Cdk1 inactivation terminates mitotic checkpoint surveillance and stabilizes kinetochore attachments in anaphase.
ABSTRACT: Two mechanisms safeguard the bipolar attachment of chromosomes in mitosis. A correction mechanism destabilizes erroneous attachments that do not generate tension across sister kinetochores . In response to unattached kinetochores, the mitotic checkpoint delays anaphase onset by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) . Upon satisfaction of both pathways, the APC/C(Cdc20) elicits the degradation of securin and cyclin B . This liberates separase triggering sister chromatid disjunction and inactivates cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) causing mitotic exit. How eukaryotic cells avoid the engagement of attachment monitoring mechanisms when sister chromatids split and tension is lost at anaphase is poorly understood . Here we show that Cdk1 inactivation disables mitotic checkpoint surveillance at anaphase onset in human cells. Preventing cyclin B1 proteolysis at the time of sister chromatid disjunction destabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachments and triggers the engagement of the mitotic checkpoint. As a consequence, mitotic checkpoint proteins accumulate at anaphase kinetochores, the APC/C(Cdc20) is inhibited, and securin reaccumulates. Conversely, acute pharmacological inhibition of Cdk1 abrogates the engagement and maintenance of the mitotic checkpoint upon microtubule depolymerization. We propose that the simultaneous destruction of securin and cyclin B elicited by the APC/C(Cdc20) couples chromosome segregation to the dissolution of attachment monitoring mechanisms during mitotic exit.
Project description:Activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) by Cdc20 is delayed by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). When all kinetochores come under tension, the SAC is turned off and APC/C(Cdc20) degrades cyclin B and securin, which activates separase . The latter then cleaves cohesin holding sister chromatids together . Because cohesin cleavage also destroys the tension responsible for turning off the SAC, cells must possess a mechanism to prevent SAC reactivation during anaphase, which could be conferred by a dependence of the SAC on Cdk1 [3-5]. To test this, we analyzed mouse oocytes and embryos expressing nondegradable cyclin B together with a Cdk1-resistant form of separase. After biorientation and SAC inactivation, APC/C(Cdc20) activates separase but the resulting loss of (some) cohesion is accompanied by SAC reactivation and APC/C(Cdc20) inhibition, which aborts the process of further securin degradation. Cyclin B is therefore the only APC/C(Cdc20) substrate whose degradation at the onset of anaphase is necessary to prevent SAC reactivation. The mutual activation of tension sensitive SAC and Cdk1 creates a bistable system that ensures complete activation of separase and total downregulation of Cdk1 when all chromosomes have bioriented.
Project description:Activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by Cdc20 is critical for the metaphase-anaphase transition. APC/C-Cdc20 is required for polyubiquitination and degradation of securin and cyclin B at anaphase onset. The spindle assembly checkpoint delays APC/C-Cdc20 activation until all kinetochores attach to mitotic spindles. In this study, we demonstrate that a HECT (homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus) ubiquitin ligase, Smurf2, is required for the spindle checkpoint. Smurf2 localizes to the centrosome, mitotic midbody, and centromeres. Smurf2 depletion or the expression of a catalytically inactive Smurf2 results in misaligned and lagging chromosomes, premature anaphase onset, and defective cytokinesis. Smurf2 inactivation prevents nocodazole-treated cells from accumulating cyclin B and securin and prometaphase arrest. The silencing of Cdc20 in Smurf2-depleted cells restores mitotic accumulation of cyclin B and securin. Smurf2 depletion results in enhanced polyubiquitination and degradation of Mad2, a critical checkpoint effector. Mad2 is mislocalized in Smurf2-depleted cells, suggesting that Smurf2 regulates the localization and stability of Mad2. These data indicate that Smurf2 is a novel mitotic regulator.
