Community knowledge, attitudes and practices on schistosomiasis in western Kenya--the SCORE Project.
ABSTRACT: In an effort to improve intervention strategies, community knowledge, attitudes, and practices on schistosomiasis were evaluated using focus group discussions involving 237 participants, in eight Schistosoma mansoni high prevalence districts in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya. The majority of participants reported having heard about schistosomiasis through schools, posters, radio announcements, and community gatherings. Participants had a variety of beliefs about contracting schistosomiasis, including associating it with dirty drinking water and uncooked or contaminated food. Avenues for seeking treatment included health centers, spiritual intervention, herbal treatments, and medicine shops, with health centers receiving the most mention. Barriers to schistosomiasis control included attitudes of community members toward the infection, especially misconceptions that lead to stigma and the perception that diagnosis and treatment are expensive. Schools were the most common avenue for receiving information, suggesting that the existing education infrastructure can be used for health education and improved sensitization about schistosomiasis control programs.
Project description:Despite provision of preventive measures against schistosomiasis such as mass drug administration (MDA), the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni remains high in communities living near Lake Victoria. This study aimed to analyse the status of schistosomiasis, including its prevalence, health education, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among pupils, and water use in schools in Mbita situated along the shores of Lake Victoria. Four primary schools were selected as target schools and pupils in classes six and seven were recruited as study participants. The prevalence of S. mansoni was examined by Kato-Katz method. Simultaneously, a KAP survey toward schistosomiasis was conducted among the pupils. Health education contents were extracted from textbooks. All primary schools in the study site were surveyed regarding how each secured water used for daily school life. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 56% and 36% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. 60-70% of pupils chose a correct answer for the mode of transmission. More than 70% of pupils answered that bathing in Lake Victoria causes Schistosoma infection; however, more than 70% of pupils bathed in Lake Victoria sometimes or every day. According to the science textbook, "avoiding contact with contaminated water" is the way to prevent schistosomiasis; however, 66% of schools asked pupils to bring water from Lake Victoria. The prevalence of S. mansoni among pupils remains high. Schoolchildren are taught to avoid contact with contaminated water but are often asked to fetch water from the lake. From the school health viewpoint, health education that reflects the social and cultural context of the community in the contents and teaching methods are needed. In addition to this, provision of sanitation infrastructure is needed. A comprehensive and innovative approach which harmonises central and local governments and other stakeholders, as well as community is important to prevent schistosomiasis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most chronic infections worldwide. Based on their demonstrable impact on human health, the WHO recently recommended the implementation of robust strategies aimed at controlling or eliminating schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths by 2020. The implementation of this strategy, however, warrants a clear understanding of the community's knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to these infections. This study sought to identify sociocultural gaps that should be addressed to ensure the success of cost-effective community-based schistosomiasis-soil-transmitted helminths control and elimination programs.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross-sectional mixed methodology study. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 442 caregivers of preschool aged children. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among caregivers, preschool teachers, traditional authorities and community caregivers. All interviews were captured using an audio recorder to maximize accuracy. Quantitative data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate techniques while qualitative data were analysed thematically.<h4>Results</h4>Findings reflected inadequate knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths while awareness of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths was high (87.1 and 79.2% respectively). Correct knowledge on transmission, prevention, signs and symptoms and life cycle was low (below 50%) for both infections among those who had heard of the disease. From multivariate analysis, being aged at least 35?years increased the odds of reporting good practices on schistosomiasis by 65% (COR 1.652, 95% CI: 1.073-2.543) while receiving health information through community meetings (COR 0.072, 95% CI: 0.010-0.548) significantly reduced the odds of having good knowledge on schistosomiasis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings are valuable in designing behavioural change approaches towards enhancing health outcomes through community-based interventions to ensure effective control and elimination of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. There is a critical need for channelling efforts towards making health education the core of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths programs aimed at achieving intensified control or elimination of these infections by 2020.
Project description:Objectives:This study aimed to identify the effects of anti-smoking public service announcements on the attitudes of Korean college students toward smoking. Methods:This study involved students via convenience sampling from seven universities who were randomly assigned to four groups. All groups completed a preliminary questionnaire, before being shown a public service announcement twice, and then completed a post viewing questionnaire. Results:For announcements with positive messages, the proportion of changes in beliefs and attitudes were 39.1% and 19.8%, respectively, whereas those with negative messages showed a greater proportion of changes in the beliefs (59.7%) and attitudes (40.3%). After adjusting for sex and change in belief, the message types and smoking status were identified as factors affecting the change in the participants attitudes. A negative message resulted in a greater change in attitudes (odds ratio [OR], 3.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.847-5.053). Ever-smokers including current smokers showed a greater positive change in attitude than never-smokers (OR, 6.965; 95% CI, 4.107-11.812). Conclusion:This study found that positive anti-smoking public service announcements were more effective on attitude change than negative messages. Additionally these announcements were more effective among viewers who were current smokers or had a prior smoking experience.
