Identification of a BET family bromodomain/casein kinase II/TAF-containing complex as a regulator of mitotic condensin function.
ABSTRACT: Condensin is a central regulator of mitotic genome structure with mutants showing poorly condensed chromosomes and profound segregation defects. Here, we identify NCT, a complex comprising the Nrc1 BET-family tandem bromodomain protein (SPAC631.02), casein kinase II (CKII), and several TAFs, as a regulator of condensin function. We show that NCT and condensin bind similar genomic regions but only briefly colocalize during the periods of chromosome condensation and decondensation. This pattern of NCT binding at the core centromere, the region of maximal condensin enrichment, tracks the abundance of acetylated histone H4, as regulated by the Hat1-Mis16 acetyltransferase complex and recognized by the first Nrc1 bromodomain. Strikingly, mutants in NCT or Hat1-Mis16 restore the formation of segregation-competent chromosomes in cells containing defective condensin. These results are consistent with a model where NCT targets CKII to chromatin in a cell-cycle-directed manner in order to modulate the activity of condensin during chromosome condensation and decondensation.
Project description:ABSTRACT: Condensin is a central regulator of mitotic genome structure, with mutants showing poorly condensed chromosomes and profound segregation defects. Here we identify the fission yeast NCT complex, comprising the Nrc1 BET-family tandem bromodomain protein (SPAC631.02), Casein Kinase II (CKII) and several TAFs, as a novel regulator of condensin function (where NCT mutants restore the formation of segregation-competent chromosomes in cells containing defective condensin). Synchronous ChIP-seq shows that NCT and condensin bind similar genomic regions, but only briefly co-localize during the periods of chromosome condensation and decondensation. These results are consistent with a model where NCT targets CKII to chromatin in a cell cycle-directed manner to modulate the activity of condensin during chromosome condensation and decondensation. DATA: Study includes ChIP-seq of fission yeast H3-K4Me3, H3-K36Me3, TBP, Taf7, Nrc1, Cka1 from aynchronous cells; Nrc1 and Cut3 (representing condensin) from four synchronized cell-cycle stages estimated as G2/M, Metaphase, Anaphase and G1/S.
Project description:During cell division, chromatin alternates between a condensed state to facilitate chromosome segregation and a decondensed form when DNA replicates. In most tissues, S phase and mitosis are separated by defined G1 and G2 gap phases, but early embryogenesis involves rapid oscillations between replication and mitosis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos as a model system, we show that chromosome condensation and condensin II concentration on chromosomal axes require replicated DNA. In addition, we found that, during late telophase, replication initiates on condensed chromosomes and promotes the rapid decondensation of the chromatin. Upon replication initiation, the CDC-45-MCM-GINS (CMG) DNA helicase drives the release of condensin I complexes from chromatin and the activation or displacement of inactive MCM-2-7 complexes, which together with the nucleoporin MEL-28/ELYS tethers condensed chromatin to the nuclear envelope, thereby promoting chromatin decondensation. Our results show how, in an early embryo, the chromosome-condensation cycle is functionally linked with DNA replication.
Project description:After mitosis, nuclear reorganization occurs together with decondensation of mitotic chromosomes and reformation of the nuclear envelope, thereby restoring the Ran-GTP gradient between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The Ran-GTP gradient is dependent on Pim1/RCC1. Interestingly, a defect in Pim1/RCC1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe causes postmitotic condensation of chromatin, namely hypercondensation, suggesting a relationship between the Ran-GTP gradient and chromosome decondensation. However, how Ran-GTP interacts with chromosome decondensation is unresolved. To examine this interaction, we used Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, which is known to undergo partial breakdown of the nuclear membrane during mitosis. We found that Pim1/RCC1 was localized on nuclear pores, but this localization failed in a temperature-sensitive mutant of Pim1/RCC1. The mutant cells exhibited hypercondensed chromatin after mitosis due to prolonged association of condensin on the chromosomes. Conceivably, a condensin-dephosphorylation defect might cause hypercondensed chromatin, since chromosomal localization of condensin is dependent on phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). Indeed, CDK-phospho-mimic mutation of condensin alone caused untimely condensin localization, resulting in hypercondensed chromatin. Together, these results suggest that dephosphorylation of CDK sites of condensin might require the Ran-GTP gradient produced by nuclear pore-localized Pim1/RCC1.
Project description:Mitotic chromosome condensation is a prerequisite for the accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division, and the conserved condensin complex a central player of this process. However, how condensin binds chromatin and shapes mitotic chromosomes remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide binding studies showing that in most species condensin is enriched near highly expressed genes suggest a conserved link between condensin occupancy and high transcription rates. To gain insight into the mechanisms of condensin binding and mitotic chromosome condensation, we searched for factors that collaborate with condensin through a synthetic lethal genetic screen in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We isolated novel mutations affecting condensin, as well as mutations in four genes not previously implicated in mitotic chromosome condensation in fission yeast. These mutations cause chromosome segregation defects similar to those provoked by defects in condensation. We also identified a suppressor of the cut3-477 condensin mutation, which largely rescued chromosome segregation during anaphase. Remarkably, of the five genes identified in this study, four encode transcription co-factors. Our results therefore provide strong additional evidence for a functional connection between chromosome condensation and transcription.
