APOL1 risk variants, race, and progression of chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Among patients in the United States with chronic kidney disease, black patients are at increased risk for end-stage renal disease, as compared with white patients. METHODS:In two studies, we examined the effects of variants in the gene encoding apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) on the progression of chronic kidney disease. In the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK), we evaluated 693 black patients with chronic kidney disease attributed to hypertension. In the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, we evaluated 2955 white patients and black patients with chronic kidney disease (46% of whom had diabetes) according to whether they had 2 copies of high-risk APOL1 variants (APOL1 high-risk group) or 0 or 1 copy (APOL1 low-risk group). In the AASK study, the primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease or a doubling of the serum creatinine level. In the CRIC study, the primary outcomes were the slope in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the composite of end-stage renal disease or a reduction of 50% in the eGFR from baseline. RESULTS:In the AASK study, the primary outcome occurred in 58.1% of the patients in the APOL1 high-risk group and in 36.6% of those in the APOL1 low-risk group (hazard ratio in the high-risk group, 1.88; P<0.001). There was no interaction between APOL1 status and trial interventions or the presence of baseline proteinuria. In the CRIC study, black patients in the APOL1 high-risk group had a more rapid decline in the eGFR and a higher risk of the composite renal outcome than did white patients, among those with diabetes and those without diabetes (P<0.001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS:Renal risk variants in APOL1 were associated with the higher rates of end-stage renal disease and progression of chronic kidney disease that were observed in black patients as compared with white patients, regardless of diabetes status. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others.).
Project description:Introduction:Depression is common but underrecognized in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially among racial/ethnic minorities. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality (including deaths before and after end-stage renal disease [ESRD]) and whether antidepressant use impacts this association, overall, and by race/ethnicity. Methods:We ascertained whether the presence of depressive symptoms, defined by a Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI) score of >14 at cohort enrollment, was associated with all-cause mortality (before or after ESRD) among study participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficient Cohort (CRIC) overall and by race/ethnicity. Models were adjusted for socioeconomic factors, baseline CKD severity, time-updated comorbid conditions, and time-updated antidepressant use. Confirmatory analyses were performed among African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) participants. Results:Among 3739 CRIC participants, 16.3% had a baseline BDI of >14; 18.2% reported antidepressant use. Crude mortality rate was 3.16 per 100 person-years during 6.8 years of median follow-up. Baseline BDI >14 was independently associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.52) without attenuation by antidepressant use. Differences among white and black individuals were noted (Pinteraction= 0.02) but not among white versus Hispanic individuals (Pinteraction = 0.43) or black versus Hispanic individuals (Pinteraction = 0.22). Depressive symptoms were associated with higher mortality among white individuals (aHR: 1.66; 1.21-2.28), but not Hispanic individuals (aHR: 1.47; 0.95-2.28) or black individuals (aHR: 1.06; 0.82-1.37). Similar results were noted among 611 AASK participants (aHR: 0.99; 0.69-1.42). Conclusions:The presence of depressive symptoms is a risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients with mild-moderate CKD, particularly among white individuals. Further studies are needed to understand the heterogeneity in the response to the presence of depressive symptoms by race.
Project description:Despite intensive antihypertensive therapy there was a high incidence of renal end points in participants of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) cohort. To better understand this, coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) and the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) genes were evaluated for an association with hypertension-attributed nephropathy and clinical outcomes in a case-control study. Clinical data and DNA were available for 675 AASK participant cases and 618 African American non-nephropathy control individuals. APOL1 G1 and G2, and MYH9 E1 variants along with 44 ancestry informative markers, were genotyped with allele frequency differences between cases and controls analyzed by logistic regression multivariable models adjusting for ancestry, age, and gender. In recessive models, APOL1 risk variants were significantly associated with kidney disease in all cases compared to controls with an odds ratio of 2.57. In AASK cases with more advanced disease, such as a baseline urine protein to creatinine ratio over 0.6 g/g or a serum creatinine over 3 mg/dl during follow-up, the association was strengthened with odds ratios of 6.29 and 4.61, respectively. APOL1 risk variants were consistently associated with renal disease progression across medication classes and blood pressure targets. Thus, kidney disease in AASK participants was strongly associated with APOL1 renal risk variants.
