Viral metagenomics: analysis of begomoviruses by illumina high-throughput sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Traditional DNA sequencing methods are inefficient, lack the ability to discern the least abundant viral sequences, and ineffective for determining the extent of variability in viral populations. Here, populations of single-stranded DNA plant begomoviral genomes and their associated beta- and alpha-satellite molecules (virus-satellite complexes) (genus, Begomovirus; family, Geminiviridae) were enriched from total nucleic acids isolated from symptomatic, field-infected plants, using rolling circle amplification (RCA). Enriched virus-satellite complexes were subjected to Illumina-Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). CASAVA and SeqMan NGen programs were implemented, respectively, for quality control and for de novo and reference-guided contig assembly of viral-satellite sequences. The authenticity of the begomoviral sequences, and the reproducibility of the Illumina-NGS approach for begomoviral deep sequencing projects, were validated by comparing NGS results with those obtained using traditional molecular cloning and Sanger sequencing of viral components and satellite DNAs, also enriched by RCA or amplified by polymerase chain reaction. As the use of NGS approaches, together with advances in software development, make possible deep sequence coverage at a lower cost; the approach described herein will streamline the exploration of begomovirus diversity and population structure from naturally infected plants, irrespective of viral abundance. This is the first report of the implementation of Illumina-NGS to explore the diversity and identify begomoviral-satellite SNPs directly from plants naturally-infected with begomoviruses under field conditions.
Project description:Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), caused by whitefly (Bemisiatabaci) transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Genus, Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae) in association with satellite molecules; is responsible for major economic losses in cotton in three northwest (NW) Indian states Haryana, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Annual CLCuD incidences during 2012 to 2014 were estimated to be 37.5%, 63.6%, and 38.8% respectively. Cotton leaves were collected from symptomatic plants annually for three years and subjected to DNA isolation, followed by rolling circle amplification (RCA), cloning, and DNA sequencing of apparently full-length begomoviral genomes and associated betasatellites and alphasatellites. Among the thirteen CLCuD-begomoviral genomes recovered, eight were identified as Cotton leaf curl Multan virus-Rajasthan (CLCuMuV-Ra), one as -Pakistan (PK) and another as -Faisalabad (Fai), whereas, three were as Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bu), indicating that CLCuMuV-Ra was the most prevalent begomovirus species. Five of the eight CLCuMuV-Ra sequences were found to be recombinants. The CLCuMuV-Ra- associated satellites consisted of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB), and Gossypium darwinii symptomless alphasatellite (GDarSLA), and Croton yellow vein mosaic alphasatellite (CrYVMoA). The second most abundant helper virus species, CLCuKoV-Bu, was associated with CLCuMB and GDarSLA.
Project description:A complex of begomoviruses (Geminiviridae) can cause severe tomato yield losses in the neotropics. Here, next-generation sequencing was employed for large-scale assessment of single-stranded (ss)DNA virus diversity in tomatoes either harboring or lacking the large-spectrum begomovirus tolerance Ty-1 gene. Individual leaf samples exhibiting begomovirus-like symptoms (n = 107) were field-collected, circular DNA-enriched, subdivided into pools (with and without Ty-1), and Illumina-sequenced. Virus-specific PCR and Sanger dideoxy sequencing validations confirmed 15 distinct ssDNA virus/subviral agents (occurring mainly in mixed infections), which highlight the potential drawbacks of employing virus-specific resistance in tomato breeding. More viruses (14 versus 6 species) were observed in tomatoes without the Ty-1 gene. A gemycircularvirus (Genomoviridae), a new alpha-satellite, and two novel Begomovirus species were identified exclusively in samples without the Ty-1 gene. A novel begomovirus was found only in the Ty-1 pool, being the only species associated with severe symptoms in Ty-1 plants in our survey. Our work is the first step towards the elucidation of the potential begomovirus adaptation to Ty-1 and its specific filtering effects on a subset of ssDNA viral/subviral agents.
Project description:Papaya leaf curl is an economically important disease occurring in papaya growing tropical and subtropical areas. Papaya leaf curl virus, a begomovirus, is the main causative agent for the disease, but many other begomoviruses as well as betasatellites have also been reported on papaya leaf curl disease. Rapidly evolving host range of begomoviruses is a major issue for developing successful resistance strategies against begomoviral infection considering their expanding host range and mixed infection. In our study, we have identified the presence of begomovirus and associated satellite molecule on papaya showing severe leaf curl symptoms in Lucknow, India. Analysis of complete DNA-A component of this isolate (MG757245) revealed the highest similarity (91%) with tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCuGuV), while sequence data of betasatellite (MG478451) showed maximum (89%) identity with tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite (ToLCuBB). This is the first report on identification of ToLCuGuV and ToLCuBB coinfecting papaya plants in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India).
