Human syndromes of immunodeficiency and dysregulation are characterized by distinct defects in T-cell receptor repertoire development.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Human immunodeficiencies characterized by hypomorphic mutations in critical developmental and signaling pathway genes allow for the dissection of the role of these genes in the development of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and the correlation of alterations of the TCR repertoire with diverse clinical phenotypes. OBJECTIVE:The presence of T cells in patients with Omenn syndrome (OS) and patients with atypical presentations of severe combined immunodeficiency gene mutations presents an opportunity to study the effects of the causal genes on TCR repertoires and provides a window into the clinical heterogeneity observed. METHODS:We performed deep sequencing of TCR? complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) regions in subjects with a series of immune dysregulatory conditions caused by mutations in recombination activating gene 1/2 (RAG 1/2), IL-2 receptor ? (IL2RG), and ? chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70); a patient with atypical DiGeorge syndrome; and healthy control subjects. RESULTS:We found that patients with OS had marked reductions in TCR? diversity compared with control subjects, as expected. Patients with atypical presentations of RAG or IL2RG mutations associated with autoimmunity and granulomatous disease did not have altered overall diversity but instead had skewed V-J pairing and skewed CDR3 amino acid use. Although germline TCRs were more abundant and clonally expanded in patients with OS, nongermline sequences were expanded as well. TCR? from patients with RAG mutations had less junctional diversity and smaller CDR3s than patients with OS caused by other gene mutations and healthy control subjects but relatively similar CDR3 amino acid use. CONCLUSIONS:High-throughput TCR sequencing of rare immune disorders has demonstrated that quantitative TCR diversity can appear normal despite qualitative changes in repertoire and strongly suggests that in human subjects RAG enzymatic function might be necessary for normal CDR3 junctional diversity.
Project description:Recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) play a critical role in T and B cell development by initiating the recombination process that controls the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin genes. Mutations in the RAG1 and RAG2 genes in humans cause a broad spectrum of phenotypes, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with lack of T and B cells, Omenn syndrome, leaky SCID, and combined immunodeficiency with granulomas or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the TCR and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 12 patients with RAG mutations presenting with Omenn syndrome (n = 5), leaky SCID (n = 3), or CID-G/AI (n = 4). Restriction of repertoire diversity skewed usage of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segment genes, and abnormalities of CDR3 length distribution were progressively more prominent in patients with a more severe phenotype. Skewed usage of V, D, and J segment genes was present also within unique sequences, indicating a primary restriction of repertoire. Patients with Omenn syndrome had a high proportion of class-switched immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts and increased somatic hypermutation rate, suggesting in vivo activation of these B cells. These data provide a framework to better understand the phenotypic heterogeneity of RAG deficiency.
Project description:The hepatitis B (HB) vaccine effectively prevents the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, vaccine failure occurs in 5-10% of the recipients. The precise mechanisms leading to responsiveness to the HB vaccine are poorly understood. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) may help clarify the immune response to the HB vaccine, so we applied this method to investigate whether the HB vaccine induced a specific change in the T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoires. We conducted HTS of the TCR ? chain and BCR IgG heavy (H) chain complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) repertoires in five volunteers before and after the second and third immunizations with the HB vaccine. The HB surface antibody (HBsAb) levels were >10 mIU/ml after the third vaccination in all five participants. The TCR ? chain CDR3 repertoire diversity significantly increased, while the BCR IgG H chain CDR3 repertoire diversity significantly decreased after the second vaccination. Although there was no marked inter-individual variation in terms of the numbers of unique reads, it is possible that the TCR ? chain and BCR IgG H chain CDR3 repertoires may have changed within the same numbers of unique reads. Our data failed to identify the specific dominant clones that responded to the HB vaccine. In summary, the TCR ? chain CDR3 repertoire diversity significantly increased, while the BCR IgG H chain CDR3 repertoire diversity significantly decreased, after the second HB vaccination. These diversity changes might be associated with a better response to the HB vaccine.