Project description:Background Metabolite levels reflect physiologic homeostasis and may serve as biomarkers of disease progression. Identifying metabolites associated with APOL1 risk alleles-genetic variants associated with CKD risk commonly present in persons of African descent-may reveal novel markers of CKD progression relevant to other populations.Methods We evaluated associations between the number of APOL1 risk alleles and 760 serum metabolites identified via untargeted profiling in participants of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) (n=588; Bonferroni significance threshold P<6.5×10-5) and replicated findings in 678 black participants with CKD in BioMe, an electronic medical record-linked biobank. We tested the metabolite association with CKD progression in AASK, BioMe, and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study.Results One metabolite, 6-bromotryptophan, was significant in AASK (P=4.7×10-5) and replicated in BioMe (P=5.7×10-3) participants, with lower levels associated with more APOL1 risk alleles. Lower levels of 6-bromotryptophan were associated with CKD progression in AASK and BioMe participants and in white participants in the MDRD Study, independent of demographics and clinical characteristics, including baseline GFR (adjusted hazard ratio per two-fold higher 6-bromotryptophan level, AASK, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.64 to 0.91; BioMe, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.85; MDRD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.79). The interaction between the APOL1 risk alleles and 6-bromotryptophan was not significant. The identity of 6-bromotryptophan was confirmed in experiments comparing its molecular signature with that of authentic standards of other bromotryptophan isomers.Conclusions Serum 6-bromotryptophan is a consistent and novel risk factor for CKD progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies have investigated the changes in weight that may occur over time among adults with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether such weight changes are independently associated with death after the onset of end-stage renal disease has also not been rigorously examined. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:We studied 3,933 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study, a longitudinal cohort of patients with CKD. We also performed similar analyses among 1,067 participants of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK). PREDICTORS:Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and weight change during CKD. OUTCOME:Weight and all-cause mortality after dialysis therapy initiation. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 5.7 years in CRIC, weight change was not linear. Weight was stable until cystatin C-based eGFR (eGFRcys) decreased to <35mL/min/1.73m2; thereafter, weight declined at a mean rate of 1.45 kg (95% CI, 1.19-1.70) for every 10 mL/min/1.73m2 decline in eGFRcys. Among the 770 CRIC participants who began hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis therapy during follow-up, a >5% annualized weight loss after eGFR decreased to <35mL/min/1.73m2 was associated with a 54% higher risk for death after dialysis therapy initiation (95% CI, 1.17-2.03) compared with those with more stable weight (annualized weight changes within 5% of baseline) in adjusted analysis. Similar findings were observed in the AASK. LIMITATIONS:Inclusion of research participants only; inability to distinguish intentional versus unintentional weight loss. CONCLUSIONS:Significant weight loss began relatively early during the course of CKD and was associated with a substantially higher risk for death after dialysis therapy initiation. Further studies are needed to determine whether interventions to optimize weight and nutritional status before the initiation of dialysis therapy will improve outcomes after end-stage renal disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Ambulatory BP is increasingly recognized as a better measure of the risk for adverse outcomes related to hypertension, an important comorbidity in patients with CKD. Varying definitions of white-coat and masked hypertension have made it difficult to evaluate differences in prevalence of these BP patterns across CKD cohorts. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:The International Database of Ambulatory BP in Renal Patients collaborative group established a large database of demographic, clinical, and ambulatory BP data from patients with CKD from cohorts in Italy, Spain, the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study (AASK) in the United States, and the CKD Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC). Participants (n=7518) with CKD were included in the present analyses. Cutoffs for defining controlled BP were 140/90 mm Hg for clinic and 130/80 mm Hg for 24-hour ambulatory BP. RESULTS:Among those with controlled clinic BP, compared with CKD-JAC, AASK participants were more likely to have masked hypertension (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04 to 1.41) whereas CRIC (PR, 0.82; 0.72 to 0.94), Italian (PR, 0.73; 0.56 to 0.95), and Spanish participants (PR, 0.75; 0.64 to 0.88) were less likely. Among those with elevated clinic BP, AASK participants were more likely to have sustained hypertension (PR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.32) whereas Italian (PR, 0.78; 0.70 to 0.87) and Spanish participants (PR, 0.89; 0.82 to 0.96) were less likely, although CRIC participants had similar prevalence as CKD-JAC. Prevalence of masked and sustained hypertension was elevated in males, patients with diabetes, participants on four or more antihypertensives, and those with moderate-to-severe proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS:In a large, multinational database, the prevalence of masked and sustained hypertension varied across cohorts independent of important comorbidities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 