Low molecular weight hyaluronan induces lymphangiogenesis through LYVE-1-mediated signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT: Hyaluronan (HA), a large nonsulfated glycosaminogycan in the extracellular matrix, whose degraded fragments termed as low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA), has been reported as an important regulator of angiogenesis. However, little is known about the influence of LMW-HA on lymphangiogenesis. In this study, we try to explore the in vitro effects of LMW-HA on lymphangiogenesis and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that LMW-HA stimulation significantly increased lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Further experiments demonstrated that LMW-HA altered actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased the formation of intense stress fibers, lamellipodia and filopodia. Mechanistically, LMW-HA stimulation resulted in rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase C ?/?II (PKC?/?II) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), a homologue of CD44, is the main cell surface receptor for HA in LECs. Blocking the binding interaction of LMW-HA with LYVE-1 using neutralizing anti-LYVE-1 antibodies significantly inhibited LECs proliferation, migration, tube formation and signal transduction induced by LMW-HA, suggesting that LMW-HA may play a critical role in the processes required for lymphangiogenesis through interactions with its receptor LYVE-1 and triggering intracellular signal cascades.
Project description:Targeting immune cells that support tumor growth is an effective therapeutic strategy in tumor entities such as melanoma. M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sustain tumor growth by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines, proteases and growth factors. In this study, we show that a protein derived from M2-like macrophages namely the shedded ectodomain of Lyve-1 (sLyve-1) decreases human HT144 and murine B16F1 melanoma cell proliferation significantly by acting as a decoy receptor for low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) although the LMW-HA/Lyve-1 interaction on lymphatic endothelial cells has been described to induce lymphangiogenesis. This is in line with our finding that the number of LYVE-1+ TAM decreases in higher human melanoma stages and that the early growth of B16 transplant tumors is enhanced in Lyve-1 knockout mice when compared to wild-type mice due to an increased melanoma cell proliferation. LYVE-1 expressing TAM are however true M2 macrophages as they co-express typical M2-markers such as CD163 and CD206. The results of the present study highlight the necessity to carefully determine the net effect particular TAM subpopulations have on tumors before establishing a treatment to target these immune cells.
Project description:Lymphatic vascular endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) is a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium and a homolog of CD44, the hyaluronan (HA) receptor. HA in the extracellular matrix plays roles in tissue remodeling, development, and homeostasis, and as an HA receptor, LYVE-1 mediated HA metabolism might regulate these events. Currently, little is known about the lymphatic character within the human placenta. This study therefore determined LYVE-1 and other lymphatic markers in human placentas.Placentas and villous tissue were fixed and immunostained for human LYVE-1 and CD44 and examined by RT-PCR. LYVE-1 was expressed at both protein and mRNA levels in trophoblast cells (TC) and in villous core endothelium (VCE). Predominant protein expression for LYVE-1 was observed in syncytiotrophoblast cells (TCs) of preterm placentas. Neither mRNA or protein for CD44 was expressed. Other blood and lymphatic-lineage molecules (VEGF-A, -C, and -D, Flt-1, KDR, Flt-4, and Prox-1) were examined by RT-PCR. VEGF-A, VEGF-D, and Flt-1 mRNA were observed in TCs and VCEs, while mRNA for VEGF-C, KDR, and Flt-4 was mainly observed in VCEs. Prox-1 was found at the mRNA, but not protein level in TCs and VCEs. Our findings indicate (1) the importance of LYVE-1, but not CD44, in regulation of HA metabolism in the maternal-fetal interface and fetal circulation, and (2) possible dual blood and lymphatic phenotypic characteristics in fetal endothelium. These results provide new insights into HA metabolism and lymphatic-lineage molecule expression in the human placenta.
