STIM1 calcium sensor is required for activation of the phagocyte oxidase during inflammation and host defense.
ABSTRACT: The stromal-interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) is a potent sensor of intracellular calcium, which in turn regulates entry of external calcium through plasma membrane channels to affect immune cell activation. Although the contribution of STIM1 to calcium signaling in lymphocytes has been well studied, the role of this protein in neutrophil-mediated inflammation and host defense is unknown. We report that STIM1-deficient murine neutrophils show loss of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in response to both soluble ligands that activate G-proteins as well as Fc?-receptor or integrin ligation that activates tyrosine kinase signaling. This results in modest defects in phagocytosis and degranulation responses but a profound block in superoxide production by the phagocyte oxidase. We trace the primary intracellular target of calcium to be protein kinase C isoforms ? and ? (PKC? and PKC?), which in turn phosphorylate subunits of the oxidase leading to superoxide production. In vivo the loss of SOCE in stim1(-/-) chimeric mice results in marked susceptibility to bacterial infections but also protection from tissue injury in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. These results demonstrate the critical role of STIM1-mediated SOCE and define major protein targets of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation during inflammatory disease.
Project description:Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune system. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways initiated by store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) are known to regulate neutrophil activation; however, the precise mechanism of this process remains unclear. STIM1 and STIM2 are calcium-sensing molecules that link calcium depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum with opening of plasma membrane calcium channels. Although a role for STIM1 in neutrophil SOCE and activation has been established, the function of STIM2 is unknown. Here we use mice with conditional ablation of <i>Stim1</i> and/or <i>Stim2</i> to investigate the role of STIM2 in neutrophil activation. We demonstrate that loss of STIM2 results in decreased SOCE, particularly at lower doses of agonists. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, degranulation, and phagocytosis are normal in the absence of STIM2, suggesting STIM1 is the dominant calcium sensor required for classical short-term neutrophil responses. However, neutrophil cytokine production required STIM2, but not STIM1, at least in part as a result of redox regulation of cytokine gene expression. In vivo loss of STIM2 results in lower cytokine levels and protection from mortality in a mouse model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These data, combined with previous studies focusing on STIM1, define distinct but cooperative functions for STIM1 and STIM2 in modulating neutrophil bactericidal and cytokine responses.
Project description:Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a Ca(2+) sensor protein that initiates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). STIM1 is known to be involved in the chemoattractant signaling pathway for FPR1 in cell lines, but its role in in vivo functioning of neutrophils is unclear. Plaque-type psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with chemoattractants driving neutrophils into the epidermis. We investigated the involvement of STIM1 in neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, as well as during chronic psoriatic inflammation. To this end, we used conditional knockout (KO) mice lacking STIM1 in cells of myeloid lineage (STIM1(fl/fl) LysM-cre). We demonstrate that STIM1 is required for chemotaxis because of multiple chemoattractants in mouse neutrophils in vitro. Using an imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin model, we show that KO mice had less neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis than controls, whereas neither chemoattractant production in the epidermis nor macrophage migration was decreased. KO mice displayed a more rapid reversal of the outward signs of psoriasis (plaques). Thus, KO of STIM1 impairs neutrophil contribution to psoriatic inflammation. Our data provide new insights to our understanding of how STIM1 orchestrates the cellular behavior underlying chemotaxis and illustrate the important role of SOCE in a disease-related pathologic model.
