ATP?S competes with ATP for binding at Domain 1 but not Domain 2 during ClpA catalyzed polypeptide translocation.
ABSTRACT: ClpAP is an ATP-dependent protease that assembles through the association of hexameric rings of ClpA with the cylindrically-shaped protease ClpP. ClpA contains two nucleotide binding domains, termed Domain 1 (D1) or 2 (D2). We have proposed that D1 or D2 limits the rate of ClpA catalyzed polypeptide translocation when ClpP is either absent or present, respectively. Here we show that the rate of ClpA catalyzed polypeptide translocation depends on [ATP?S] in the absence of ClpP, but not in the presence of ClpP. We observe that ATP?S non-cooperatively binds to ClpA during polypeptide translocation with an apparent affinity of ~6 ?M, but that introduction of ClpP shifts this affinity such that translocation is not affected. Interpreting these data with our proposed model for translocation catalyzed by ClpA vs. ClpAP suggests that ATP?S competes for binding at D1 but not at D2.
Project description:There are five known ATP-dependent proteases in Escherichia coli (Lon, ClpAP, ClpXP, HslUV, and the membrane-associated FtsH) that catalyze the removal of both misfolded and properly folded proteins in cellular protein quality control pathways. Hexameric ClpA rings associate with one or both faces of the cylindrically shaped tetradecameric ClpP protease. ClpA catalyzes unfolding and translocation of polypeptide substrates into the proteolytic core of ClpP for degradation through repeated cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis at two nucleotide binding domains on each ClpA monomer. We previously reported a molecular mechanism for ClpA catalyzed polypeptide translocation in the absence of ClpP, including elementary rate constants, overall rate, and the kinetic step size. However, the potential allosteric effect of ClpP on the mechanism of ClpA catalyzed translocation remains unclear. Using single-turnover fluorescence stopped-flow methods, here we report that ClpA, when associated with ClpP, translocates polypeptide with an overall rate of ~35 aa s(-1) and, on average, traverses ~5 aa between two rate-limiting steps with reduced cooperativity between ATP binding sites in the hexameric ring. This is in direct contrast to our previously reported observation that, in the absence of ClpP, ClpA translocates polypeptide substrates with a maximum translocation rate of ~20 aa s(-1) with cooperativity between ATPase sites. Our results demonstrate that ClpP allosterically impacts the polypeptide translocation activity of ClpA by reducing the cooperativity between ATP binding sites.
Project description:The ClpA chaperone combines with the ClpP peptidase to perform targeted proteolysis in the bacterial cytoplasm. ClpA monomer has an N-terminal substrate-binding domain and two AAA+ ATPase domains (D1 and D2). ClpA hexamers stack axially on ClpP heptamers to form the symmetry-mismatched protease. We used cryo-electron microscopy to visualize the ClpA-ATPgammaS hexamer, in the context of ClpAP complexes. Two segments lining the axial channel show anomalously low density, indicating that these motifs, which have been implicated in substrate translocation, are mobile. We infer that ATP hydrolysis is accompanied by substantial structural changes in the D2 but not the D1 tier. The entire N domain is rendered invisible by large-scale fluctuations. When deletions of 10 and 15 residues were introduced into the linker, N domain mobility was reduced but not eliminated and changes were observed in enzymatic activities. Based on these observations, we present a pseudo-atomic model of ClpAP holoenzyme, a dynamic proteolytic nanomachine.
Project description:ClpA is a hexameric double-ring AAA+ unfoldase/translocase that functions with the ClpP peptidase to degrade proteins that are damaged or unneeded. How the 12 ATPase active sites of ClpA, 6 in the D1 ring and 6 in the D2 ring, work together to fuel ATP-dependent degradation is not understood. We use site-specific cross-linking to engineer ClpA hexamers with alternating ATPase-active and ATPase-inactive modules in the D1 ring, the D2 ring, or both rings to determine if these active sites function together. Our results demonstrate that D2 modules coordinate with D1 modules and ClpP during mechanical work. However, there is no requirement for adjacent modules in either ring to be active for efficient enzyme function. Notably, ClpAP variants with just three alternating active D2 modules are robust protein translocases and function with double the energetic efficiency of ClpAP variants with completely active D2 rings. Although D2 is the more powerful motor, three or six active D1 modules are important for high enzyme processivity, which depends on D1 and D2 acting coordinately. These results challenge sequential models of ATP hydrolysis and coupled mechanical work by ClpAP and provide an engineering strategy that will be useful in testing other aspects of ClpAP mechanism.