Project description:Condensins I and II are multisubunit complexes that play essential yet distinct functions in chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis. Unlike condensin I, condensin II localizes to the nucleus during interphase, but it remains poorly understood what functions condensin II might have before mitotic entry. Here, we report that condensin II changes its chromatin-binding property during S phase. Remarkably, advanced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assays enabled us to visualize condensin II forming "sister axes" in replicated regions of chromosomes in S phase cells. Depletion of condensin II compromised PCC-driven sister chromatid resolution during S phase. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization assays revealed that condensin II, but not condensin I, promotes disjoining duplicated chromosomal loci during S phase. Application of mild replicative stress partially impaired this process and further exacerbated phenotypes arising from condensin II depletion. Our results suggest that condensin II initiates structural reorganization of duplicated chromosomes during S phase to prepare for their proper condensation and segregation in mitosis.
Project description:During mitosis, genomic DNA is condensed into chromosomes to promote its equal segregation into daughter cells. Chromosome condensation occurs during cell cycle progression from G2 phase to mitosis. Failure of chromosome compaction at prophase leads to subsequent misregulation of chromosomes. However, the molecular mechanism that controls the early phase of mitotic chromosome condensation is largely unknown. Here, we show that Mps1 regulates initial chromosome condensation during mitosis. We identify condensin II as a novel Mps1-associated protein. Mps1 phosphorylates one of the condensin II subunits, CAP-H2, at Ser492 during mitosis, and this phosphorylation event is required for the proper loading of condensin II on chromatin. Depletion of Mps1 inhibits chromosomal targeting of condensin II and accurate chromosome condensation during prophase. These findings demonstrate that Mps1 governs chromosomal organization during the early stage of mitosis to facilitate proper chromosome segregation.
Project description:Chromosome condensation is required for the physical resolution and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division, but the precise role of higher order chromatin structure in mitotic chromosome functions is unclear. Here, we address the role of the major condensation machinery, the condensin complex, in spindle assembly and function in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Immunodepletion of condensin inhibited microtubule growth and organization around chromosomes, reducing the percentage of sperm nuclei capable of forming spindles, and causing dramatic defects in anaphase chromosome segregation. Although the motor CENP-E was recruited to kinetochores pulled poleward during anaphase, the disorganized chromosome mass was not resolved. Inhibition of condensin function during anaphase also inhibited chromosome segregation, indicating its continuous requirement. Spindle assembly around DNA-coated beads in the absence of kinetochores was also impaired upon condensin inhibition. These results support an important role for condensin in establishing chromosomal architecture necessary for proper spindle assembly and chromosome segregation.
Project description:Dinoflagellates have some of the largest genomes, and their liquid-crystalline chromosomes (LCCs) have high degrees of non-nucleosomal superhelicity with cation-mediated DNA condensation. It is currently unknown if condensins, pentameric protein complexes containing structural maintenance of chromosomes 2/4, commonly involved in eukaryotic chromosomes condensation in preparation for M phase, may be involved in the LCC structure. We find that CcSMC4p (dinoflagellate SMC4 homolog) level peaked at S/G2 phase, even though LCCs do not undergo global-decondensation for replication. Despite the differences in the chromosomal packaging system, heterologous CcSMC4p expression suppressed conditional lethality of the corresponding fission yeast mutant, suggesting conservation of some canonical condensin functions. CcSMC4p-knockdown led to sustained expression of the S-phase marker PCNAp, S-phase impediment, and distorted nuclei in the early stage of CcSMC4p depletion. Prolonged CcSMC4p-knockdown resulted in aneuploidal cells and nuclear swelling with increasing LCC decompaction-decondensation. Cumulatively, our data suggested CcSMC4p function was required for dinoflagellate S-phase progression, and we propose that condensin-mediated higher-order compaction provisioning is involved in the provision of local rigidity for the replisome.
Project description:Chromosome condensation is a hallmark of mitosis in eukaryotes and is a prerequisite for faithful segregation of genetic material to daughter cells. Here we show that condensin, which is essential for assembling condensed chromosomes, helps to preclude the detrimental effects of gene transcription on mitotic condensation. ChIP-seq profiling reveals that the fission yeast condensin preferentially binds to active protein-coding genes in a transcription-dependent manner during mitosis. Pharmacological and genetic attenuation of transcription largely rescue bulk chromosome segregation defects observed in condensin mutants. We also demonstrate that condensin is associated with and reduces unwound DNA segments generated by transcription, providing a direct link between an in vitro activity of condensin and its in vivo function. The human condensin isoform condensin I also binds to unwound DNA regions at the transcription start sites of active genes, implying that our findings uncover a fundamental feature of condensin complexes.
Project description:Centromeric chromatin is required for kinetochore assembly during mitosis and accurate chromosome segregation. A unique nucleosome containing the histone H3-specific variant CENP-A is the defining feature of centromeric chromatin. In humans, CENP-A nucleosome deposition occurs in early G1 just after mitotic exit at the time when the CENP-A deposition machinery localizes to centromeres. The mechanism by which CENP-A is deposited onto an existing, condensed chromatin template is not understood. Here we identify the selective association of the CENP-A chaperone HJURP with the condensin II complex and not condensin I. We show CAPH2 is present at centromeres during early G1 at the time when CENP-A deposition is occurring. CAPH2 localization to early G1 centromeres is dependent on HJURP. The CENP-A chaperone and assembly factor HJURP induces decondensation of a noncentromeric LacO array, and this decondensation is modulated by the condensin II complex. We show that condensin II function at the centromere is required for new CENP-A deposition in human cells. These data demonstrate that HJURP selectively recruits the condensin II chromatin-remodeling complex to facilitate CENP-A deposition in human cells.