Project description:Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) results from hematopoietic stem cell transformation by the bcr-abl chimeric oncogene, encoding a 210 kDa protein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. In spite of the efficiency of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI; Imatinib), other strategies are explored to eliminate CML leukemia stem cells, such as calcium pathways.In this work, we showed that Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) and thrombin induced calcium influx were decreased in Bcr-Abl expressing 32d cells (32d-p210). The 32d-p210 cells showed modified Orai1/STIM1 ratio and reduced TRPC1 expression that could explain SOCE reduction. Decrease in SOCE and thrombin induced calcium entry was associated to reduced Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) nucleus translocation in 32d-p210 cells. We demonstrated that SOCE blockers enhanced cell mobility of 32d-p210 cells and reduced the proliferation rate in both 32d cell lines. TKI treatment slightly reduced the thrombin-induced response, but imatinib restored SOCE to the wild type level. Bcr-Abl is also known to deregulate Protein Kinase C (PKC), which was described to modulate calcium entries. We showed that PKC enhances SOCE and thrombin induced calcium entries in control cells while this effect is lost in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells.The tyrosine kinase activity seems to regulate calcium entries probably not directly but through a global cellular reorganization involving a PKC pathway. Altogether, calcium entries are deregulated in Bcr-Abl-expressing cells and could represent an interesting therapeutic target in combination with TKI.
Project description:Recent human genetic studies have shown that G?5 is related to various clinical symptoms, such as sinus bradycardia, cognitive disability, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although the calcium signaling cascade is closely associated with a heterotrimeric G-protein, the function of G?5 in calcium signaling and its relevance to clinical symptoms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro changes of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) with exogenous expression of G?5. The cells expressing G?5 had enhanced SOCE after depletion of calcium ion inside the endoplasmic reticulum. G?5 also augmented Stim1- and Orai1-dependent SOCE. An ORAI1 loss-of-function mutant did not show inhibition of G?5-induced SOCE, and a STIM1-ERM truncation mutant showed no enhancement of SOCE. These results suggested a novel role of GNB5 and Stim1, and provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of SOCE.
Project description:Stromal interaction molecules (STIM) 1 and 2 are sensors of the calcium concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum. Depletion of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores activates STIM proteins which, in turn, bind and open calcium channels in the plasma membrane formed by the proteins ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3. The resulting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), mostly controlled by the principal components STIM1 and ORAI1, has been particularly characterized in immune cells. In the nervous system, all STIM and ORAI homologs are expressed. This review summarizes current knowledge on distribution and function of STIM and ORAI proteins in central neurons and glial cells, i.e. astrocytes and microglia. STIM2 is required for SOCE in hippocampal synapses and cortical neurons, whereas STIM1 controls calcium store replenishment in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In microglia, STIM1, STIM2, and ORAI1 regulate migration and phagocytosis. The isoforms ORAI2 and ORAI3 are candidates for SOCE channels in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Due to the role of SOCE in neuronal and glial calcium homeostasis, dysfunction of STIM and ORAI proteins may have consequences for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) signaling is involved in cancer progression. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) triggers store-operated calcium channels to induce SOCE. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) influences a wide range of cellular behaviors, including cell proliferation. However, little is known about the relationship between calcium signaling and TGF-? signaling in cancer cell proliferation. Here, we found that TGF-? induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and suppressed cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These effects were impaired by extracellular Ca2+ chelator EGTA or SOCE specific inhibitor SKF96365 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Treating MDA-MB-231 cells with TGF-? for 24 and 48 h markedly decreased STIM1 expression and thapsigargin-induced SOCE. A transcriptional inhibitor of STIM1, Wilm's tumor suppressor 1 (WT1), was upregulated in TGF-?-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, and knockdown of WT1 expression partially restored the TGF-?-induced downregulation of STIM1. Stably overexpressing STIM1 in MDA-MB-231 cells restored the TGF-?-induced effects. The p21 mRNA level increased in SKF96365- or TGF-?-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas that for cyclin E1 decreased. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that STIM1 and SOCE are involved in the TGF-?-induced suppression of cell proliferation. Furthermore, our studies also provide a new approach to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation with small molecules targeting STIM1 and SOCE.
Project description:Calcium signaling controls many key processes in neurons, including gene expression, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. In contrast to calcium influx through voltage- or neurotransmitter-gated channels, regulatory pathways that control store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in neurons are poorly understood. Here, we report a transcriptional control of Stim1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) gene, which is a major sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium levels and a regulator of SOCE. By using a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing approach in mice, we find that NEUROD2, a neurogenic transcription factor, binds to an intronic element within the Stim1 gene. We show that NEUROD2 limits Stim1 expression in cortical neurons and consequently fine-tunes the SOCE response upon depletion of ER calcium. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism that regulates neuronal calcium homeostasis during cortical development.
