Application of ultrasonic bone curette in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery: technical note.
ABSTRACT: Background Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base often requires extensive bone work in proximity to critical neurovascular structures. Objective To demonstrate the application of an ultrasonic bone curette during EES. Methods Ten patients with skull base lesions underwent EES from September 2011 to April 2012 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Most of the bone work was done with high-speed drill and rongeurs. The ultrasonic curette was used to remove specific structures. Results All the patients were submitted to fully endoscopic endonasal procedures and had critical bony structures removed with the ultrasonic bone curette. Two patients with degenerative spine diseases underwent odontoid process removal. Five patients with clival and petroclival tumors underwent posterior clinoid removal. Two patients with anterior fossa tumors underwent crista galli removal. One patient underwent unilateral optic nerve decompression. No mechanical or heat injury resulted from the ultrasonic curette. The surrounding neurovascular structures and soft tissue were preserved in all cases. Conclusion In selected EES, the ultrasonic bone curette was successfully used to remove loose pieces of bone in narrow corridors, adjacent to neurovascular structures, and it has advantages to high-speed drills in these specific situations.
Project description:Background:Endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches provide direct access to the ventral skull base allowing the treating of clival and paraclival pathology without the manipulation of the brain or neurovascular structures. Postoperative spinal fluid leak, however, remains a challenge and various techniques have been described to reconstruct the operative defect. The "gasket seal" has been well-described, but has anatomic challenges when applied to clival defects. We describe a modification of this technique for use in endonasal transclival approaches. Methods:Two patients who underwent an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach for tumor resection with an intraoperative spinal fluid leak underwent a modified "gasket seal" closure technique for skull base reconstruction. Results:A 71-year-old woman with a petroclival meningioma and a 22 year old with a clival chordoma underwent endoscopic endonasal transclival resection with the modified repair. No new postoperative deficits occurred and no postoperative spinal fluid leak was seen with a follow-up of 17 and 23 months, respectively. Conclusion:We describe the successful use of a simple, low risk, and technique modification of the "gasket seal" technique adapted to the clivus that allows for hard reconstruction and facilitates placement of the nasoseptal flap.
Project description:Background:Planum sphenoidale meningiomas comprise about 2% of all primary intracranial tumors. More often, they carry a significant surgical challenge due to their relation to the surrounding vital neurovascular structures. Endoscopic endonasal approach to such tumors holds multiple advantages to the transcranial counterpart in terms of coagulating the vascular supply, minimal brain retraction, and the ability to fully expose the tumor with the affected dura. Case Description:In this surgical video, we are presenting a case of a 28-year-old male, who presented to our hospital after he had one episode of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure that was controlled with an antiepileptic medication. Neurological examination was unremarkable including optic and olfactory nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large anterior skull base mass located at the planum sphenoidale anteriorly. The patient underwent an endoscopic transnasal approach, drilling of the planum sphenoidale, and en bloc total resection of the tumor. In the follow-up office visit, the patient had no more seizures with preserved olfaction; MRI revealed no tumor residual. Conclusion:Planum sphenoidale meningiomas are surgically challenging due to its close proximity to important structures, such as pituitary gland, internal carotid arteries, and optic chiasm. Respecting the arachnoid plane and generous coagulation of vascular supply from the ethmoid arteries facilitate safe removal.
Project description:Setting One of the consequences of the widespread use of endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) to skull base pathologies is the management of complex skull base defects. Nowadays, the gold standard is a multilayer closure that reproduces the physiological tissue barriers. Several techniques have been described in the literature; however, skull base reconstruction after EEA still represents a matter of debate, especially after extended EEA. A watertight closure is paramount to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis. Design Regarding this issue, we present our experience with a new synthetic dural patch, ReDura (Medprin Biotech, La Mirada, California, United States), as a subdural inlay in three patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal removal of sellar and suprasellar lesions. Conclusions ReDura patch showed the same versatility of autologous iliotibial tract. A dural patch that easily adapts to all defects, revealed to be a useful tool for performing watertight closure, possibly in a short operative time, after endoscopic approaches.
Project description:Objectives The purpose of this study is to experimentally evaluate the use of concentric tube continuum robots in endonasal skull base tumor removal. This new type of surgical robot offers many advantages over existing straight and rigid surgical tools including added dexterity, the ability to scale movements, and the ability to rotate the end effector while leaving the robot fixed in space. In this study, a concentric tube continuum robot was used to remove simulated pituitary tumors from a skull phantom. Design The robot was teleoperated by experienced skull base surgeons to remove a phantom pituitary tumor within a skull. Percentage resection was measured by weight. Resection duration was timed. Setting Academic research laboratory. Main Outcome Measures Percentage removal of tumor material and procedure duration. Results Average removal percentage of 79.8 ± 5.9% and average time to complete procedure of 12.5 ± 4.1 minutes (n = 20). Conclusions The robotic system presented here for use in endonasal skull base surgery shows promise in improving the dexterity, tool motion, and end effector capabilities currently available with straight and rigid tools while remaining an effective tool for resecting the tumor.
