Nocardia brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient.
ABSTRACT: Nocardia cerebral abscess is rare, constituting approximately 1-2% of all cerebral abscesses. Mortality for a cerebral abscess of Nocardia is three times higher than that of other bacterial cerebral abscesses, therefore, early diagnosis and therapy is important. Nocardia cerebral abscess is generally occur among immunocompromised patients, and critical infection in immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We report on a case of a brain abscess by Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient who received treatment with surgery and antibiotics. This is the second case of a brain abscess caused by N. farcinica in an immunocompetent patient in Korea.
Project description:RATIONALE:Nocardia species are not commonly referred as primary infectious entities but rather as opportunistic pathogens. Infectious cases of Nocardia spp. in immunocompetent individuals are rare. PATIENT CONCERNS:An immunocompetent 58-year-old patient presented with recurrent headaches. DIAGNOSIS:A brain abscess was found and surgically drained. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and heat shock protein 65/16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer genotyping from the sample revealed the etiological agent as Nocardia beijingensis. INTERVENTIONS:Meropenem/amikacin/Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered. OUTCOMES:The infection persisted leading to the patient's death. LESSONS:Here we present the first case of N. beijingensis infection of the central nervous system in an immunocompetent patient from Latin America. Further inquiry is needed to establish whether this species is more virulent than other Nocardia isolates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nocardia species are rare, opportunistic organisms that cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical presentations of various Nocardia infections based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the isolate, as well as related risk factors and susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents. METHODS:Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of nocardiosis were included in the present study. Seven Nocardia species were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA. Susceptibility testing was performed using six antimicrobial agents. RESULTS:Five patients were immunocompromised, and eight were immunocompetent with predisposing factors including cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and ophthalmic infections. Nocardia caused pulmonary infections in eight patients (61.5%), invasive systemic infections in three patients (23%) and local (ophthalmic) infections in two patients (15.4%). In the patients with pulmonary disease, nocardiosis was caused by six species (Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia carnea, Nocardia testacea and Nocardia asiatica). The seventh species identified in the present study was Nocardia crassostreae. DISCUSSION:N crassostreae is a multidrug-resistant organism that was reported to be an emerging human pathogen causing invasive nocardiosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N farcinica was isolated from blood in a patient with breast cancer. None of the Nocardia isolates were resistant to linezolid. One N otitidiscaviarum isolate was a multidrug-resistant organism. All patients in the present study were treated with the appropriate antibiotics and their condition resolved without further sequelae. CONCLUSIONS:The present study is the first report on N crassostreae as a human pathogen. The detection of multidrug-resistant species necessitate molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. Nocardiosis manifests various clinical features depending on the Nocardia species and underlying conditions.
Project description:We report the first case of cerebral abscess due to a novel species of Nocardia in a heart transplant patient and describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of this isolate. As our patient was intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, we also discuss alternative therapeutic options in brain abscess due to Nocardia sp.
Project description:Nocardiosis is a rare disease that is caused by Gram-positive actinobacteria of the Nocardia genus and affects predominantly immunocompromised patients. In its disseminated form, it has a predilection for the central nervous system and is associated with high mortality rates. Therefore, prompt identification of the pathogen is critical. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a relatively novel technique used for identification of microorganisms. In this work, an upgraded MALDI-TOF Biotyper database containing Corynebacterineae representatives of strains deposited in the Polish Collection of Microorganisms was created and used for identification of the strain isolated from a nocardial brain abscess, mimicking a brain tumor, in an immunocompetent patient. Testing with the API Coryne system initially incorrectly identified Rhodococcus sp., while chemotaxonomic tests, especially mycolic acid analysis, enabled correct Nocardia identification only at the genus level. Subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and secA1 genes confirmed the identification. To improve the accuracy of the results, an in-house database was constructed using optimized parameters; with the use of the database, the strain was eventually identified as Nocardia farcinica. Clinical laboratories processing various clinical strains can upgrade a commercial database to improve and to accelerate the results obtained. This is especially important in the case of Nocardia, for which valid microbial diagnosis remains challenging; reference laboratories are often required to identify and to survey these rare actinobacteria.
Project description:During the course of a peripheral bronchial carcinoma with pulmonary and cerebral metastases a femoral abscess developed in a 49 year-old patient after radio- and chemotherapy. A bacterial strain, which was isolated four times from a deep wound of the left thigh was tentatively identified as a member of the genus Nocardia on the basis of selected phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. The isolate was confirmed to belong to Nocardia abscessus by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This species had previously been described as the causative agent of soft tissue infections. Although rare, nocardia soft tissue infections as complication of systemic nocardiosis are typical air born infections of immuncompromised patients and need specific attention. Infection prevention can be realized by restriction of soil and aerosol (builder's dust) together with antibiotic intervention (oral administration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole).