Project description:In northwestern Argentina (NWA), pepper crops are threatened by the emergence of begomoviruses due to the spread of its vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). The genus Begomovirus includes pathogens that can have a monopartite or bipartite genome and are occasionally associated with sub-viral particles called satellites. This study characterized the diversity of begomovirus and alphasatellite species infecting pepper in NWA using a metagenomic approach. Using RCA-NGS (rolling circle amplification-next generation sequencing), 19 full-length begomovirus genomes (DNA-A and DNA-B) and one alphasatellite were assembled. This ecogenomic approach revealed six begomoviruses in single infections: soybean blistering mosaic virus (SbBMV), tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV), tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV), tomato dwarf leaf virus (ToDfLV), sida golden mosaic Brazil virus (SiGMBRV), and a new proposed species, named pepper blistering leaf virus (PepBLV). SbBMV was the most frequently detected species, followed by ToYSV. Moreover, a new alphasatellite associated with ToYSV, named tomato yellow spot alphasatellite 2 (ToYSA-2), was reported for the first time in Argentina. For the Americas, this was the first report of an alphasatellite found in a crop (pepper) and in a weed (Leonurus japonicus). We also detected intra-species and inter-species recombination.
Project description:Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA plant viruses with circular genomes packaged within geminate particles. Among the Geminiviridae family, Begomovirus and Curtovirus comprise the two best characterized genera. Curtovirus and Old World begomovirus possess similar genome structures with six to seven open-reading frames (ORF). Among them, begomovirus and curtovirus V2 ORFs share the same location in the viral genome, encode proteins of similar size, but show extremely poor sequence homology between the genera. V2 from Beet curly top virus (BCTV), the model species for the Curtovirus genus, as it begomoviral counterpart, suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by impairing the RDR6/SGS3 pathway and localizes in the nucleus spanning from the perinuclear region to the cell periphery. By aminoacid sequence comparison we have identified that curtoviral and begomoviral V2 proteins shared two hydrophobic domains and a putative phosphorylation motif. These three domains are essential for BCTV V2 silencing suppression activity, for the proper nuclear localization of the protein and for systemic infection. The lack of suppression activity in the mutated versions of V2 is complemented by the impaired function of RDR6 in Nicotiana benthamiana but the ability of the viral mutants to produce a systemic infection is not recovered in gene silencing mutant backgrounds. We have also demonstrated that, as its begomoviral homolog, V2 from BCTV is able to induce systemic symptoms and necrosis associated with a hypersensitive response-like (HR-like) when expressed from Potato virus X vector in N. benthamiana, and that this pathogenicity activity does not dependent of its ability to supress PTGS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Oman tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; family Solanaceae) is a minor crop, which is produced only for local consumption. In 2015, tobacco plants exhibiting severe downward leaf curling, leaf thickening, vein swelling, yellowing and stunting were identified in fields of tobacco in Suhar Al-Batina region, Oman. These symptoms are suggestive of begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infection. METHODS:Circular DNA molecules were amplified from total DNA extracted from tobacco plants by rolling circle amplification (RCA). Viral genomes were cloned from RCA products by restriction digestion and betasatellites were cloned by PCR amplification from RCA product, using universal primers. The sequences of full-length clones were obtained by Sanger sequencing and primer walking. Constructs for the infectivity of virus and betasatellite were produced and introduced into plants by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation. RESULTS:The full-length sequences of 3 begomovirus and 3 betasatellite clones, isolated from 3 plants, were obtained. Analysis of the full-length sequences determined showed the virus to be a variant of Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV) and the betasatellite to be a variant of Tomato leaf curl betasatellite (ToLCB). Both the virus and the betasatellite isolated from tobacco show the greatest levels of sequence identity to isolates of ChiLCV and ToLCB identified in other hosts in Oman. Additionally clones of ChiLCV and ToLCB were shown, by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation, to be infectious to 3 Nicotiana species, including N. tabacum. In N. benthamiana the betasatellite was shown to change the upward leaf rolling symptoms to a severe downward leaf curl, as is typical for many monopartite begomoviruses with betasatellites. CONCLUSIONS:The leaf curl disease of tobacco in Oman was shown to be caused by ChiLCV and ToLCB. This is the first identification of ChiLCV with ToLCB infecting tobacco. The study shows that, despite the low diversity of begomoviruses and betasatellites in Oman, the extant viruses/betasatellites are able to fill the niches that present themselves.