Project description:Introduction Carotid artery injury (CAI) is the most feared and potentially catastrophic intraoperative complication an endoscopic skull base surgeon may face. With the advancement of transnasal endoscopic surgery and the willingness to tackle more diverse pathology, evidence-based management of this life-threatening complication is paramount for patient safety and surgeon confidence. Objectives We review the current English literature surrounding the management of CAI during endoscopic transnasal surgery. Data Synthesis The searched databases included PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane database, LILACS, and BIREME. Keywords included "sinus surgery," "carotid injury," "endoscopic skull base surgery," "hemostasis," "transsphenoidal" and "pseudoaneurysm." Conclusions Review of the literature found the incidence of CAI in endonasal skull base surgery to be as high as 9% in some surgeries. Furthermore, current treatment recommendations can result in damage to critical neurovascular structures. Management decisions must be made in the preoperative, operative, and postoperative setting to ensure adequate treatment of CAI and the prevention of its complications such as pseudoaneurysm. Emphasis should be placed on surgical competency, teamwork, and technical expertise through education and training.
Project description:The objective of the present study is to elucidate the feasibility of surgical maneuvers under the side-viewing endoscope during skull base tumor removal. The study focused on 51 patients who underwent tumor removal with the assistance of a side-viewing endoscope. The side-viewing endoscope enabled visualization and removal of residual tumors obscured by the skull base bone, cranial nerves, and other vital structures after a microscopic procedure. If the surgical field is surrounded by the dura or skull base tissue, not only curettage of a tumor but also semisharp dissection and bipolar coagulation are shown to be feasible. In the subarachnoid space, however, the primary feasible surgical maneuver was suctioning of the tumor. The extent of skull base resection could be reduced in 25 cases and additional tumor removal became possible in 47 cases. Application of the side-viewing endoscope enabled removal of the tumor compartment, the exposure of which has conventionally required an extensive skull base resection. This technique is a promising option for the treatment of skull base tumors.
Project description:The authors reviewed the surgical experience and operative technique in a series of 11 patients with middle fossa tumors who underwent surgery using the transzygomatic approach and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IOM) at a single institution. This approach was applied to trigeminal schwannomas (n = 3), cavernous angiomas (n = 3), sphenoid wing meningiomas (n = 3), a petroclival meningioma (n = 1), and a hemangiopericytoma (n = 1). An osteotomy of the zygoma, a low-positioned frontotemporal craniotomy, removal of the remaining squamous temporal bone, and extradural drilling of the sphenoid wing made a flat trajectory to the skull base. Total resection was achieved in 9 of 11 patients. Significant motor pathway damage can be avoided using a change in motor-evoked potentials as an early warning sign. Four patients experienced cranial nerve palsies postoperatively, even though free-running electromyography of cranial nerves showed normal responses during the surgical procedure. A simple transzygomatic approach provides a wide surgical corridor for accessing the cavernous sinus, petrous apex, and subtemporal regions. Knowledge of the middle fossa structures is essential for anatomic orientation and avoiding injuries to neurovascular structures, although a neuronavigation system and IOM helps orient neurosurgeons.
Project description:Resection of skull base lesions has always been riddled with problems like inadequate access, proximity to major vessels, dural tears, cranial nerve damage, and infection. Understanding the modular concept of the facial skeleton has led to the development of transfacial swing osteotomies that facilitates resection in a difficult area with minimal morbidity and excellent cosmetic results. In spite of the current trend toward endonasal endoscopic management of skull base tumors, our series presents nine cases of diverse extensive skull base lesions, 33% of which were recurrent. These cases were approached through different transfacial swing osteotomies through the mandible, a midfacial swing, or a zygomaticotemporal osteotomy as dictated by the three-dimensional spatial location of the lesion, and its extent and proximity to vital structures. Access osteotomies ensured complete removal and good results through the most direct and safe route and good vascular control. This reiterated the fact that transfacial approaches still hold a special place in the management of extensive skull base lesions.
Project description:Objective Transclival endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base are novel with few published cases. We report our institution's experience with this technique and discuss outcomes according to the clival region involved. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary care academic medical center Participants All patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches for skull base lesions from 2008 to 2012. Main Outcome Measures Pathologies encountered, mean intraoperative time, intraoperative complications, gross total resection, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, postoperative CSF leak, postoperative complications, and postoperative clinical course. Results A total of 49 patients underwent 55 endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches. Pathology included 43 benign and 12 malignant lesions. Mean follow-up was 15.4 months. Mean operative time was 167.9 minutes, with one patient experiencing an intraoperative internal carotid artery injury. Of the 15 cases with intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, 1 developed postoperative CSF leak (6.7%). There were six other postoperative complications: four systemic complications, one case of meningitis, and one retropharyngeal abscess. Gross total resection was achieved for all malignancies approached with curative intent. Conclusions This study provides evidence that endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches are a safe and effective strategy for the surgical management of a variety of benign and malignant lesions. Level of Evidence 4.
Project description:Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is one of the most common and aggravating complications in transsphenoidal surgery. Although primary closure of the fistula would be the most desirable solution for an intraoperatively encountered CSF leak, it is difficult to achieve in such a deep and narrow operative field. In this article, the authors report endonasal endoscopic applications of no-penetrating titanium clips to repair a CSF fistula following tumor removal. The AnastoClip Vessel Closure System (VCS; LeMaitre Vascular, Boston, MA) was used for closure of a CSF fistula in endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. In all four patients, CSF leakage was successfully obliterated primarily with two to five clips. There was no postoperative CSF rhinorrhea or complications related to the use of the VCS. Metal artifact by the clips on postoperative images was tolerable. Primary closure of the fistula using the VCS was an effective strategy to prevent postoperative CSF leakage in transsphenoidal surgery. Future application can be expanded to reconstruction of the skull base dura via endonasal skull base approaches.