Two combined photosensitizers: a goal for more effective photodynamic therapy of cancer.
ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved therapeutic modality for the treatment of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, mainly cancer. It involves the selective uptake of a photosensitizer (PS) by neoplastic tissue, which is able to produce reactive oxygen species upon irradiation with light, leading to tumor regression. Here a synergistic cell photoinactivation is reported based on the simultaneous administration of two PSs, zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the cationic porphyrin meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine (TMPyP) in three cell lines (HeLa, HaCaT and MCF-7), using very low doses of PDT. We detected changes from predominant apoptosis (without cell detachment) to predominant necrosis, depending on the light dose used (2.4 and 3.6?J/cm(2), respectively). Analysis of changes in cytoskeleton components (microtubules and F-actin), FAK protein, as well as time-lapse video microscopy evidenced that HeLa cells were induced to undergo apoptosis, without losing adhesion to the substrate. Moreover, 24?h after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, ZnPc and TMPyP were preferentially accumulated in the tumor area. PDT with combined treatment produced significant retardation of tumor growth. We believe that this combined and highly efficient strategy (two PSs) may provide synergistic curative rates regarding conventional photodynamic treatments (with one PS alone).
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective noninvasive therapeutic method that employs photosensitizers (PSs) converting oxygen to highly cytotoxic singlet oxygen (1O2) under light irradiation. The conventional PDT efficacy is, however, compromised by the nonspecific delivery of PSs to tumor tissue, the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, and the reduction of generated 1O2 by the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Herein, an intelligent multifunctional synergistic nanoplatform (CMGCC) for T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided enhanced PDT is presented, which consists of nanoparticles composed of catalase (CAT) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) that are integrated within chlorin-e6-modified glycol chitosan (GC) polymeric micelles. In this system, (1) GC polymers with pH-sensitive surface charge switchability from neutral to positive could improve the PS accumulation within the tumor region, (2) CAT could effectively reoxygenate the hypoxic tumor via catalyzing endogenous hydrogen peroxide to O2, and (3) MnO2 could consume the intracellular GSH while simultaneously producing Mn2+ as a contrast agent for T1-weighted MR imaging. The CMGCC particles possess uniform size distribution, well-defined structure, favorable enzyme activity, and superior 1O2 generation ability. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the CMGCC exhibit significantly enhanced PDT efficacy toward HeLa cells and subcutaneous HeLa tumors. Our study thereby demonstrates this to be a promising synergistic theranostic nanoplatform with highly efficient PDT performance for cancer therapy.
Project description:A supramolecular nanovehicle (denoted as SNV) was fabricated by encapsulating zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and doxorubicin (DOX) into a copolymer (PVP-<i>b</i>-PAA-<i>g</i>-FA), so as to achieve systematic and synergistic chemotherapy-photodynamic therapy (PDT), targeted tumor imaging and therapy. The sophisticated copolymer designed in this work can load the PDT photosensitizer (ZnPc) and chemotherapy drug (DOX) simultaneously, which exhibits an excellent performance in chemotherapy-PDT targeted cancer and tumor therapy for both <i>in vitro</i> studies performed with HepG2 cells and <i>in vivo</i> tests with mice. This work provides a new drug formulation with a chemotherapy-PDT synergistic effect by virtue of the supramolecular material design, which possesses the advantages of an ultra-low drug dosage and highly-efficient <i>in vivo</i> targeted tumor imaging/therapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme is considered to be one of the most aggressive types of tumors of the central nervous system, with a poor prognosis and short survival periods of ~ one year. The current protocol for glioblastoma treatment includes the surgical excision of the primary tumor followed by radio and chemotherapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of several types of tumors. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are good photosensitizers (PSs) for PDT because they induce cell death in several cellular models. ZnPc (Zn(II)phthalocyanine) is a well-known Pc, extensively tested in different cells and tumor models, but its evaluation on a glioblastoma model has been poorly studied. Herein, we compare the capacity of ZnPc and one of its derivatives, Zn(II)tetraminephthalocyanine (TAZnPc), to photoinactivate glioblastoma cells (T98G, MO59, LN229 and U87-MG) in culture. We measured the cellular uptake, the toxicity in the dark and the subcellular localization of the different Pcs, as well as the clonogenic capacity of surviving cells after PDT. The mechanism of cell death induced after PDT was determined by measuring caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial morphological changes and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as lysosomal membrane integrity. Overall, ZnPc and TAZnPc present good properties to be used as PSs with photoinactivation capacity on glioblastoma cells.