Project description:The mitotic checkpoint (also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint) prevents premature anaphase onset through generation of an inhibitor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C, whose ubiquitination of cyclin B and securin targets them for degradation. Combining in vitro reconstitution and cell-based assays, we now identify dual mechanisms through which Bub3 promotes mitotic checkpoint signaling. Bub3 enhances signaling at unattached kinetochores not only by facilitating binding of BubR1 but also by enhancing Cdc20 recruitment to kinetochores mediated by BubR1's internal Cdc20 binding site. Downstream of kinetochore-produced complexes, Bub3 promotes binding of BubR1's conserved, amino terminal Cdc20 binding domain to a site in Cdc20 that becomes exposed by initial Mad2 binding. This latter Bub3-stimulated event generates the final mitotic checkpoint complex of Bub3-BubR1-Cdc20 that selectively inhibits ubiquitination of securin and cyclin B by APC/C(Cdc20). Thus, Bub3 promotes two distinct BubR1-Cdc20 interactions, involving each of the two Cdc20 binding sites of BubR1 and acting at unattached kinetochores or cytoplasmically, respectively, to facilitate production of the mitotic checkpoint inhibitor.
Project description:Premature anaphase onset is prevented by the mitotic checkpoint through production of a "wait anaphase" inhibitor(s) that blocks recognition of cyclin B and securin by Cdc20-activated APC/C, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets them for destruction. Using physiologically relevant levels of Mad2, Bub3, BubR1, and Cdc20, we demonstrate that unattached kinetochores on purified chromosomes catalytically generate a diffusible Cdc20 inhibitor or inhibit Cdc20 already bound to APC/C. Furthermore, the chromosome-produced inhibitor requires both recruitment of Mad2 by Mad1 that is stably bound at unattached kinetochores and dimerization-competent Mad2. We show that purified chromosomes promote BubR1 binding to APC/C-Cdc20 by acting directly on Mad2, but not BubR1. Our results support a model in which immobilized Mad1/Mad2 at kinetochores provides a template for initial assembly of Mad2 bound to Cdc20 that is then converted to a final mitotic checkpoint inhibitor with Cdc20 bound to BubR1.
Project description:The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance system acting in mitosis to delay anaphase onset until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. When the checkpoint is activated, the Mad2 and Mad3 proteins directly bind and inhibit Cdc20, which is an essential activator of an E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). When the checkpoint is satisfied, Cdc20-APC is activated and polyubiquitinates securin and cyclin, leading to the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. Several protein kinases play critical roles in spindle checkpoint signaling, but the mechanism (or mechanisms) by which they inhibit mitotic progression remains unclear. Furthermore, it is not known whether their activity needs to be reversed by protein phosphatases before anaphase onset can occur. Here we employ fission yeast to show that Aurora (Ark1) kinase activity is directly required to maintain spindle checkpoint arrest, even in the presence of many unattached kinetochores. Upon Ark1 inhibition, checkpoint complexes are disassembled and cyclin B is rapidly degraded. Importantly, checkpoint silencing and cyclin B degradation require the kinetochore-localized isoform of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1(Dis2)). We propose that PP1(Dis2)-mediated dephosphorylation of checkpoint components forms a novel spindle checkpoint silencing mechanism.
Project description:When cells enter mitosis, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is activated by phosphorylation and binding of Cdc20. The RXXL destruction box (D-box) of cyclin B1 only binds Cdc20 after release of the spindle checkpoint in metaphase, initiating cyclin B1 ubiquitination upon chromosome bi-orientation. However, we found that cyclin B1, through Cdk1 and Cks, is targeted to the phosphorylated APC/C(Cdc20) at the start of prometaphase, when the spindle checkpoint is still active. Here, we show that MASTL is essential for cyclin B1 recruitment to the mitotic APC/C and that this occurs entirely independently of Cdc20. Importantly, MASTL-directed binding of cyclin B1 to spindle checkpoint-inhibited APC/C(Cdc20) critically supports efficient cyclin B1 destruction after checkpoint release. A high incidence of anaphase bridges observed in response to MASTL RNAi may result from cyclin B1 remaining after securin destruction, which is insufficient to keep MASTL-depleted cells in mitosis but delays the activation of separase.