Project description:The lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1 is implicated in the uptake of hyaluronan (HA) and trafficking of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes. Yet LYVE-1 has only weak affinity for hyaluronan and depends on receptor clustering and higher order ligand organization for durable binding in lymphatic endothelium. An unusual feature of LYVE-1 not found in other HA receptors is the potential to form disulfide-linked homodimers. However, their influence on function has not been investigated. Here we show LYVE-1 homodimers are the predominant configuration in lymphatic endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and formation solely requires the unpaired cysteine residue Cys-201 within the membrane-proximal domain, yielding a 15-fold higher HA binding affinity and an ?67-fold slower off-rate than the monomer. Moreover, we show non-dimerizing LYVE-1 mutants fail to bind HA even when expressed at high densities in lymphatic endothelial cells or artificially cross-linked with antibody. Consistent with these findings, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicates the Cys-201 interchain disulfide forms a hinge that maintains the homodimer in an "open scissors" conformation, likely allowing arrangement of the two HA binding domains for mutual engagement with ligand. Finally, we demonstrate the Cys-201 interchain disulfide is highly labile, and selective reduction with TCEP-HCl disrupts LYVE-1 homodimers, ablating HA binding. These findings reveal binding is dependent not just on clustering but also on the biochemical properties of LYVE-1 homodimers. They also mark LYVE-1 as the first Link protein superfamily member requiring covalent homodimerization for function and suggest the interchain disulfide acts as a redox switch in vivo.
Project description:Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1) mediates the docking and entry of dendritic cells to lymphatic vessels through selective adhesion to its ligand hyaluronan in the leukocyte surface glycocalyx. To bind hyaluronan efficiently, LYVE-1 must undergo surface clustering, a process that is induced efficiently by the large cross-linked assemblages of glycosaminoglycan present within leukocyte pericellular matrices but is induced poorly by the shorter polymer alone. These properties suggested that LYVE-1 may have limited mobility in the endothelial plasma membrane, but no biophysical investigation of these parameters has been carried out to date. Here, using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy combined with biochemical analyses of the receptor in primary lymphatic endothelial cells, we provide the first evidence that LYVE-1 dynamics are indeed restricted by the submembranous actin network. We show that actin disruption not only increases LYVE-1 lateral diffusion but also enhances hyaluronan-binding activity. However, unlike the related leukocyte HA receptor CD44, which uses ERM and ankyrin motifs within its cytoplasmic tail to bind actin, LYVE-1 displays little if any direct interaction with actin, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Instead, as shown by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, LYVE-1 diffusion is restricted by transient entrapment within submembranous actin corrals. These results point to an actin-mediated constraint on LYVE-1 clustering in lymphatic endothelium that tunes the receptor for selective engagement with hyaluronan assemblages in the glycocalyx that are large enough to cross-bridge the corral-bound LYVE-1 molecules and thereby facilitate leukocyte adhesion and transmigration.
Project description:Endothelial integrity defects initiate lymphatic metastasis of tumor cells. Low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) derived from plasma and interstitial fluid was reported to be associated with tumor lymphatic metastasis. In addition, LMW-HA was proved to disrupt lymphatic vessel endothelium integrity, thus promoting lymphatic metastasis of tumor cells. Until now, there are few reports on how LMW-HA modulates lymphatic endothelial cells adhesion junctions and affects cancer cells metastasizing into lymph vessels. The aim of our study is to unravel the novel mechanism of LMW-HA in mediating tumor lymphatic metastasis. Here, we employed a melanoma metastasis model to investigate whether LMW-HA facilitates tumor cells transferring from foci to remote lymph nodes by disrupting the lymphatic endothelial integrity. Our data indicate that LMW-HA significantly induces metastasis of melanoma cells to lymph nodes and accelerates interstitial-lymphatic flow in vivo. Further experiments show that increased migration of melanoma cells across human dermal lymphatic endothelial cell (HDLEC) monolayers is accompanied by impaired lymphatic endothelial barrier function and increased permeability. The mechanism study reveals that VE-cadherin-?-catenin pathway and relevant signals are involved in modulating the interactions between endothelial cells and that a significant inhibition of lymphatic endothelium disruption is observed when antibodies to the LMW-HA receptor (LYVE-1) are present. Thus, our findings demonstrate a disruptive effect of LMW-HA on lymphatic endothelium continuity which leads to a promotion on melanoma lymphatic metastasis and also suggest a cellular signaling mechanism associated with VE-cadherin-mediated lymphatic intercellular junctions.
Project description:Controlled activation of lymphangiogenesis through functional biomaterials represents a promising approach to support wound healing after surgical procedures, yet remains a challenge. In a synthetic biological approach, we therefore set out to mimic the basal microenvironment of human primary dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) during lymphangiogenesis. As the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) regulates lymphangiogenesis, we designed a bifunctional surface in which adhesive peptide ligands and short HA oligosaccharides (sHA) tethered to nanoparticles are copresented to the basal side of LECs in a controlled, concentration-dependent manner. Exposure of LECs to sHA in solution to mimic luminal stimulation of the cells did not result in modified metabolic activity. However, LECs grown on the bifunctional adhesive surfaces showed a biphasic change in metabolic activity, with increased metabolic activity being observed in response to increasing nanoparticle densities up to a maximum of 540?particles/?m2. Thus, interfaces that concomitantly present adhesive ligands and sHA can stimulate LEC metabolism and might be able to trigger lymphangiogenesis.