13% of black individuals carry 2 copies of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles G1 or G2, which are associated with 1.5- to 2.5-fold increased risk of chronic kidney disease. There have been conflicting reports as to whether an association exists between APOL1 risk alleles and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is independent of the effects of APOL1 on kidney disease. We sought to test the association of APOL1 G1/G2 alleles with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke among black individuals in the Million Veteran Program. METHODS:We performed a time-to-event analysis of retrospective electronic health record data using Cox proportional hazard and competing-risks Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models. The primary exposure was APOL1 risk allele status. The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease among individuals without chronic kidney disease during the 12.5-year follow-up period. We separately analyzed the cross-sectional association of APOL1 risk allele status with lipid traits and 115 cardiovascular diseases using phenome-wide association. RESULTS:Among 30?903 black Million Veteran Program participants, 3941 (13%) carried the 2 APOL1 risk allele high-risk genotype. Individuals with normal kidney function at baseline with 2 risk alleles had slightly higher risk of developing coronary artery disease compared with those with no risk alleles (hazard ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.21]; P=0.039). Similarly, modest associations were identified with incident stroke (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36; P=0.007) and peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01-1.29l; P=0.031). When both cardiovascular and renal outcomes were modeled, APOL1 was strongly associated with incident renal disease, whereas no significant association with the CVD end points could be detected. Cardiovascular phenome-wide association analyses did not identify additional significant associations with CVD subsets. CONCLUSIONS:APOL1 risk variants display a modest association with CVD, and this association is likely mediated by the known APOL1 association with chronic kidney disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:APOL1 renal risk variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease in Black adults, but reported associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conflicting. METHODS:We examined associations of APOL1 with incident coronary heart disease (n=323), ischemic stroke (n=331), and the composite CVD outcome (n=500) in 10?605 Black participants of the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke). Primary analyses compared individuals with APOL1 high-risk genotypes to APOL1 low-risk genotypes in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for CVD risk factors and African ancestry. RESULTS:APOL1 high-risk participants were younger and more likely to have albuminuria at baseline than APOL1 low-risk participants. The risk of incident stroke, coronary heart disease, or composite CVD end point did not significantly differ by APOL1 genotype status in multivariable models. The association of APOL1 genotype with incident composite CVD differed by diabetes mellitus status (Pinteraction=0.004). In those without diabetes mellitus, APOL1 high-risk genotypes associated with greater risk of incident composite CVD (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.47) compared with those with APOL1 low-risk genotypes in multivariable adjusted models. This latter association was driven by ischemic strokes (hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-4.07), in particular, those related to small vessel disease (hazard ratio, 5.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-16.56). There was no statistically significant association of APOL1 genotypes with incident CVD in subjects with diabetes mellitus. The APOL1 high-risk genotype was associated with higher stroke risk in individuals without but not those with chronic kidney disease in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS:APOL1 high-risk status is associated with CVD events in community-dwelling Black adults without diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Black living kidney donors are at higher risk of developing kidney disease than white donors. We examined the effect of the APOL1 high-risk genotype on postdonation renal function in black living kidney donors and evaluated whether this genotype alters the association between donation and donor outcome. We grouped 136 black living kidney donors as APOL1 high-risk (two risk alleles; n=19; 14%) or low-risk (one or zero risk alleles; n=117; 86%) genotype. Predonation characteristics were similar between groups, except for lower mean±SD baseline eGFR (CKD-EPI equation) in donors with the APOL1 high-risk genotype (98±17 versus 108±20 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P=0.04). At a median of 12 years after donation, donors with the APOL1 high-risk genotype had lower eGFR (57±18 versus 67±15 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P=0.02) and faster decline in eGFR after adjusting for predonation eGFR (1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 2.3 versus 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1 to 0.7 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, P=0.02). Two donors developed ESRD; both carried the APOL1 high-risk genotype. In a subgroup of 115 donors matched to 115 nondonors by APOL1 genotype, we did not find a difference between groups in the rate of eGFR decline (P=0.39) or any statistical interaction by APOL1 status (P=0.92). In conclusion, APOL1 high-risk genotype in black living kidney donors associated with greater decline in postdonation kidney function. Trajectory of renal function was similar between donors and nondonors. The association between APOL1 high-risk genotype and poor renal outcomes in kidney donors requires validation in a larger study.