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) has been applied widely in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with high ROS-production capacity and intense absorption in the near-infrared region. However, weak tumor targeting and the aggregation tendency of ZnPc seriously affect the therapeutic effect of PDT. Therefore, overcoming the aggregation of ZnPc and enhancing its antitumor effect were the purpose of this study.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we first found that the aggregation behaviors of the photosensitizer ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>, ZnPc substituted by tertiary amine groups, were regulated finely by pH and that ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> could be disaggregated gradually as the pH descended. ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and human serum albumin (HSA) molecules were assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor targeting. Meanwhile, the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (Ptx) was loaded into HSA NPs together with ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> for dual antitumor effects. HSA NPs loading both ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and Ptx (NP-ZnPc[TAP]<sub>4</sub>-Ptx) were characterized by particle size and in vitro release. Cytotoxicity, subcellular localization, tumor targeting, and anticancer effect in vivo were investigated respectively.<h4>Results</h4>We found that NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had good stability with qualifying particle size. Interestingly, ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> was released from the NPs and the photodynamic activity enhanced in the acidic environment of tumor. In addition, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had prominent cytotoxicity and time-dependent subcellular localization characteristics. Through a three-dimensional animal imaging system, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx showed much-enhanced tumor targeting in tumor-bearing mice. Above all, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx was demonstrated to have the synergistic anticancer effect of PDT and chemotherapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had enhanced tumor targeting for the pH-sensitive property of ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and the transport function of HSA. NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx possessed a double-anticancer effect through the combination of ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and Ptx. This drug-delivery system may also be used to carry chemotherapy drugs other than Ptx for improving antitumor effects.
Project description:Porphyrins, especially the 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-<i>N</i>-methylpyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP), are well-accepted as photosensitizers due to strong absorption from visible to near-infrared region, good singlet oxygen quantum yields as well as chemical versatility, all of which can be further modulated through planned supramolecular strategies. In this study, we report the construction of supramolecular nanorods of TMPyP dye/drug with captisol [sulfobutylether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE<sub>7</sub>?CD)] macrocycle through host-guest interaction. The availability of four cationic N-methylpyridyl groups favors multiple binding interaction with the captisol host, building an extended supramolecular assembly of captisol and TMPyP. In addition to the spectroscopic characterizations for the assembly formation, the same has been pictured in SEM and FM images as nanorods of ~10 ?m in length or more. Complexation of TMPyP has brought out beneficial features over the uncomplexed TMPyP dye; enhanced singlet oxygen yield, improved photostability, and better photosensitizing effect, all supportive of efficient photodynamic therapy activity. The Captisol:TMPyP complex displayed enhanced antibacterial activity toward <i>E. coli</i> under white light irradiation as compared to TMPyP alone. Cell viability studies performed in lung carcinoma A549 cells with light irradiation documented increased cytotoxicity of the complex toward the cancer cells whereas reduced dark toxicity is observed toward normal CHO cells. All these synergistic effects of supramolecular nanorods of Captisol-TMPyP complex make the system an effective photosensitizer and a superior antibacterial and antitumor agent.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment which involves a photosensitizer (PS), light at a specific wavelength for PS activation and oxygen, which combine to elicit cell death. While the illumination required to activate a PS imparts a certain amount of selectivity to PDT treatments, poor tumor accumulation and cell internalization are still inherent properties of most intravenously administered PSs. As a result, common consequences of PDT include skin photosensitivity. To overcome the mentioned issues, PSs may be tailored to specifically target overexpressed biomarkers of tumors. This active targeting can be achieved by direct conjugation of the PS to a ligand with enhanced affinity for a target overexpressed on cancer cells and/or other cells of the tumor microenvironment. Alternatively, PSs may be incorporated into ligand-targeted nanocarriers, which may also encompass multi-functionalities, including diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we highlight the major advances in active targeting of PSs, either by means of ligand-derived bioconjugates or by exploiting ligand-targeting nanocarriers.