Project description:Schistosomiasis is a chronic but preventable disease that affects 260 million people worldwide. In the Philippines, 860,000 people are afflicted with Schistosoma japonicum annually, and another 6.7 million live in endemic areas. The disease's complex epidemiology as well as the influence of poverty in endemic areas demand an integrated, multi-sectoral approach to disease control. Results from behavioral or sociocultural studies on schistosomiasis could improve the content and impact of schistosomiasis control in rural villages in the Philippines. We investigated knowledge, attitudes and practices related to schistosomiasis transmission and control in an endemic village in Leyte Province, Philippines. We administered a questionnaire to 219 participants covering 1) knowledge and attitudes related to schistosomiasis, its symptoms, and its transmission; 2) attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis prevention; 3) willingness to comply with public health control programs; and 4) whether the respondent had previously contracted schistosomiasis. Responses revealed fairly high measures of schistosomiasis knowledge (mean 17.0 out of 23 questions, range 6-23), but also inconsistent disease prevention behavior. A high proportion of participants (72.6%, n = 159) reported previous disease. Participant belief in the preventability of schistosomiasis was revealed to be a key attitude, as carabao owners who believed in prevention were over five times more likely to be willing to vaccinate their carabaos (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.20-27.68, P = 0.04). Additionally, participants who did not believe in prevention were about twice as likely to report previous disease (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.02-5.63, P = 0.05). Our results suggest that future public health interventions should address barriers to disease-preventing behavior, as well as maintaining community belief in disease prevention. Comprehensive disease control programs should be supplemented by sociocultural and behavioral context in order to improve their impact in endemic communities.
Project description:Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings.We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40), in-depth interviews (n = 14) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 12) amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach.Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics); media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets). Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance.Communication about vaccination involves more than the message but is also influenced by the environment and the attitudes of the deliverer and receiver. It is pertinent for health policy makers and programme managers to understand these factors so as to effectively implement communication approaches.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Understanding the health behavior of the target population is crucial for sustainable schistosomiasis control. The aim of this study was to assess schistosomiasis related levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices of communities in lowland areas of western Ethiopia, where schistosomiasis is endemic.<h4>Methods</h4>A community-based multilevel triangulation mixed-methods design was conducted in three schistosomiasis endemic villages in the Abbey and Didessa valleys of the Benishangul Gumuz Region of Western Ethiopia, where mass drug administration (MDA) was done 30 years back and again the last 5 years. A structured survey questionnaire, in-depth interviews, focused group discussions, and observation was conducted to assess levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices related to schistosomiasis in the communities.<h4>Results</h4>Among the survey participants, 13% reported having heard of schistosomiasis, locally called Pecka (meaning worm). The majority of this 13% believe that schistosomiasis is caused by the biting of the worm Pecka, while others say drinking dirty water is the cause of infection, or they didn't know what the cause is. A majority of respondents answered "I don't know" to most of the questions about established knowledge of schistosomiasis. Male participants and students were more aware of schistosomiasis than their counterparts, and awareness increased with the educational level. Only one participant perceived that schistosomiasis was a serious disease. There were negative attitudes and misconceptions about the drug used in the mass treatment and many complaints were raised related to the size of the tablet and its side effects. There was no local budget and specific plan to prevent and control the disease. Local health personnel had insufficient knowledge about schistosomiasis, and the diagnosis and treatment capacities of local health institutions were poor.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In the current research area, schistosomiasis prevention and control recommendations should be redesigned to change the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the community and local health workers. It is also necessary to have the local budget and trained manpower in order to diagnose and treat schistosomiasis locally. There is a great need to have a safer Praziquantel pediatric formulation.