Project description:Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) high-risk alleles and the glutathione-S-transferase-?1 (GSTM1) null allele have been shown separately to associate with CKD progression in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial participants. Here, we determined combined effects of GSTM1 null and APOL1 high-risk alleles on clinical outcomes in 682 AASK participants who were classified into four groups by GSTM1 null or active genotype and APOL1 high- or low-risk genotype. We assessed survival differences among these groups by log-rank test and Cox regression adjusted for important clinical variables for time to GFR event (change in GFR of 50% or 25-ml/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> decline), incident ESRD, death, or composite outcomes. The groups differed significantly in event-free survival for incident ESRD and composite outcomes (P?0.001 by log-rank test). Compared with the reference GSTM1 active/APOL1 low-risk group, other groups had these hazard ratios for the composite outcome of incident ESRD and change in GFR: GSTM1 active/APOL1 high-risk hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.76 to 5.90 (P=0.15); GSTM1 null/APOL1 low-risk hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 3.88 (P=0.03); and GSTM1 null/APOL1 high-risk hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.51 to 5.96 (P=0.002). In conclusion, GSTM1 null and APOL1 high-risk alleles deleteriously affect CKD progression among blacks with hypertension, and subjects with both GSTM1 null and APOL1 high-risk genotypes had highest risk of adverse renal outcomes. Larger cohorts are needed to fully explore interactions of GSTM1 and APOL1 genotypes in other subgroups.
Project description:Unlike the case with creatinine, conditions affecting the non-glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determinants of low-molecular-weight serum proteins, ?-trace protein (BTP), ?2-microglobulin (B2M), and cystatin C, are not well characterized.Pooled cross-sectional analysis of 3 studies.3,156 persons with chronic kidney disease from the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study, AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension), and CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study.Demographic and clinical factors hypothesized to be associated with non-GFR determinants of the filtration markers, selected from literature review and physiologic and clinical considerations.Serum creatinine, BTP, B2M, and cystatin C levels.In multivariable-adjusted errors-in-variables regression models that included adjustment for measured GFR (mGFR) and mGFR measurement error, creatinine level had stronger associations with male sex, black race, and higher urine creatinine excretion than the other filtration markers. BTP was associated less strongly with age, similar in direction with sex, and opposite in direction with race than creatinine level. Like cystatin C, B2M level was associated less strongly with age, sex, and race than creatinine level. BTP, B2M, and cystatin C levels were associated more strongly than creatinine level with other factors, including urine protein excretion and weight for BTP, smoking and urine protein excretion for B2M, and smoking for cystatin C.Findings may not be generalizable to populations without chronic kidney disease, and residual confounding with GFR due to incomplete adjustment for GFR measurement error.Like creatinine, serum levels of low-molecular-weight proteins are affected by conditions other than GFR. Knowledge of these conditions can aid the interpretation of GFR estimates and risk using these markers and guide the use of these filtration markers in developing GFR estimating equations.