Project description:Escherichia coli ClpA is a AAA+ (ATPase Associated with diverse cellular Activities) chaperone that catalyzes the ATP-dependent unfolding and translocation of substrate proteins targeted for degradation by a protease, ClpP. ClpA hexamers associate with one or both ends of ClpP tetradecamers to form ClpAP complexes. Each ClpA protomer contains two nucleotide-binding sites, NBD1 and NBD2, and self-assembly into hexamers is thermodynamically linked to nucleotide binding. Despite a number of studies aimed at characterizing ClpA and ClpAP-catalyzed substrate unfolding and degradation, respectively, to date the field is unable to quantify the concentration of ClpA hexamers available to interact with ClpP for any given nucleotide and total ClpA concentration. In this work, sedimentation velocity studies are used to quantitatively examine the self-assembly of a ClpA Walker B variant in the presence of ATP. In addition to the hexamerization, we observe the formation of a previously unreported ClpA dodecamer in the presence of ATP. Further, we report apparent equilibrium constants for the formation of each ClpA oligomer obtained from direct boundary modeling of the sedimentation velocity data. The energetics of nucleotide binding to NBD1 and NBD2 are revealed by examining the dependence of the apparent association equilibrium constants on free nucleotide concentration.
Project description:ClpA is a ring-shaped hexameric chaperone that binds to both ends of the protease ClpP and catalyzes the ATP-dependent unfolding and translocation of substrate proteins through its central pore into the ClpP cylinder. Here we study the relevance of ATP hydrolysis in the two ATPase domains of ClpA. We designed ClpA Walker B variants lacking ATPase activity in the first (D1) or the second ATPase domain (D2) without impairing ATP binding. We found that the two ATPase domains of ClpA operate independently even in the presence of the protease ClpP or the adaptor protein ClpS. Notably, ATP hydrolysis in the first ATPase module is sufficient to process a small, single domain protein of low stability. Substrate proteins of moderate local stability were efficiently processed when D1 was inactivated. However, ATP hydrolysis in both domains was required for efficiently processing substrates of high local stability. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the ClpS-dependent directional translocation of N-end rule substrates from the N to C terminus and propose a mechanistic model for substrate handover from the adaptor protein to the chaperone.
Project description:Intracellular protein degradation, which must be tightly controlled to protect normal proteins, is carried out by ATP-dependent proteases. These multicomponent enzymes have chaperone-like ATPases that recognize and unfold protein substrates and deliver them to the proteinase components for digestion. In ClpAP, hexameric rings of the ClpA ATPase stack axially on either face of the ClpP proteinase, which consists of two apposed heptameric rings. We have used cryoelectron microscopy to characterize interactions of ClpAP with the model substrate, bacteriophage P1 protein, RepA. In complexes stabilized by ATPgammaS, which bind but do not process substrate, RepA dimers are seen at near-axial sites on the distal surface of ClpA. On ATP addition, RepA is translocated through approximately 150 A into the digestion chamber inside ClpP. Little change is observed in ClpAP, implying that translocation proceeds without major reorganization of the ClpA hexamer. When translocation is observed in complexes containing a ClpP mutant whose digestion chamber is already occupied by unprocessed propeptides, a small increase in density is observed within ClpP, and RepA-associated density is also seen at other axial sites. These sites appear to represent intermediate points on the translocation pathway, at which segments of unfolded RepA subunits transiently accumulate en route to the digestion chamber.
