Dependency of the spindle assembly checkpoint on Cdk1 renders the anaphase transition irreversible.
ABSTRACT: Activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) by Cdc20 is delayed by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). When all kinetochores come under tension, the SAC is turned off and APC/C(Cdc20) degrades cyclin B and securin, which activates separase . The latter then cleaves cohesin holding sister chromatids together . Because cohesin cleavage also destroys the tension responsible for turning off the SAC, cells must possess a mechanism to prevent SAC reactivation during anaphase, which could be conferred by a dependence of the SAC on Cdk1 [3-5]. To test this, we analyzed mouse oocytes and embryos expressing nondegradable cyclin B together with a Cdk1-resistant form of separase. After biorientation and SAC inactivation, APC/C(Cdc20) activates separase but the resulting loss of (some) cohesion is accompanied by SAC reactivation and APC/C(Cdc20) inhibition, which aborts the process of further securin degradation. Cyclin B is therefore the only APC/C(Cdc20) substrate whose degradation at the onset of anaphase is necessary to prevent SAC reactivation. The mutual activation of tension sensitive SAC and Cdk1 creates a bistable system that ensures complete activation of separase and total downregulation of Cdk1 when all chromosomes have bioriented.
Project description:Two mechanisms safeguard the bipolar attachment of chromosomes in mitosis. A correction mechanism destabilizes erroneous attachments that do not generate tension across sister kinetochores . In response to unattached kinetochores, the mitotic checkpoint delays anaphase onset by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) . Upon satisfaction of both pathways, the APC/C(Cdc20) elicits the degradation of securin and cyclin B . This liberates separase triggering sister chromatid disjunction and inactivates cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) causing mitotic exit. How eukaryotic cells avoid the engagement of attachment monitoring mechanisms when sister chromatids split and tension is lost at anaphase is poorly understood . Here we show that Cdk1 inactivation disables mitotic checkpoint surveillance at anaphase onset in human cells. Preventing cyclin B1 proteolysis at the time of sister chromatid disjunction destabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachments and triggers the engagement of the mitotic checkpoint. As a consequence, mitotic checkpoint proteins accumulate at anaphase kinetochores, the APC/C(Cdc20) is inhibited, and securin reaccumulates. Conversely, acute pharmacological inhibition of Cdk1 abrogates the engagement and maintenance of the mitotic checkpoint upon microtubule depolymerization. We propose that the simultaneous destruction of securin and cyclin B elicited by the APC/C(Cdc20) couples chromosome segregation to the dissolution of attachment monitoring mechanisms during mitotic exit.
Project description:When cells enter mitosis, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is activated by phosphorylation and binding of Cdc20. The RXXL destruction box (D-box) of cyclin B1 only binds Cdc20 after release of the spindle checkpoint in metaphase, initiating cyclin B1 ubiquitination upon chromosome bi-orientation. However, we found that cyclin B1, through Cdk1 and Cks, is targeted to the phosphorylated APC/C(Cdc20) at the start of prometaphase, when the spindle checkpoint is still active. Here, we show that MASTL is essential for cyclin B1 recruitment to the mitotic APC/C and that this occurs entirely independently of Cdc20. Importantly, MASTL-directed binding of cyclin B1 to spindle checkpoint-inhibited APC/C(Cdc20) critically supports efficient cyclin B1 destruction after checkpoint release. A high incidence of anaphase bridges observed in response to MASTL RNAi may result from cyclin B1 remaining after securin destruction, which is insufficient to keep MASTL-depleted cells in mitosis but delays the activation of separase.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance mechanism that delays anaphase onset and mitotic exit in response to the lack of kinetochore attachment. The target of the SAC is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC) bound to its Cdc20 activator. The Cdc20/APC complex is in turn required for sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of securin, thus relieving inhibition of separase that unties sister chromatids. Separase is also involved in the Cdc-fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) pathway of nucleolar release and activation of the Cdc14 phosphatase, which regulates several microtubule-linked processes at the metaphase/anaphase transition and also drives mitotic exit. Here, we report that the SAC prevents separation of microtubule-organizing centers (spindle pole bodies [SPBs]) when spindle assembly is defective. Under these circumstances, failure of SAC activation causes unscheduled SPB separation, which requires Cdc20/APC, the FEAR pathway, cytoplasmic dynein, and the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that, besides inhibiting sister chromatid separation, the SAC preserves the accurate transmission of chromosomes also by preventing SPBs to migrate far apart until the conditions to assemble a bipolar spindle are satisfied.
Project description:The ubiquitin protein ligase anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) controls mitosis by promoting ordered degradation of securin, cyclins, and other proteins. The mechanisms underlying the timing of APC/C substrate degradation are poorly understood. We explored these mechanisms using quantitative fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged APC/C(Cdc20) substrates in living budding yeast cells. Degradation of the S cyclin, Clb5, begins early in mitosis, followed 6 min later by the degradation of securin and Dbf4. Anaphase begins when less than half of securin is degraded. The spindle assembly checkpoint delays the onset of Clb5 degradation but does not influence securin degradation. Early Clb5 degradation depends on its interaction with the Cdk1-Cks1 complex and the presence of a Cdc20-binding "ABBA motif" in its N-terminal region. The degradation of securin and Dbf4 is delayed by Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation near their Cdc20-binding sites. Thus, a remarkably diverse array of mechanisms generates robust ordering of APC/C(Cdc20) substrate destruction.