Project description:Background:Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. Willd) is one of the important cucurbitaceous crops grown across the world for vegetable and medicinal purposes. Diseases caused by the DNA viruses are becoming the limiting factors for the production of spine gourd reducing its potential yield. For the commercial cultivation of the spine gourd, propagation material used by most of the growers is tuberous roots and stem cuttings, which in turn results in an increased occurrence of the mosaic disease. There is a need for understanding the causal agent; through characterization of which will lead to the designing management strategies for the spine gourd mosaic disease control. Objectives:Characterization of a begomovirus and its satellites associated with mosaic disease on spine gourd. Materials and Methods:Total DNA was extracted from spine gourd samples exhibiting symptoms typical to the begomoviruses infection (mosaic mottling, leaf curl) and was tested by PCR using begomovirus specific primers. Furthermore, the complete genome of begomo viruses (DNA A, DNA B, alpha satellite, and beta satellite) was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) method. Results:The full-length sequences of DNA A, DNA B, alpha satellite, and beta satellite isolated from symptomatic spine gourd were determined. The full length genomes (DNA A and DNA B) of the Tomato leaf curl New Delhi Virus (ToLCNDV) infecting spine gourd were compared with the other begomovirus genomes available in the data base. The sequence analysis has revealed that DNA A and DNA B components of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd share 95.4-96.2 and 86.7-91.2% identical sequence (i.e., nucleotide (nt) identity) with that of ToLCNDV infecting potato and cucurbits in the Indian subcontinent isolates reported earlier (available in GenBank), respectively. Further, alpha satellite and beta satellite were also detected in the begomovirus infected spine gourd samples. The recombination analysis of the DNA A, DNA B, beta satellite, and alpha satellite of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd showed the associated begomovirus and satellite DNAs were driven from the different begomoviruses, leading to emergence as a new variant of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd. Conclusions:The commercial cultivation of the spine gourd by most growers depends on the tuberous roots and stem cutting. The occurrence of begomovirus in spine gourd gives an alarming signal against utilization of such infected plant materials in the crop breeding and improvement programs. Using the clean virus-free vegetative propagation material is considered as one of the most important methods for controlling viral diseases. The study is highly useful for detection of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd in the detection of the virus infection in the clonally propagated planting material.
Project description:Plant DNA viruses of the genus Begomovirus have been documented as the most genetically diverse in the family Geminiviridae and present a serious threat for global horticultural production, especially considering climate change. It is important to characterize naturally existing begomoviruses, since viral genetic diversity in non-cultivated plants could lead to future disease epidemics in crops. In this study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was employed to determine viral diversity of samples collected in a survey performed during 2012-2016 in seven states of Northern-Pacific Mexico, areas of diverse climatic conditions where different vegetable crops are subject to intensive farming. In total, 132 plant species, belonging to 34 families, were identified and sampled in the natural ecosystems surrounding cultivated areas (agro-ecological interface). HTS analysis and subsequent de novo assembly revealed a number of geminivirus-related DNA signatures with 80 to 100% DNA similarity with begomoviral sequences present in the genome databank. The analysis revealed DNA signatures corresponding to 52 crop-infecting and 35 non-cultivated-infecting geminiviruses that, interestingly, were present in different plant species. Such an analysis deepens our knowledge of geminiviral diversity and could help detecting emerging viruses affecting crops in different agro-climatic regions.
Project description:A parasite-infected host may promote performance of associated insect vectors; but possible parasite effects on nonvector insects have been largely unexplored. Here, we show that Begomovirus, the largest genus of plant viruses and transmitted exclusively by whitefly, reprogram plant immunity to promote the fitness of the vector and suppress performance of nonvector insects (i.e., cotton bollworm and aphid). Infected plants accumulated begomoviral βC1 proteins in the phloem where they were bound to the plant transcription factor WRKY20. This viral hijacking of WRKY20 spatiotemporally redeployed plant chemical immunity within the leaf and had the asymmetrical benefiting effects on the begomoviruses and its whitefly vectors while negatively affecting two nonvector competitors. This type of interaction between a parasite and two types of herbivores, i.e., vectors and nonvectors, occurs widely in various natural and agricultural ecosystems; thus, our results have broad implications for the ecological significance of parasite-vector-host tripartite interactions.
Project description:Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is an exceptional Old World bipartite begomovirus. On the Indian subcontinent, a region in which monopartite DNA satellite-associated begomoviruses with mostly narrow geographical ranges predominate, it is widespread, with a geographical range also including the Far East, Middle East, North Africa and Europe. The success of ToLCNDV probably derives from its broad host range and highly flexible genomic configuration: its DNA-A component is capable of productively interacting with, and trans-replicating, diverse DNA-B components and betasatellites. An understanding of the capacity of ToLCNDV to infect a variety of hosts and spread across a broad and ecologically variable geographical range could illuminate the potential economic threats associated with similar begomoviral invasions. Towards this end, we used available ToLCNDV sequences to reconstruct the history of ToLCNDV spread.<h4>Taxonomy</h4>Family Geminiviridae, Genus Begomovirus. ToLCNDV is a bipartite begomovirus. Following the revised begomovirus taxonomic criteria of 91% and 94% nucleotide identity for species and strain demarcation, respectively, ToLCNDV is a distinct species with two strains: ToLCNDV and ToLCNDV-Spain.<h4>Host range</h4>The primary cultivated host of ToLCNDV is tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), but the virus is also known to infect 43 other plant species from a range of families, including Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae and Fabaceae.<h4>Disease symptoms</h4>Typical symptoms of ToLCNDV infection in its various hosts include leaf curling, vein thickening, puckering, purpling/darkening of leaf margins, leaf area reduction, internode shortening and severe stunting.