Gene expression analysis of a panel of cell lines that differentially restrict HIV-1 CA mutants infection in a cyclophilin a-dependent manner.
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 replication is dependent on binding of the viral capsid to the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). Interference with cyclophilin A binding, either by mutations in the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) or by the drug cyclosporine A (CsA), inhibits HIV-1 replication in cell culture. Resistance to CsA is conferred by A92E or G94D substitutions in CA. The mutant viruses are also dependent on CsA for their replication. Interestingly, infection of some cell lines by these mutants is enhanced by CsA, while infection of others is not affected by the drug. The cells are thus termed nonpermissive and permissive, respectively, for infection by CsA-dependent mutants. The mechanistic basis for the cell type dependence is not well understood, but has been hypothesized to result from a dominant-acting host factor that blocks HIV-1 infection by a mechanism that requires CypA binding to the viral capsid. In an effort to identify a CypA-dependent host restriction factor, we adopted a strategy involving comparative gene expression analysis in three permissive and three non-permissive cell types. We ranked the genes based on their relative overexpression in non-permissive cell types compared to the permissive cell types. Based on specific selection criteria, 26 candidate genes were selected and targeted using siRNA in nonpermissive (HeLa) cells. Depletion of none of the selected candidate genes led to the reversal of CsA-dependent phenotype of the A92E mutant. Our data suggest that none of the 26 genes tested is responsible for the dependence of the A92E mutant on CsA. Our study provides gene expression data that may be useful for future efforts to identify the putative CypA-dependent HIV-1 restriction factor and in studies of other cell-specific phenotypes.
Project description:The binding of cyclophilin A (CypA) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein (CA protein) is required soon after virus entry into natural target cells. In Jurkat T lymphocytes, disrupting CypA-CA interaction either by cyclosporine (Cs) treatment or by alteration (e.g., P90A) of the CA inhibits HIV-1 infection. In HeLa cells, however, treatment with Cs or Cs analogues minimally inhibits the early phase of HIV-1 infection but selects for a Cs-dependent virus with a change (A92E) in CA. To understand these phenomena, we examined the effects of the P90A and A92E changes in the HIV-1 CA protein on the stability of capsid complexes assembled in vitro and on capsid disassembly in the cytosol of virus-exposed target cells. The A92E change impaired CA-CA interactions in vitro and decreased the amount of particulate capsids in the cytosol of HeLa target cells. Reducing the binding of CypA to the A92E mutant capsid, either by Cs treatment or by an additional P90A change in the CA protein, increased the amount of particulate capsids and viral infectivity in HeLa cells. In contrast, reduction of the binding of CypA to HIV-1 capsids in Jurkat T lymphocytes resulted in a decrease in the amount of particulate capsids and infectivity. Thus, depending on the capsid and the target cell, CypA-CA binding either stabilized or destabilized the capsid, indicating that CypA modulates HIV-1 capsid disassembly. In both cell types examined, decreased stability of the capsid was associated with a decrease in the efficiency of HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Disruption of cyclophilin A (CypA)-capsid interactions affects HIV-1 replication in human lymphocytes. To understand this mechanism, we utilize human Jurkat cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and CD4+ T cells. Our results show that inhibition of HIV-1 infection caused by disrupting CypA-capsid interactions is dependent on human tripartite motif 5? (TRIM5?hu), showing that TRIM5?hu restricts HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells. Accordingly, depletion of TRIM5?hu in CD4+ T cells rescues HIV-1 that fail to interact with CypA, such as HIV-1-P90A. We found that TRIM5?hu binds to the HIV-1 core. Disruption of CypA-capsid interactions fail to affect HIV-1-A92E/G94D infection, correlating with the loss of TRIM5?hu binding to HIV-1-A92E/G94D cores. Disruption of CypA-capsid interactions in primary cells has a greater inhibitory effect on HIV-1 when compared to Jurkat cells. Consistent with TRIM5? restriction, disruption of CypA-capsid interactions in CD4+ T cells inhibits reverse transcription. Overall, our results reveal that CypA binding to the core protects HIV-1 from TRIM5?hu restriction.
