Catalytic enantioselective intermolecular cycloadditions of 2-diazo-3,6-diketoester-derived carbonyl ylides with alkene dipolarophiles.
ABSTRACT: Catalyzed cascade reactions that generate molecular complexity rapidly and in an enantioselective manner are attractive methods for asymmetric synthesis. In the present article, chiral rhodium catalysts are shown to effect such a transformation by using a range of 2-diazo-3,6-diketoesters with bicyclo[2.2.1]alkenes and styrenes as reaction partners. The reactions are likely to proceed by formation of a catalyst-complexed carbonyl ylide from the diazo compound, followed by intermolecular cycloaddition with the alkene dipolarophile. It was possible to obtain high levels of asymmetric induction [up to 89% enantiomeric excess (ee) and 92% ee for the two chiral catalysts investigated]. Enantioselectivity is not highly sensitive to substituent variation at the ketone that forms the ylide; however, branching does improve ee. Observations of dipolarophile-dependent enantiofacial selectivity in the cycloadditions indicate that the dipolarophile can be intimately involved in the enantiodiscrimination process.
Project description:The first highly enantioselective, diastereoselective, and regioselective [2,3]-rearrangement of iodonium ylides has been developed as a general solution to catalytic onium ylide rearrangements. In the presence of a chiral copper catalyst, substituted allylic iodides couple with ?-diazoesters to generate metal-coordinated iodonium ylides, which undergo [2,3]-rearrangements with high selectivities (up to >95:5 r.r., up to >95:5 d.r., and up to 97?% ee). The enantioenriched iodoester products can be converted stereospecifically into a variety of onium ylide rearrangement products, as well as compounds that are not accessible by classical onium ylide rearrangements.
Project description:The first electrophilic diastereoselective direct introduction of the difluoromethylthio group is described. We used a chiral auxiliary-based approach to illustrate the versatility of our recently developed difluoromethanesulfonyl hypervalent iodonium ylide reagents for the difluoromethylthiolation of indanone-based ?-keto esters. Chiral SCF?H-featuring compounds were obtained in up to 93% ee value.
Project description:We developed neutral iridium catalysts with chiral spiro phosphine-carboxy ligands (SpiroCAP) for asymmetric hydrogenation of unsaturated carboxylic acids. Different from the cationic Crabtree-type catalysts, the iridium catalysts with chiral spiro phosphine-carboxy ligands are neutral and do not require the use of a tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BArF-) counterion, which is necessary for stabilizing cationic Crabtree-type catalysts. Another advantage of the neutral iridium catalysts is that they have high stability and have a long lifetime in air. The new iridium catalysts with chiral spiro phosphine-carboxy ligands exhibit unprecedented high enantioselectivity (up to 99.4% ee) in the asymmetric hydrogenations of various unsaturated carboxylic acids, particularly for 3-alkyl-3-methylenepropionic acids, which are challenging substrates for other chiral catalysts.
Project description:We report herein the asymmetric coupling of flow-generated unstabilized diazo compounds and propargylated amine derivatives, using a new pyridinebis(imidazoline) ligand, a copper catalyst and base. The reaction proceeds rapidly, generating chiral allenes in 10-20?minutes with high enantioselectivity (89-98?% de/ee), moderate yields and a wide functional group tolerance.
Project description:Chiral cyclic sulfamidates are useful building blocks to construct compounds, such as chiral amines, with important applications. Often these compounds can only be generated through expensive precious metal catalysts. Here, Ni(OAc)<sub>2</sub>/(S, S)-Ph-BPE-catalyzed highly efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of cyclic sulfamidate imines was successfully developed, affording various chiral cyclic sulfamidates with high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% yield, >99% enantiomeric excess [ee]). This Ni-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation on a gram scale has been achieved with only 0.1 mol% catalyst loading in 99% yield with 93% ee. Other types of N-sulfonyl ketimines were also hydrogenated well to obtain the corresponding products with >99% conversion, 96%-97% yields, and 97%->99% ee. In addition, this asymmetric methodology could produce other enantioenriched organic molecules, such as chiral ?-fluoroamine, amino ether, and phenylglycinol. Moreover, a reasonable catalytic cycle was provided according to the deuterium-labeling studies, which could reveal a possible mechanism for this Ni-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.
Project description:A strategy for expanding the utility of chiral pyridine-2,6-bis(oxazoline) (pybox) ligands for asymmetric transition metal catalysis is introduced by adding a bidentate ligand to modulate the electronic properties and asymmetric induction. Specifically, a ruthenium(II) pybox fragment is combined with a cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand to generate catalysts for enantioselective transition metal nitrenoid chemistry, including ring contraction to chiral 2H-azirines (up to 97?% ee with 2000?TON) and enantioselective C(sp3 )-H aminations (up to 97?% ee with 50?TON).
Project description:The use of catalytic metal carbene methodology with diazoacetates for the construction in high yield of polyether macrocycles having ring sizes greater than 25 has been achieved by preventing access to gamma-C-H positions for intramolecular insertion. Cyclopropanation is the exclusive outcome of reactions performed with dirhodium(II) catalysts, and product yields of greater than 70% are obtained without resorting to high dilution with solvents. With copper(I) catalysts having multiple sites for polyether coordination, intramolecular oxonium ylide formation occurs at the terminal oxygen, followed by [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the pendant allyl group, in competition with cyclopropanation. Sodium ion coordination with the reactant diazo compound inhibits oxonium ylide formation in copper-catalyzed reactions. The composite results are consistent with copper serving as a template for the substrate as well as the site in the ether complex for diazo decomposition and subsequent metal carbene reactions.
Project description:Over the past decades, asymmetric catalysis has been intensely investigated as a powerful tool for the preparation of numerous chiral biologically active compounds. However, developing general and practical strategies for preparation of both enantiomers of a chiral molecule via asymmetric catalysis is still a challenge, particularly when the two enantiomers of a chiral catalyst are not easily prepared from natural chiral sources. Inspired by the biologic system, we report herein an unprecedented catalytic enantiodivergent Michael addition of pyridazinones to enones by subtle adjustment of achiral amino moiety of dipeptide phosphine catalysts. These two dipeptide phosphine catalysts, P5 and P8, could deliver both enantiomers of a series of N2-alkylpyridazinones in good yields (up to 99%) with high enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) via the catalyst-controlled enantiodivergent addition of pyridazinones to enones.
Project description:Various 1,1-disubstituted terminal olefins have been investigated for asymmetric epoxidation using chiral ketone catalysts. Up to 88% ee has been achieved with a lactam ketone, and a planar transition state is likely to be a major reaction pathway.
Project description:A new class of bis-cyclometalated rhodium(III) catalysts containing two inert cyclometalated 6-tert-butyl-2-phenyl-2H-indazole ligands and two labile acetonitriles is introduced. Single enantiomers (>99?%?ee) were obtained through a chiral-auxiliary-mediated approach using a monofluorinated salicyloxazoline. The new chiral-at-metal complex is capable of catalyzing the visible-light-induced enantioselective ?-cyanoalkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles in which it serves a dual function as the chiral Lewis acid catalyst for the asymmetric radical chemistry and at the same time as the photoredox catalyst for the visible-light-induced redox chemistry (up to 80?% yield, 4:1?d.r., and 95?%?ee, 12?examples).