Project description:A diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is essential for controlling viral infections. However, information about TCR repertoires to defined viral antigens is limited. We performed a comprehensive analysis of CD8+ TCR repertoires for two dominant viral epitopes: pp65495-503 (NLV) of cytomegalovirus and M158-66 (GIL) of influenza A virus. The highly individualized repertoires (87-5,533 ? or ? clonotypes per subject) comprised thousands of unique TCR? and TCR? sequences and dozens of distinct complementary determining region (CDR)3? and CDR3? motifs. However, diversity is effectively restricted by preferential V-J combinations, CDR3 lengths, and CDR3?/CDR3? pairings. Structures of two GIL-specific TCRs bound to GIL-HLA-A2 provided a potential explanation for the lower diversity of GIL-specific versus NLV-specific repertoires. These anti-viral TCRs occupied up to 3.4% of the CD8+ TCR? repertoire, ensuring broad T cell responses to single epitopes. Our portrait of two anti-viral TCR repertoires may inform the development of predictors of immune protection.
Project description:In this study we characterized the TCR repertoire profiles in patients with chronic progressive inflammatory neurological disorders including HAM/TSP, associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection, and multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS of unknown etiology. We hypothesized that a T-cell receptor (TCR) clonal repertoire 'signature' could distinguish HAM/TSP patients from healthy controls, as well as from patients with a more heterogeneous CNS-reactive inflammatory disease such as MS. In this study, we applied an unbiased molecular technique - unique molecular identifier (UMI) library-based strategy to investigate with high accuracy the TCR clonal repertoire by high throughput sequencing (HTS) technology. cDNA-TCR ?-chain libraries were sequenced from 2 million peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 14 HAM/TSP patients, 34 MS patients and 20 healthy controls (HC). While HAM/TSP patients showed a higher clonal T-cell expansion compared to MS and HC, increase of the TCR clonal expansion was inversely correlated with the diversity of TCR repertoire in all subjects. In addition, longitudinal analysis of TCR repertoires from HAM/TSP patients demonstrated a correlation of the TCR clonal expansion with HTLV-I proviral load. Surprisingly, MS patients showed a higher diversity of TCR repertoires than other groups. Despite higher TCR clonal expansions in HAM/TSP patients, no disease-specific TCRs were shared among patients. Only non-shared or "private" TCR repertoires was observed. While no clones that shared the same CDR3 amino acid sequences were seen in either HC or MS patients, there was a cluster of related CDR3 amino acid sequences observed for 18 out of 34 MS patients when evaluated by phylogenetic tree analysis. This suggests that a TCR-repertoire signature may be identified in a subset of patients with MS.
Project description:The T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is formed by random recombinations of genomic precursor elements; the resulting combinatorial diversity renders unlikely extensive TCR sharing between individuals. Here, we studied CDR3? amino acid sequence sharing in a repertoire-wide manner, using high-throughput TCR-seq in 28 healthy mice. We uncovered hundreds of public sequences shared by most mice. Public CDR3 sequences, relative to private sequences, are two orders of magnitude more abundant on average, express restricted V/J segments, and feature high convergent nucleic acid recombination. Functionally, public sequences are enriched for MHC-diverse CDR3 sequences that were previously associated with autoimmune, allograft, and tumor-related reactions, but not with anti-pathogen-related reactions. Public CDR3 sequences are shared between mice of different MHC haplotypes, but are associated with different, MHC-dependent, V genes. Thus, despite their random generation process, TCR repertoires express a degree of uniformity in their post-genomic organization. These results, together with numerical simulations of TCR genomic rearrangements, suggest that biases and convergence in TCR recombination combine with ongoing selection to generate a restricted subset of self-associated, public CDR3 TCR sequences, and invite reexamination of the basic mechanisms of T-cell repertoire formation.