Project description:Host factor protein Cyclophilin A (CypA) regulates HIV-1 viral infectivity through direct interactions with the viral capsid, by an unknown mechanism. CypA can either promote or inhibit viral infection, depending on host cell type and HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein sequence. We have examined the role of conformational dynamics on the nanosecond to millisecond timescale in HIV-1 CA assemblies in the escape from CypA dependence, by magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and molecular dynamics (MD). Through the analysis of backbone (1)H-(15)N and (1)H-(13)C dipolar tensors and peak intensities from 3D MAS NMR spectra of wild-type and the A92E and G94D CypA escape mutants, we demonstrate that assembled CA is dynamic, particularly in loop regions. The CypA loop in assembled wild-type CA from two strains exhibits unprecedented mobility on the nanosecond to microsecond timescales, and the experimental NMR dipolar order parameters are in quantitative agreement with those calculated from MD trajectories. Remarkably, the CypA loop dynamics of wild-type CA HXB2 assembly is significantly attenuated upon CypA binding, and the dynamics profiles of the A92E and G94D CypA escape mutants closely resemble that of wild-type CA assembly in complex with CypA. These results suggest that CypA loop dynamics is a determining factor in HIV-1's escape from CypA dependence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Efficient HIV-1 replication depends on interaction of the viral capsid with the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). CypA, a peptidylprolyl isomerase, binds to an exposed loop in the viral CA protein via the enzyme's active site. Recent structural analysis of CypA in complex with CA tubes in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations identified a secondary CA binding site on CypA that allows a bridging interaction with two hexameric subunits of the assembled CA lattice, leading to capsid stabilization (Liu et al. in Nat Commun 7:10714, 2016). RESULTS:We performed mutational analysis of residues that have been proposed to mediate CA binding at the secondary binding site on CypA (A25, K27, P29 and K30) and tested the effects of the amino acid substitutions using interaction assays and HIV-1 infection assays in cells. The binding of recombinant CypA to self-assembled CA tubes or native HIV-1 capsids was measured in vitro using a quantitative fluorescence microscopy binding assay revealing that affinity and stoichiometry of CypA to the CA lattice was not affected by the substitutions. To test for functionality of the CypA secondary CA-binding site in HIV-1 infection, mutant CypA proteins were expressed in cells in which endogenous CypA was deleted, and the effects on HIV-1 infection were assayed. In normal HeLa-P4 cells, infection with HIV-1 bearing the A92E substitution in CA is inhibited by endogenous CypA and was inhibited to the same extent by expression of CypA mutants in CypA-null HeLa-P4 cells. Expression of the mutant CypA proteins in CypA-null Jurkat cells restored their permissiveness to infection by wild type HIV-1. CONCLUSIONS:The amino acid changes at A25, K27, P29 and K30 did not affect the affinity of CypA for the CA lattice and did not impair CypA function in infection assays suggesting that these residues are not part of a secondary CA binding site on CypA.
Project description:Free energy perturbation (FEP) theory coupled to molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) statistical mechanics offers a theoretically precise method for determining the free energy differences of related biological inhibitors. Traditionally requiring extensive computational resources and expertise, it is only recently that its impact is being felt in drug discovery. A review of computer-aided anti-HIV efforts employing FEP calculations is provided here that describes early and recent successes in the design of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. In addition, our ongoing work developing and optimizing leads for small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilin A (CypA) is highlighted as an update on the current capabilities of the field. CypA has been shown to aid HIV-1 replication by catalyzing the cis/trans isomerization of a conserved Gly-Pro motif in the Nterminal domain of HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein. In the absence of a functional CypA, e.g., by the addition of an inhibitor such as cyclosporine A (CsA), HIV-1 has reduced infectivity. Our simulations of acylurea-based and 1-indanylketone-based CypA inhibitors have determined that their nanomolar and micromolar binding affinities, respectively, are tied to their ability to stabilize Arg55 and Asn102. A structurally novel 1-(2,6-dichlorobenzamido) indole core was proposed to maximize these interactions. FEP-guided optimization, experimental synthesis, and biological testing of lead compounds for toxicity and inhibition of wild-type HIV-1 and CA mutants have demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 infection in two cell lines. While the inhibition is modest compared to CsA, the results are encouraging.
Project description:The host cell factor cyclophilin A (CypA) interacts directly with the HIV-1 capsid and regulates viral infectivity. Although the crystal structure of CypA in complex with the N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) has been known for nearly two decades, how CypA interacts with the viral capsid and modulates HIV-1 infectivity remains unclear. We determined the cryoEM structure of CypA in complex with the assembled HIV-1 capsid at 8-Å resolution. The structure exhibits a distinct CypA-binding pattern in which CypA selectively bridges the two CA hexamers along the direction of highest curvature. EM-guided all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and solid-state NMR further reveal that the CypA-binding pattern is achieved by single-CypA molecules simultaneously interacting with two CA subunits, in different hexamers, through a previously uncharacterized non-canonical interface. These results provide new insights into how CypA stabilizes the HIV-1 capsid and is recruited to facilitate HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid binds host proteins during infection, including cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6 (CPSF6) and cyclophilin A (CypA). We observe that HIV-1 infection induces higher-order CPSF6 formation, and capsid-CPSF6 complexes cotraffic on microtubules. CPSF6-capsid complex trafficking is impacted by capsid alterations that reduce CPSF6 binding or by excess cytoplasmic CPSF6 expression, both of which are associated with decreased HIV-1 infection. Higher-order CPSF6 complexes bind and disrupt HIV-1 capsid assemblies <i>in vitro</i> Disruption of HIV-1 capsid binding to CypA leads to increased CPSF6 binding and altered capsid trafficking, resulting in reduced infectivity. Our data reveal an interplay between CPSF6 and CypA that is important for cytoplasmic capsid trafficking and HIV-1 infection. We propose that CypA prevents HIV-1 capsid from prematurely engaging cytoplasmic CPSF6 and that differences in CypA cellular localization and innate immunity may explain variations in HIV-1 capsid trafficking and uncoating in CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells and macrophages.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> HIV is the causative agent of AIDS, which has no cure. The protein shell that encases the viral genome, the capsid, is critical for HIV replication in cells at multiple steps. HIV capsid has been shown to interact with multiple cell proteins during movement to the cell nucleus in a poorly understood process that may differ during infection of different cell types. In this study, we show that premature or too much binding of one human protein, cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6 (CPSF6), disrupts the ability of the capsid to deliver the viral genome to the cell nucleus. Another human protein, cyclophilin A (CypA), can shield HIV capsid from premature binding to CPSF6, which can differ in CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells and macrophages. Better understanding of how HIV infects cells will allow better drugs to prevent or inhibit infection and pathogenesis.