Project description:Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediates the increase in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates several EC functions including tissue-fluid homeostasis. Stromal-interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), upon sensing the depletion of (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store, organizes as puncta that trigger store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) via plasmalemmal Ca2+-selective Orai1 channels. While the STIM1 and Orai1 binding interfaces have been mapped, signaling mechanisms activating STIM1 recruitment of Orai1 and STIM1-Orai1 interaction remains enigmatic. Here, we show that ER Ca2+-store depletion rapidly induces STIM1 phosphorylation at Y361 via proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk2) in ECs. Surprisingly, the phospho-defective STIM1-Y361F mutant formed puncta but failed to recruit Orai1, thereby preventing. SOCE Furthermore, studies in mouse lungs, expression of phosphodefective STIM1-Y361F mutant in ECs prevented the increase in vascular permeability induced by the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Hence, Pyk2-dependent phosphorylation of STIM1 at Y361 is a critical phospho-switch enabling recruitment of Orai1 into STIM1 puncta leading to SOCE. Therefore, Y361 in STIM1 represents a novel target for limiting SOCE-associated vascular leak.
Project description:Oligomerization of stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) promotes store-operated calcium entry (SOCE); however, the mechanism of STIM1 aggregation is unclear. Here, using the lepidopteran insect and agricultural pest cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) as a model and immunoblotting, RT-qPCR, RNA interference (RNAi), and ChIP assays, we found that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) up-regulates STIM1 expression via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the 20E nuclear receptor (EcRB1). We also identified an ecdysone-response element (EcRE) in the 5'-upstream region of the STIM1 gene and also noted that STIM1 is located in the larval midgut during metamorphosis. STIM1 knockdown in larvae delayed pupation time, prevented midgut remodeling, and decreased 20E-induced gene transcription. STIM1 knockdown in a H. armigera epidermal cell line, HaEpi, repressed 20E-induced calcium ion influx and apoptosis. Moreover, 20E-induced STIM1 clustering to puncta and translocation toward the cell membrane. Inhibitors of GPCRs, phospholipase C (PLC), and inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) repressed 20E-induced STIM1 phosphorylation, and we found that two GPCRs are involved in 20E-induced STIM1 phosphorylation. 20E-induced STIM1 phosphorylation on Ser-485 through protein kinase C (PKC), and we observed that Ser-485 phosphorylation is critical for STIM1 clustering, interaction with calcium release-activated calcium channel modulator 1 (Orai1), calcium ion influx, and 20E-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that 20E up-regulates STIM1 phosphorylation for aggregation via GPCRs, followed by interaction with Orai1 to induce SOCE, thereby promoting apoptosis in the midgut during insect metamorphosis.
Project description:STIM1 and Orai1 are the main components of a widely conserved Calcium influx pathway known as store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). STIM1 is a calcium sensor, which oligomerizes and activates Orai channels when calcium levels drop inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The series of molecular rearrangements that STIM1 undergoes until final activation of Orai1 require the direct exposure of the STIM1 domain known as SOAR (Stim Orai Activating Region). In addition to these complex molecular rearrangements, other constituents like lipids at the plasma membrane, play critical roles orchestrating SOCE. PI(4,5)P2 and enriched cholesterol microdomains have been shown as important signaling platforms that recruit the SOCE machinery in steps previous to Orai1 activation. However, little is known about the molecular role of cholesterol once SOCE is activated. In this study we provide clear evidence that STIM1 has a cholesterol-binding domain located inside the SOAR region and modulates Orai1 channels. We demonstrate a functional association of STIM1 and SOAR to cholesterol, indicating a close proximity of SOAR to the inner layer of the plasma membrane. In contrast, the depletion of cholesterol induces the SOAR detachment from the plasma membrane and enhances its association to Orai1. These results are recapitulated with full length STIM1.