomethylated and weakly expressed only under acute hypomethylation conditions, indicating the importance of XIST repression in the active X to cell survival. Given that DNMT3A is the only active DNMT in DKO cells, it may be responsible for ensuring the repression of XIST in those cells. Taken together, our data suggest that XIST repression is more tightly controlled than genomic imprinting and, at least in part, is due to DNMT3A.
Project description:Whereas DNA methylation is essential for genomic imprinting, the importance of histone methylation in the allelic expression of imprinted genes is unclear. Imprinting control regions (ICRs), however, are marked by histone H3-K9 methylation on their DNA-methylated allele. In the placenta, the paternal silencing along the Kcnq1 domain on distal chromosome 7 also correlates with the presence of H3-K9 methylation, but imprinted repression at these genes is maintained independently of DNA methylation. To explore which histone methyltransferase (HMT) could mediate the allelic H3-K9 methylation on distal chromosome 7, and at ICRs, we generated mouse conceptuses deficient for the SET domain protein G9a. We found that in the embryo and placenta, the differential DNA methylation at ICRs and imprinted genes is maintained in the absence of G9a. Accordingly, in embryos, imprinted gene expression was unchanged at the domains analyzed, in spite of a global loss of H3-K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2). In contrast, the placenta-specific imprinting of genes on distal chromosome 7 is impaired in the absence of G9a, and this correlates with reduced levels of H3K9me2 and H3K9me3. These findings provide the first evidence for the involvement of an HMT and suggest that histone methylation contributes to imprinted gene repression in the trophoblast.