Project description:Introduction:Nocardia are Gram-positive partially acid-fast bacilli capable of inducing a wide range of infections in patients with immunodeficiency, AIDS, cancer, lupus erythematous and diabetes. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica was first isolated in 2001 from a patient with chronic bronchitis. Since then, there have been reports on the clinical significance of this organism in patients with bronchitis, brain abscess and lung diseases. We, herein, report a case of brain abscess in an elderly diabetic patient from Iran. Case presentation:The patient was a 73 year-old woman admitted to hospital due to severe headache and shortness of breath. The patient had lived with diabetes for 20?years and suffered from chronic foot ulcer. She was admitted to hospital with fever, weakness, drowsiness and vomiting. Clinical examination and the head CT scan of the left frontal lobe of the brain revealed a metastatic carcinoma involving skull bone in the tumor that resulted in two surgical operations in the following two years. The brain abscess biopsy revealed an infection with Nocardia cyriacigeorgica confirmed by phenotypic and molecular tests including a PCR-based amplification of a target genetic marker, a 596?bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene, followed by almost full 16S rRNA sequencing. Conclusion:The rare infections, such as brain abscess with Nocardia, are easily neglected or misdiagnosed due to the fastidious nature of the organism and inadequate microbiological experience of laboratories in the hospitals of developing countries. This case shows that hospitals should consider a better laboratory protocol to deal with the clinical cases in which fastidious organisms, and in particular Nocardia, are involved.
Project description:Human nocardiosis is primarily an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients, however, one-third of them are immunocompetent. CNS involvement is less commonly reported and associated with a grave prognosis. The majority of these patients are organ transplant recipients on immune suppressants. In the recent past, association of Nocardia asiatica with brain abscess has been reported in a few cases. We are reporting a case of isolated cerebellar abscess caused by N. asiatica in an immune-compromised adult with a review of relevant literature. A 53-year-old male presented with complaints of headache and vomiting for 14 days. There was no previous history of any comorbid illness. During presentation, he was having gait ataxia and radiology showed the right-sided cerebellar multiple lesions. Further hematological investigations revealed the patient to be HIV positive. The abscess was tapped and the pus culture showed Nocardia species. Antibiotics were started as per sensitivity and the patient did well at 3-month follow-up. Though rare, Nocardia should be kept as a differential in brain abscess patients. Owing to the different antimicrobial sensitivity patterns among Nocardia species, both appropriate speciation and susceptibility testing of uncommon species such as N. asiatica are required for their successful treatment.
Project description:We report on a rare case of pulmonary Nocardiosis and brain abscess caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an elderly woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Taxonomic identification involved phenotypic testing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and complete 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Nocardial infections, although rare, are challenging for clinicians to treat. Recent contradictory reports of sulfonamide resistance have raised concerns about using this drug to treat nocardial infections. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian woman showed disseminated pulmonary nodules and a brain abscess by chest computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Multidrug-resistant Nocardia wallacei was cultured from a stereotactic brain biopsy and confirmed by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. After the first-line treatment failed, a long course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed with no evidence of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a Nocardia wallacei disseminated infection in an immunocompetent patient, and it is the first detailed description of successful treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole despite the resistance observed in vitro. CONCLUSION: Species identification of clinical isolates is critical for diagnosis, a prediction of antimicrobial susceptibility and epidemiological tracking. In the case of Nocardia wallacei, the clinical outcome suggests that sulfonamides can be used for treatment despite ambiguous results from in vitro susceptibility tests.
Project description:Introduction Fusarium spp is an omnipresent fungal species that may lead to fatal infections in immunocompromised populations. Spontaneous intracranial infection by Fusarium spp in immunocompetent individuals is exceedingly rare. Case Report An immunocompetent 33-year-old Hispanic woman presented with persistent headaches and was found to have a contrast-enhancing mass in the left petrous apex and prepontine cistern. She underwent a subsequent craniotomy for biopsy and partial resection that revealed a Fusarium abscess. She had a left transient partial oculomotor palsy following the operation that resolved over the next few weeks. She was treated with long-term intravenous antifungal therapy and remained at her neurologic baseline 18 months following the intervention. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fusarium spp brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient. Treatment options include surgical intervention and various antifungal medications. Conclusion This case demonstrates the rare potential of intracranial Fusarium infection in the immunocompetent host, as well as its successful treatment with surgical aspiration and antifungal therapy.