Project description:Progress through mitosis requires that the right protein be degraded at the right time. One ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) targets most of the crucial mitotic regulators by changing its substrate specificity throughout mitosis. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) acts on the APC/C co-activator, Cdc20 (cell division cycle 20), to block the degradation of metaphase substrates (for example, cyclin B1 and securin), but not others (for example, cyclin A). How this is achieved is unclear. Here we show that Cdc20 binds to different sites on the APC/C depending on the SAC. Cdc20 requires APC3 and APC8 to bind and activate the APC/C when the SAC is satisfied, but requires only APC8 to bind the APC/C when the SAC is active. Moreover, APC10 is crucial for the destruction of cyclin B1 and securin, but not cyclin A. We conclude that the SAC causes Cdc20 to bind to different sites on the APC/C and this alters APC/C substrate specificity.
Project description:At the onset of anaphase, sister-chromatid cohesion is dissolved abruptly and irreversibly, ensuring that all chromosome pairs disjoin almost simultaneously. The regulatory mechanisms that generate this switch-like behaviour are unclear. Anaphase is initiated when a ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), triggers the destruction of securin, thereby allowing separase, a protease, to disrupt sister-chromatid cohesion. Here we demonstrate that the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)-dependent phosphorylation of securin near its destruction-box motif inhibits securin ubiquitination by the APC. The phosphatase Cdc14 reverses securin phosphorylation, thereby increasing the rate of securin ubiquitination. Because separase is known to activate Cdc14 (refs 5 and 6), our results support the existence of a positive feedback loop that increases the abruptness of anaphase. Consistent with this model, we show that mutations that disrupt securin phosphoregulation decrease the synchrony of chromosome segregation. Our results also suggest that coupling securin degradation with changes in Cdk1 and Cdc14 activities helps coordinate the initiation of sister-chromatid separation with changes in spindle dynamics.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits anaphase progression in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but cells can eventually override mitotic arrest by a process known as mitotic slippage or adaptation. This is a problem for cancer chemotherapy using microtubule poisons. RESULTS: Here we describe mitotic slippage in yeast bub2? mutant cells that are defective in the repression of precocious telophase onset (mitotic exit). Precocious activation of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdh1 caused mitotic slippage in the presence of nocodazole, while the SAC was still active. APC/C-Cdh1, but not APC/C-Cdc20, triggered anaphase progression (securin degradation, separase-mediated cohesin cleavage, sister-chromatid separation and chromosome missegregation), in addition to telophase onset (mitotic exit), during mitotic slippage. This demonstrates that an inhibitory system not only of APC/C-Cdc20 but also of APC/C-Cdh1 is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments. CONCLUSIONS: The sequential activation of APC/C-Cdc20 to APC/C-Cdh1 during mitosis is central to accurate mitosis. Precocious activation of APC/C-Cdh1 in metaphase (pre-anaphase) causes mitotic slippage in SAC-activated cells. For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is required to block sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic apparatus. The SAC prevents cells from entering anaphase by inhibiting the ubiquitylation of cyclin B1 and securin by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. The target of the SAC is the essential APC/C activator Cdc20. It is unclear how the SAC inactivates Cdc20 but most current models suggest that Cdc20 forms a stable complex with the Mad2 checkpoint protein. Here we show that most Cdc20 is not in a complex with Mad2; instead Mad2 is required for Cdc20 to form a complex with another checkpoint protein, BubR1. We further show that during the SAC, the APC/C ubiquitylates Cdc20 to target it for degradation. Thus, ubiquitylation of human Cdc20 is not required to release it from the checkpoint complex, but to degrade it to maintain mitotic arrest.
Project description:Sister chromatid separation creates a sudden loss of tension on kinetochores, which could, in principle, re-activate the spindle checkpoint in anaphase. This so-called "anaphase problem" is probably avoided by timely inactivation of cyclin B1-Cdk1, which may prevent the spindle tension sensing Aurora B kinase from destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule interactions as they lose tension in anaphase. However, exactly how spindle checkpoint re-activation is prevented remains unclear. Here, we investigated how different degrees of cyclin B1 stabilization affected the spindle checkpoint in metaphase and anaphase. Cells expressing a strongly stabilized (R42A) mutant of cyclin B1 degraded APC/C(Cdc20) substrates normally, showing that checkpoint release was not inhibited by high cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity. However, after this initial wave of APC/C(Cdc20) activity, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells with uncohesed sister chromatids. Expression of a lysine mutant of cyclin B1 that is degraded only slightly inefficiently allowed a normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Strikingly, however, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells that had not degraded the cyclin B1 mutant 10-15 min after anaphase onset. When cyclin B1 remained in late anaphase, cytokinesis stalled, and translocation of INCENP from separated sister chromatids to the spindle midzone was blocked. This late anaphase arrest required the activity of Aurora B and Mps1. In conclusion, our results reveal that complete removal of cyclin B1 is essential to prevent the return of the spindle checkpoint following sister chromatid disjunction. Speculatively, increasing activity of APC/C(Cdc20) in late anaphase helps to keep cyclin B1 levels low.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is the major surveillance system that ensures that sister chromatids do not separate until all chromosomes are correctly bioriented during mitosis. Components of the checkpoint include Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 (BubR1), Bub3, and the kinases Bub1, Mph1 (Mps1), and Aurora B. Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension. Kinetochore association of Mad2 causes it to undergo a conformational change, which promotes its association to Mad3 and Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until the checkpoint is satisfied. SAC silencing derepresses Cdc20-APC/C activity. This triggers the polyubiquitination of securin and cyclin, which promotes the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. We, and others, recently showed that association of PP1 to the Spc7/Spc105/KNL1 family of kinetochore proteins is necessary to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore attachments and silence the SAC. We now report that phosphorylation of the conserved MELT motifs in Spc7 by Mph1 (Mps1) recruits Bub1 and Bub3 to the kinetochore and that this is required to maintain the SAC signal.