Project description:The AAA+ protease ClpAP, consisting of the ClpA chaperone and the ClpP protease, processively unfolds and translocates its substrates into its proteolytic core, where they are cleaved. Unfolding and efficient translocation require ATP-dependent conformational changes in ClpA's D2 loop, where the conserved GYVG motif resides. To explore the role of the essential tyrosine of this motif, we investigated how two mutations at this residue (Y540C and Y540A) affect the rate at which the enzyme processes unstructured substrates. The mutations decrease ClpA's ability to process unfolded or unstable protein substrates but have only mild effects on the rates of ATP hydrolysis or hydrolysis of small peptide substrates. The mutants' substrate binding properties were also characterized, using single molecule fluorescence microscopy. The single-molecule studies demonstrate that the conserved tyrosine is essential for the formation of the prehydrolytic, high substrate affinity conformation observed in wild-type ClpA. Together, the results support a model in which destabilization of the high substrate affinity conformation of ClpA makes translocation less efficient and uncouples it from ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:The intracellular degradation of many proteins is mediated in an ATP-dependent manner by large assemblies comprising a chaperone ring complex associated coaxially with a proteolytic cylinder, e.g., ClpAP, ClpXP, and HslUV in prokaryotes, and the 26S proteasome in eukaryotes. Recent studies of the chaperone ClpA indicate that it mediates ATP-dependent unfolding of substrate proteins and directs their ATP-dependent translocation into the ClpP protease. Because the axial passageway into the proteolytic chamber is narrow, it seems likely that unfolded substrate proteins are threaded from the chaperone into the protease, suggesting that translocation could be directional. We have investigated directionality in the ClpA/ClpP-mediated reaction by using two substrate proteins bearing the COOH-terminal ssrA recognition element, each labeled near the NH(2) or COOH terminus with fluorescent probes. Time-dependent changes in both fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between donor fluorophores in the ClpP cavity and the substrate probes as acceptors were measured to monitor translocation of the substrates from ClpA into ClpP. We observed for both substrates that energy transfer occurs 2--4 s sooner with the COOH-terminally labeled molecules than with the NH(2)-terminally labeled ones, indicating that translocation is indeed directional, with the COOH terminus of the substrate protein entering ClpP first.
Project description:The ClpAP complex is a conserved bacterial protease that unfolds and degrades proteins targeted for destruction. The ClpA double-ring hexamer powers substrate unfolding and translocation into the ClpP proteolytic chamber. Here, we determined high-resolution structures of wild-type Escherichia coli ClpAP undergoing active substrate unfolding and proteolysis. A spiral of pore loop-substrate contacts spans both ClpA AAA+ domains. Protomers at the spiral seam undergo nucleotide-specific rearrangements, supporting substrate translocation. IGL loops extend flexibly to bind the planar, heptameric ClpP surface with the empty, symmetry-mismatched IGL pocket maintained at the seam. Three different structures identify a binding-pocket switch by the IGL loop of the lowest positioned protomer, involving release and re-engagement with the clockwise pocket. This switch is coupled to a ClpA rotation and a network of conformational changes across the seam, suggesting that ClpA can rotate around the ClpP apical surface during processive steps of translocation and proteolysis.
Project description:AAA+ proteases perform regulated protein degradation in all kingdoms of life and consist of a hexameric AAA+ unfoldase/translocase in complex with a self-compartmentalized peptidase. Based on asymmetric features of cryo-EM structures and a sequential hand-over-hand model of substrate translocation, recent publications have proposed that the AAA+ unfoldases ClpA and ClpX rotate with respect to their partner peptidase ClpP to allow function. Here, we test this model by covalently crosslinking ClpA to ClpP to prevent rotation. We find that crosslinked ClpAP complexes unfold, translocate, and degrade protein substrates <i>in vitro</i>, albeit modestly slower than uncrosslinked enzyme controls. Rotation of ClpA with respect to ClpP is therefore not required for ClpAP protease activity, although some flexibility in how the AAA+ ring docks with ClpP may be necessary for optimal function.