Project description:Sister chromatid separation creates a sudden loss of tension on kinetochores, which could, in principle, re-activate the spindle checkpoint in anaphase. This so-called "anaphase problem" is probably avoided by timely inactivation of cyclin B1-Cdk1, which may prevent the spindle tension sensing Aurora B kinase from destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule interactions as they lose tension in anaphase. However, exactly how spindle checkpoint re-activation is prevented remains unclear. Here, we investigated how different degrees of cyclin B1 stabilization affected the spindle checkpoint in metaphase and anaphase. Cells expressing a strongly stabilized (R42A) mutant of cyclin B1 degraded APC/C(Cdc20) substrates normally, showing that checkpoint release was not inhibited by high cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity. However, after this initial wave of APC/C(Cdc20) activity, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells with uncohesed sister chromatids. Expression of a lysine mutant of cyclin B1 that is degraded only slightly inefficiently allowed a normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Strikingly, however, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells that had not degraded the cyclin B1 mutant 10-15 min after anaphase onset. When cyclin B1 remained in late anaphase, cytokinesis stalled, and translocation of INCENP from separated sister chromatids to the spindle midzone was blocked. This late anaphase arrest required the activity of Aurora B and Mps1. In conclusion, our results reveal that complete removal of cyclin B1 is essential to prevent the return of the spindle checkpoint following sister chromatid disjunction. Speculatively, increasing activity of APC/C(Cdc20) in late anaphase helps to keep cyclin B1 levels low.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is the major surveillance system that ensures that sister chromatids do not separate until all chromosomes are correctly bioriented during mitosis. Components of the checkpoint include Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 (BubR1), Bub3, and the kinases Bub1, Mph1 (Mps1), and Aurora B. Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension. Kinetochore association of Mad2 causes it to undergo a conformational change, which promotes its association to Mad3 and Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until the checkpoint is satisfied. SAC silencing derepresses Cdc20-APC/C activity. This triggers the polyubiquitination of securin and cyclin, which promotes the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. We, and others, recently showed that association of PP1 to the Spc7/Spc105/KNL1 family of kinetochore proteins is necessary to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore attachments and silence the SAC. We now report that phosphorylation of the conserved MELT motifs in Spc7 by Mph1 (Mps1) recruits Bub1 and Bub3 to the kinetochore and that this is required to maintain the SAC signal.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is required to block sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic apparatus. The SAC prevents cells from entering anaphase by inhibiting the ubiquitylation of cyclin B1 and securin by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. The target of the SAC is the essential APC/C activator Cdc20. It is unclear how the SAC inactivates Cdc20 but most current models suggest that Cdc20 forms a stable complex with the Mad2 checkpoint protein. Here we show that most Cdc20 is not in a complex with Mad2; instead Mad2 is required for Cdc20 to form a complex with another checkpoint protein, BubR1. We further show that during the SAC, the APC/C ubiquitylates Cdc20 to target it for degradation. Thus, ubiquitylation of human Cdc20 is not required to release it from the checkpoint complex, but to degrade it to maintain mitotic arrest.
Project description:The ubiquitin protein ligase anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) controls mitosis by promoting ordered degradation of securin, cyclins, and other proteins. The mechanisms underlying the timing of APC/C substrate degradation are poorly understood. We explored these mechanisms using quantitative fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged APC/C(Cdc20) substrates in living budding yeast cells. Degradation of the S cyclin, Clb5, begins early in mitosis, followed 6 min later by the degradation of securin and Dbf4. Anaphase begins when less than half of securin is degraded. The spindle assembly checkpoint delays the onset of Clb5 degradation but does not influence securin degradation. Early Clb5 degradation depends on its interaction with the Cdk1-Cks1 complex and the presence of a Cdc20-binding "ABBA motif" in its N-terminal region. The degradation of securin and Dbf4 is delayed by Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation near their Cdc20-binding sites. Thus, a remarkably diverse array of mechanisms generates robust ordering of APC/C(Cdc20) substrate destruction.