Project description:The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes where it is degraded before entering the circulation for rapid uptake by the liver. Currently, however, the identities of HA binding molecules which control this pathway are unknown. Here we describe the first such molecule, LYVE-1, which we have identified as a major receptor for HA on the lymph vessel wall. The deduced amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single Link module the prototypic HA binding domain of the Link protein superfamily. Like CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule binds both soluble and immobilized HA. However, unlike CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule colocalizes with HA on the luminal face of the lymph vessel wall and is completely absent from blood vessels. Hence, LYVE-1 is the first lymph-specific HA receptor to be characterized and is a uniquely powerful marker for lymph vessels themselves.
Project description:Lymphatic vessels play a key role in maintaining tissue-fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance and metastasis. The hyaluronan receptor, LYVE-1, is widely used as a molecular marker for adult and embryonic lymphatic endothelium, but its physiological functions have not yet been established in vivo. In agreement with a recent report, LYVE-1(-/-) mice, which are healthy and fertile, do not display any defects related to congenital abnormalities of the lymphatic system. One hypothesis for the absence of a phenotype in LYVE-1 null mice is that other hyaluronan receptors, such as CD44, may compensate for LYVE-1. To test this hypothesis, we created LYVE-1/CD44 double knockout mice with appropriate littermate controls. Lymphatic vessel structure and function, as determined by histological methods and intravital microscopy, show that LYVE-1(-/-), CD44(-/-) and LYVE-1(-/-)/CD44(-/-) mice are indistinguishable from wild-type mice under normal conditions. Furthermore, resolution of carrageenan-induced paw edema is comparable in all genotypes. However, LYVE-1(-/-)/CD44(-/-) mice exhibit increased edema formation in a carrageenan-induced paw inflammation model compared to wild-type mice, but not to LYVE(-/-) or CD44(-/-) mice. These data suggest that LYVE-1 and CD44 are not required for the formation or function of lymphatics, but do not rule out a role for LYVE-1 in inflammation.
Project description:Lymphangiogenesis is an important biological process associated with cancer metastasis. The development of new drugs that block lymphangiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Marine fungus-derived compound phomaketide A, isolated from the fermented broth of Phoma sp. NTOU4195, has been reported to exhibit anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its anti-lymphangiogenic activity has not been clarified to date. In this study, we showed that phomaketide A inhibited cell growth, migration, and tube formation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) without an evidence of cytotoxicity. Mechanistic investigations revealed that phomaketide A reduced LECs-induced lymphangiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signalings. Furthermore, human proteome array analysis indicated that phomaketide A significantly enhanced the protein levels of various protease inhibitors, including cystatin A, serpin B6, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). Importantly, phomaketide A impeded tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by decreasing the expression of LYVE-1, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels, in tumor xenograft animal model. These results suggest that phomaketide A may impair lymphangiogenesis by suppressing VEGFR-3, PKCδ, and eNOS signaling cascades, while simultaneously activating protease inhibitors in human LECs. We document for the first time that phomaketide A inhibits lymphangiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that this natural product could potentially treat cancer metastasis.
Project description:The hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is expressed abundantly on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels and lymph node sinus endothelial cells from early development, where it has been suggested to function both in cell adhesion/transmigration and as a scavenger for hyaluronan turnover. To investigate the physiological role(s) of LYVE-1, we generated mice in which the gene for the receptor was inactivated by replacement with a beta-galactosidase reporter. LYVE-1(-/-) mice displayed an apparently normal phenotype, with no obvious alteration in lymphatic vessel ultrastructure or function and no apparent change in secondary lymphoid tissue structure or cellularity. In addition, the levels of hyaluronan in tissue and blood were unchanged. LYVE-1(-/-) mice also displayed normal trafficking of cutaneous CD11c(+) dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics and normal resolution of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation. Finally, LYVE-1(-/-) mice supported normal growth of transplanted B16F10 melanomas and Lewis lung carcinomas. These results indicate that LYVE-1 is not obligatory for normal lymphatic development and function and suggest either the existence of compensatory receptors or a role more specific than that previously envisaged.