Project description:Recent efforts to develop tumor-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizers (PSs) have greatly advanced the potential of PDT in cancer therapy, although complete eradication of tumor cells by PDT alone remains challenging. As a way to improve PDT efficacy, we report a new combinatory PDT therapy technique that specifically targets multilayers of cells. Simply mixing different PDT PSs, even those that target distinct receptors (this may still lead to similar cell-killing pathways), may not achieve ideal therapeutic outcomes. Instead, significantly improved outcomes likely require synergistic therapies that target various cellular pathways. In this study, we target two proteins upregulated in cancers: the cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R, a G-protein coupled receptor) and translocator protein (TSPO, a mitochondria membrane receptor). We found that the CB2R-targeted PS, IR700DX-mbc94, triggered necrotic cell death upon light irradiation, whereas PDT with the TSPO-targeted IR700DX-6T agent led to apoptotic cell death. Both PSs significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a target-specific manner. As expected, the combined CB2R- and TSPO-PDT resulted in enhanced cell killing efficacy and tumor inhibition with lower drug dose. The median survival time of animals with multilayer PDT treatment was extended by as much as 2.8-fold over single PDT treatment. Overall, multilayer PDT provides new opportunities to treat cancers with high efficacy and low side effects.Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used as a minimally invasive, controllable and effective therapeutic procedure for cancer treatment. However, complete eradication of tumor cells by PDT alone remains challenging. In this study, we investigate the potential of multilayer PDT in cancer treatment with high efficacy and low side effects. Through PDT targeting two cancer biomarkers located at distinct subcellular localizations, remarkable synergistic effects in cancer cell killing and tumor inhibition were observed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This strategy may be widely applied to treat various cancer types by using strategically designed PDT photosensitizers that target corresponding upregulated receptors at tactical subcellular localization.
Project description:The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanism is the major cause underlying the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT procedure is based on the cascade of synergistic effects between light, a photosensitizer (PS) and oxygen, which greatly favors the spatiotemporal control of the treatment. This procedure has also evoked several unresolved challenges at different levels including (i) the limited penetration depth of light, which restricts traditional PDT to superficial tumours; (ii) oxygen reliance does not allow PDT treatment of hypoxic tumours; (iii) light can complicate the phototherapeutic outcomes because of the concurrent heat generation; (iv) specific delivery of PSs to sub-cellular organelles for exerting effective toxicity remains an issue; and (v) side effects from undesirable white-light activation and self-catalysation of traditional PSs. Recent advances in nanotechnology and nanomedicine have provided new opportunities to develop ROS-generating systems through photodynamic or non-photodynamic procedures while tackling the challenges of the current PDT approaches. In this review, we summarize the current status and discuss the possible opportunities for ROS generation for cancer therapy. We hope this review will spur pre-clinical research and clinical practice for ROS-mediated tumour treatments.
Project description:We report a type of photosensitizer (PS)-loaded micelles integrating cyanine dye as potential theranostic micelles for precise anatomical tumor localization via dual photoacoustic (PA)/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modalities, and simultaneously superior cancer therapy via sequential synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT). The micelles exhibit enhanced photostability, cell internalization and tumor accumulation. The dual NIRF/PA imaging modalities of the micelles cause the high imaging contrast and spatial resolution of tumors, which provide precise anatomical localization of the tumor and its inner vasculature for guiding PTT/PDT treatments. Moreover, the micelles can generate severe photothermal damage on cancer cells and destabilization of the lysosomes upon PTT photoirradiation, which subsequently facilitate synergistic photodynamic injury via PS under PDT treatment. The sequential treatments of PTT/PDT trigger the enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of PS, which contributes to the synergistic anticancer efficacy of PS. Our strategy provides a dual-modal cancer imaging with high imaging contrast and spatial resolution, and subsequent therapeutic synergy of PTT/PDT for potential multimodal theranostic application.
Project description:A therapeutic technology that combines the phototoxic and immune-stimulating ability of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the widespread effectiveness of the immune system can be very promising to treat metastatic breast cancer. We speculated that the knowledge of molecular mechanisms of existing multi-component therapies could provide clues to aid the discovery of new combinations of an immunostimulant with a photosensitizer (PS) using a nanoparticle (NP) delivery platform. Therapeutic challenges when administering therapeutic combinations include the choice of dosages to reduce side effects, the definitive delivery of the correct drug ratio, and exposure to the targets of interest. These factors are very difficult to achieve when drugs are individually administered. By combining controlled release polymer-based NP drug delivery approaches, we were able to differentially deliver zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) based PS to metastatic breast cancer cells along with CpG-ODN, a single-stranded DNA that is a known immunostimulant to manage the distant tumors in a temporally regulated manner. We encapsulated ZnPc which is a long-wavelength absorbing PS within a polymeric NP core made up of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG). After coating the outside of the polymeric core with gold NPs (AuNPs), we further modified the AuNP surface with CpG-ODN. In vitro cytotoxicity using 4T1 metastatic mouse breast carcinoma cells shows significant photocytotoxicity of the hybrid NPs containing both ZnPc and CpG-ODN after irradiation with a 660 nm LASER light and this activity was remarkably better than either treatment alone. Treatment of mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells with the PDT-killed 4T1 cell lysate shows that the combination of PDT with a synergistic immunostimulant in a single NP system results in significant immune response, which can be used for the treatment of metastatic cancer.