Project description:Schistosomiasis remains a global health problem with an estimated 250 million people in 78 countries infected, of whom 85% live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Preventive chemotherapy remains the key public health strategy to combat schistosomiasis worldwide. Recently the WHO emphasized on the use of integrative approaches in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. However, a detailed understanding of sociocultural factors that may influence the uptake of the intended health activities and services is vital. Thus, our study sought to understand the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and practices about schistosomiasis in various communities in Sub-Saharan Africa.A systematic search of literature for the period 2006-2016 was done on Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Psych info and Google Scholar using the following key words "Schistosomiasis, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and practices in Sub-Saharan Africa" in combination with Bolean operators (OR, AND). In this context, we reviewed studies conducted among school children, community members and caregivers of preschool children. Thematic analysis was utilised for the overall synthesis of the selected studies. This was done after reading the articles in depth. Themes were identified and examined for similarities, differences and contradictions.Gaps in schistosomiasis related knowledge and sociocultural barriers towards the uptake of preventive and treatment services among communities in Sub-Saharan Africa were identified. In addition to limited knowledge and negative attitudes, risky water related practices among community members, school children and caregivers of preschool children were identified as key factors promoting transmission of the disease.The study concluded that a comprehensive health education programme using contextual and standardised training tools may improve peoples' knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to schistosomiasis prevention and control. Findings also highlight the significance of including caregivers in the planning and implementation schistosomiasis control programs targeting pre-school children.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Schistosoma haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis and is widely distributed in Tanzania. In girls and women, the parasite can cause Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS), a gynecological manifestation of schistosomiasis that is highly neglected and overlooked by public health professionals and policy makers. This study explored community members' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) on and health seeking behavior for FGS.<h4>Methods/principal findings</h4>Using qualitative research methods-including 40 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 37 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs)-we collected data from 414 participants (Males n = 204 [49.3%] and Females n = 210 [50.7%]). The study engaged 153 participants from Zanzibar and 261 participants from northwestern Tanzania and was conducted in twelve (12) purposively selected districts (7 districts in Zanzibar and 5 districts in northwestern Tanzania). Most participants were aware of urogenital schistosomiasis. Children were reported as the most affected group and blood in urine was noted as a common symptom especially in boys. Adults were also noted as a risk group due to their involvement in activities like paddy farming that expose them to infection. Most participants lacked knowledge of FGS and acknowledged having no knowledge that urogenital schistosomiasis can affect the female reproductive system. A number of misconceptions on the symptoms of FGS and how it is transmitted were noted. Adolescent girls and women presenting with FGS related symptoms were reported to be stigmatized, perceived as having a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and sometimes labeled as "prostitutes". Health seeking behavior for FGS included a combination of traditional medicine, self-treatment and modern medicine.<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>Community members living in two very different areas of Tanzania exhibited major, similar gaps in knowledge about FGS. Our data illustrate a critical need for the national control program to integrate public health education about FGS during the implementation of school- and community-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs and the improvement of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Intestinal schistosomiasis is widely distributed around Lake Victoria in Kenya where about 16 million people in 56 districts are at risk of the infection with over 9.1 million infected. Its existence in rural settings has been extensively studied compared to urban settings where there is limited information about the disease coupled with low level of awareness. This study therefore assessed community awareness on existence, signs and symptoms, causes, transmission, control and risk factors for contracting schistosomiasis as well as attitudes, health seeking behaviour and environmental antecedents that affect its control so as to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to strengthen schistosomiasis control interventions in informal urban settings. METHODS: The study was carried out in an informal urban settlement where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was previously reported to be the highest (36%) among the eight informal settlements of Kisumu city. The study adopted cross-sectional design and purposive sampling technique. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members and eight key informant interviews with opinion leaders. Data was audio recorded transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 6 software. RESULTS: Most respondents stated having heard about schistosomiasis but very few had the correct knowledge of signs and symptoms, causes, transmission and control of schistosomiasis. However, there was moderate knowledge of risk factors and at high risk groups. Their attitudes towards schistosomiasis and its control were generally indifferent with a general belief that they had no control over their environmental circumstances to reduce transmission. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Although schistosomiasis was prevalent in the study area, majority of the people in the community had low awareness. This study, therefore, stresses the need for health education to raise community's awareness on schistosomiasis in such settings in order to augment prevention, control and elimination efforts.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Control of schistosomiasis remains a priority in endemic areas. Local epidemiological data are necessary for a tailored control programme, including data on population behaviour in relation to the disease. The objective of this study was to assess schistosomiasis-related knowledge, attitudes and practices in the general population of Lambaréné, a small city in Gabon, in order to optimise the design and implementation of a local control programme that is tailored to need.<h4>Methods</h4>The study was cross-sectional in nature. Eligible adults and children living in the study area who volunteered (with informed consent) to participate in the study were interviewed using standardised questionnaires, one of which was a simplified version of the primary questionnaire for participants aged 6-13 years. Data on the participants' knowledge, attitudes and practices that enhance the risk for contracting schistosomiasis were collected.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 602 participants were included. The mean (± standard deviation) age was 21.2 (± 15.0) years, the female:male gender ratio was 1.6 and 289 (48%) participants completed the simplified version the questionnaire. Of the 602 participants, 554 (92%) reported past or current contact with freshwater, 218 (36%) reported a history of a diagnosis of schistosomiasis and 193 (32%) reported past intake of praziquantel medication. The overall levels of knowledge and adequate attitudes toward schistosomiasis among young adults and adults were 68 and 73%, respectively. The proportion of participants pursuing risk-enhancing practices (REP) was 60% among the whole study population. Location was significantly associated with differences in knowledge and REP levels. A history of confirmed schistosomiasis and larger family size were significantly associated with an increase in good knowledge and REP levels. However, the indication of freshwater-associated activities was only associated with a significant increase in the REP level.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results of this survey reveal a high level of population exposure to schistosomiasis, which is in line with known prevalence of schistosomiasis in Lambaréné and its surroundings. The local population has a reasonable level of knowledge of and adequate attitudes toward schistosomiasis but the level of REP is high, particularly in areas where piped water is absent. In terms of interventions, improving hygiene should have the highest priority, but in a context where provision of safe water is difficult to achieve, the effectiveness of praziquantel treatment and the education of at-risk populations on the need for protective behaviours should be a prominent feature of any local control programme.