Project description:Gut microbes play a crucial role in the occurrence and development of autoimmune diseases. The diversity of intestinal microorganisms affected by the living environment, regulate the immune function of peripheral immune organs and local tissues. In the study, the diversity of intestinal microorganisms of Germ-free (GF), Specific Pathogen-free (SPF), and Clean (CL) BALB/c mice were conducted by 16S rDNA sequencing. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to analysis the composition and characterization of TCR ? chain CDR3 repertoires in Regulatory T cells (Treg) in intestine and spleen of GF, SPF, and CL mice, so as to investigate the effects of differential composition of intestinal microorganisms on the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg TCR ? CDR3 repertoire of intestine and spleen. We observed that GF, SPF, and CL mice have different gut microorganism composition, and the abundance and quantity of microorganisms are positively correlated with the level of feeding environment. Interestingly, incomplete structure of spleen and small intestine in GF mice was found. Moreover, a significant difference in the usage of high frequency unique CDR3 amino acid sequences was detected in the intestinal Treg TCR? CDR3 repertoire among GF, SPF and CL mice, and there were a greater heterogeneity in the usage frequency of TRBV, TRBJ, and TRBV-TRBJ combinations gene segments. However, the effect of different feeding environment on the mice Treg TCR? CDR3 repertoire of spleen was weak, implying that the different composition of intestinal microbiota may primarily affect the diversity of the local Treg TCR? CDR3 repertoire and does not alter the overall properties of the circulating immune system. These results provide basic data to further analyze the mechanism of gut microbes regulating the intestinal mucosal immune system.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become an important public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decades. EV71 infection might cause neurological and psychiatric complications and even death. Although an EV71 vaccine has been currently approved, there is no effective therapy for treating EV71-infected patients. Virus infections have been reported to shape host T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Therefore, understanding of host TCR repertoire in EV71 infection could better the knowledge in viral pathogenesis and further benefit the anti-viral therapy development. In this study, we used a mouse-adapted EV71 (mEV71) model to observe changes of host TCR repertoire in an EV71-infected central nervous system. Neonate mice were infected with mEV71 and mouse brainstem TCR? repertoires were explored. Here, we reported that mEV71 infection impacted host brainstem TCR? repertoire, where mEV71 infection skewed TCR? diversity, changed VJ combination usages, and further expanded specific TCR? CDR3 clones. Using bioinformatics analysis and ligand-binding prediction, we speculated the expanded TCR? CDR3 clone harboring CASSLGANSDYTF sequence was capable of binding cleaved EV71 VP1 peptides in concert with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. We observed that mEV71 infection shaped host TCR? repertoire and presumably expanded VP1-specific TCR? CDR3 in mEV71-infected mouse brainstem that integrated EV71 pathogenesis in central nervous system.
Project description:The analysis of T cell receptor diversity provides a clinically relevant and sensitive marker of repertoire loss, gain, or skewing. Spectratyping is a broadly utilized technique to measure global TCR diversity by the analysis of the lengths of CDR3 fragments in each V? family. However the common use of large numbers of T cells to obtain a global view of TCR V? CDR3 diversity has restricted spectratyping analyses when limited T-cell numbers are available in clinical setting, such as following transplant regimens. We here demonstrate that one hundred thousand T cells are sufficient to obtain a robust, highly reproducible measure of the global TCR V? repertoire diversity among twenty V? families in human peripheral blood. We also show that use of lower cell number results not in a dwindling of observed diversity but rather in non-reproducible patterns in replicate spectratypes. Finally, we report here a simple to use but sensitive method to quantify repertoire divergence in patient samples by comparison to a standard repertoire profile we generated from fifteen normal donors. We provide examples using this method to statistically evaluate the changes in the global TCR V? repertoire diversity that may take place during T subset immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or after immune modulating therapies.
Project description:The recent development of High Throughput Sequencing technologies has enabled an individual's TCR repertoire to be efficiently analysed at the nucleotide level. However, with unique clonotypes ranging in the tens of millions per individual, this approach gives a surfeit of information that is difficult to analyse and interpret in a biological context and gives little information about TCR structural diversity. Using publicly available TCR CDR3 sequence data, we analysed TCR repertoires by converting the encoded CDR3 amino acid sequences into Kidera Factors, a set of orthogonal physico-chemical properties that reflect protein structure. This approach enabled the TCR repertoire from different individuals to be distinguished and demonstrated the close similarity of the repertoire in different samples from the same individual.
Project description:The adaptive immune system uses several strategies to generate a repertoire of T- and B-cell antigen receptors with sufficient diversity to recognize the universe of potential pathogens. In alphabeta T cells, which primarily recognize peptide antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules, most of this receptor diversity is contained within the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains. Although it has been estimated that the adaptive immune system can generate up to 10(16) distinct alphabeta pairs, direct assessment of TCR CDR3 diversity has not proved amenable to standard capillary electrophoresis-based DNA sequencing. We developed a novel experimental and computational approach to measure TCR CDR3 diversity based on single-molecule DNA sequencing, and used this approach to determine the CDR3 sequence in millions of rearranged TCRbeta genes from T cells of 2 adults. We find that total TCRbeta receptor diversity is at least 4-fold higher than previous estimates, and the diversity in the subset of CD45RO(+) antigen-experienced alphabeta T cells is at least 10-fold higher than previous estimates. These methods should prove valuable for assessment of alphabeta T-cell repertoire diversity after hematopoietic cell transplantation, in states of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, and during normal aging.