Project description:The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA) binds to the capsid protein (CA) of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5?). Depletion of TRIM5? in the African green monkey cell line Vero, resulted in a loss of inhibition of infection by CypA, demonstrating that inhibition by CypA is mediated by TRIM5?. Complementary genetic and biochemical assays failed to demonstrate an ability of CypA to promote binding of TRIM5? to the viral capsid. TRIM5? inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription in a proteasome-dependent manner; however, we observed that inhibition of proteasome activity did not reduce the ability of CypA to inhibit infection, suggesting that CypA acts at a step after reverse transcription. Accordingly, we observed a CypA-dependent reduction in the accumulation of nuclear HIV-1 DNA, indicating that CypA specifically promotes TRIM5? inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import. We also observed that the ability of CypA to inhibit HIV-1 infection is abolished by amino acid substitutions within the conserved CPSF6-binding surface in CA. Our results indicate that CypA inhibits HIV-1 infection in Vero cells not by promoting TRIM5? binding to the capsid but by blocking nuclear import of the HIV-1 preintegration complex.
Project description:The ability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to transduce nondividing cells is key to infecting terminally differentiated macrophages, which can serve as a long-term reservoir of HIV-1 infection. The mutation N57A in the viral CA protein renders HIV-1 cell cycle dependent, allowing examination of HIV-1 infection of nondividing cells. Here, we show that the N57A mutation confers a postentry infectivity defect that significantly differs in magnitude between the common lab-adapted molecular clones HIV-1NL4-3 (>10-fold) and HIV-1LAI (2- to 5-fold) in multiple human cell lines and primary CD4+ T cells. Capsid permeabilization and reverse transcription are altered when N57A is incorporated into HIV-1NL4-3 but not HIV-1LAI The N57A infectivity defect is significantly exacerbated in both virus strains in the presence of cyclosporine (CsA), indicating that N57A infectivity is dependent upon CA interacting with host factor cyclophilin A (CypA). Adaptation of N57A HIV-1LAI selected for a second CA mutation, G94D, which rescued the N57A infectivity defect in HIV-1LAI but not HIV-1NL4-3 The rescue of N57A by G94D in HIV-1LAI is abrogated by CsA treatment in some cell types, demonstrating that this rescue is CypA dependent. An examination of over 40,000 HIV-1 CA sequences revealed that the four amino acids that differ between HIV-1NL4-3 and HIV-1LAI CA are polymorphic, and the residues at these positions in the two strains are widely prevalent in clinical isolates. Overall, a few polymorphic amino acid differences between two closely related HIV-1 molecular clones affect the phenotype of capsid mutants in different cell types.IMPORTANCE The specific mechanisms by which HIV-1 infects nondividing cells are unclear. A mutation in the HIV-1 capsid protein abolishes the ability of the virus to infect nondividing cells, serving as a tool to examine cell cycle dependence of HIV-1 infection. We have shown that two widely used HIV-1 molecular clones exhibit significantly different N57A infectivity phenotypes due to fewer than a handful of CA amino acid differences and that these clones are both represented in HIV-infected individuals. As such minor differences in closely related HIV-1 strains may impart significant infectivity differences, careful consideration should be given to drawing conclusions from one particular HIV-1 clone. This study highlights the potential for significant variation in results with the use of multiple strains and possible unanticipated effects of natural polymorphisms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or less permissive to retrovirus infection due to the presence of active defense mechanisms, or the absence of important cellular host co-factors. In contrast to multipotent stem cells, pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. Much remains to be elucidated in the field of anti-viral immunity in stem cells, especially in PSC.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we report that transduction with HIV-1-based, lentiviral vectors (LV) is impaired in murine PSC. Analyses of early retroviral events in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) revealed that the restriction is independent of envelope choice and does not affect reverse transcription, but perturbs nuclear entry and proviral integration. Proteasomal inhibition by MG132 could not circumvent the restriction. However, prevention of cyclophilin A (CypA) binding to the HIV-1 capsid via use of either a CypA inhibitor (cyclosporine A) or CypA-independent capsid mutants improved transduction. In addition, application of higher vector doses also increased transduction. Our data revealed a CypA mediated restriction in iPSC, which was acquired during reprogramming, associated with pluripotency and relieved upon subsequent differentiation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We showed that murine PSC and iPSC are less susceptible to LV. The block observed in iPSC was CypA-dependent and resulted in reduced nuclear entry of viral DNA and proviral integration. Our study helps to improve transduction of murine pluripotent cells with HIV-1-based vectors and contributes to our understanding of retrovirus-host interactions in PSC.