CLYBL is a polymorphic human enzyme with malate synthase and ?-methylmalate synthase activity.
ABSTRACT: CLYBL is a human mitochondrial enzyme of unknown function that is found in multiple eukaryotic taxa and conserved to bacteria. The protein is expressed in the mitochondria of all mammalian organs, with highest expression in brown fat and kidney. Approximately 5% of all humans harbor a premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL that has been associated with reduced levels of circulating vitamin B12. Using comparative genomics, we now show that CLYBL is strongly co-expressed with and co-evolved specifically with other components of the mitochondrial B12 pathway. We confirm that the premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL leads to a loss of protein expression. To elucidate the molecular function of CLYBL, we used comparative operon analysis, structural modeling and enzyme kinetics. We report that CLYBL encodes a malate/?-methylmalate synthase, converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate, or glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to ?-methylmalate. Malate synthases are best known for their established role in the glyoxylate shunt of plants and lower organisms and are traditionally described as not occurring in humans. The broader role of a malate/?-methylmalate synthase in human physiology and its mechanistic link to vitamin B12 metabolism remain unknown.
Project description:A kinetic and ligand binding study on maize (Zea mays) malate synthase is presented. It is concluded from kinetic measurements that the enzyme proceeds through a ternary-complex mechanism. Michaelis constants (Km,glyoxylate and Km,acetyl-CoA) were determined to be 104 microM and 20 microM respectively. C.d. measurements in the near u.v.-region indicate that a conformational change is induced in the enzyme by its substrate, glyoxylate. From these studies we are able to calculate the affinity for the substrate (Kd,glyoxylate) as 100 microM. A number of inhibitors apparently trigger the same conformational change in the enzyme, i.e. pyruvate, glycollate and fluoroacetate. Another series of inhibitors bearing more bulky groups and/or an extra carboxylic acid also induce a conformational change, which is, however, clearly different from the former one. Limited proteolysis with trypsin results in cleavage of malate synthase into two fragments of respectively 45 and 19 kDa. Even when no more intact malate synthase chains are present, the final enzymic activity still amounts to 30% of the original activity. If trypsinolysis is performed in the presence of acetyl-CoA, the cleavage reaction is appreciably slowed down. The dissociation constant for acetyl-CoA (Kd,acetyl-CoA) was calculated to be 14.8 microM when the glyoxylate subsite is fully occupied by pyruvate and 950 microM (= 50 x Km) when the second subsite is empty. It is concluded that malate synthase follows a compulsory-order mechanism, glyoxylate being the first-binding substrate. Glyoxylate triggers a conformational change in the enzyme and, as a consequence, the correctly shaped binding site for acetyl-CoA is created. Demetallization of malate synthase has no effect on the c.d. spectrum in the near u.v.-region. Moreover, glyoxylate induces the same spectral change in the absence of Mg2+ as in its presence. Nevertheless, malate synthase shows no activity in the absence of the cation. We conclude that Mg2+ is essential for catalysis, rather than for the structure of the enzyme's catalytic site.
Project description:Assimilation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is an essential process in many bacteria that proceeds via the glyoxylate cycle or the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. In both assimilation strategies, one of the final products is malate that is formed by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with glyoxylate. In the glyoxylate cycle this reaction is catalyzed by malate synthase, whereas in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway the reaction is separated into two proteins: malyl-CoA lyase, a well-known enzyme catalyzing the Claisen condensation of acetyl-CoA with glyoxylate and yielding malyl-CoA, and an unidentified malyl-CoA thioesterase that hydrolyzes malyl-CoA into malate and CoA. In this study the roles of Mcl1 and Mcl2, two malyl-CoA lyase homologs in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, were investigated by gene inactivation and biochemical studies. Mcl1 is a true (3S)-malyl-CoA lyase operating in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Notably, Mcl1 is a promiscuous enzyme and catalyzes not only the condensation of acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate but also the cleavage of beta-methylmalyl-CoA into glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA during acetyl-CoA assimilation. In contrast, Mcl2 was shown to be the sought (3S)-malyl-CoA thioesterase in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, which specifically hydrolyzes (3S)-malyl-CoA but does not use beta-methylmalyl-CoA or catalyze a lyase or condensation reaction. The identification of Mcl2 as thioesterase extends the enzyme functions of malyl-CoA lyase homologs that have been known only as "Claisen condensation" enzymes so far. Mcl1 and Mcl2 are both related to malate synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes both a Claisen condensation and thioester hydrolysis reaction.
Project description:Malate synthase, an enzyme of the glyoxylate pathway, catalyzes the condensation and subsequent hydrolysis of acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and glyoxylate to form malate and CoA. In the present study, we present the 1.95 A-resolution crystal structure of Escherichia coli malate synthase isoform G in complex with magnesium, pyruvate, and acetyl-CoA, and we compare it with previously determined structures of substrate and product complexes. The results reveal how the enzyme recognizes and activates the substrate acetyl-CoA, as well as conformational changes associated with substrate binding, which may be important for catalysis. On the basis of these results and mutagenesis of active site residues, Asp 631 and Arg 338 are proposed to act in concert to form the enolate anion of acetyl-CoA in the rate-limiting step. The highly conserved Cys 617, which is immediately adjacent to the presumed catalytic base Asp 631, appears to be oxidized to cysteine-sulfenic acid. This can explain earlier observations of the susceptibility of the enzyme to inactivation and aggregation upon X-ray irradiation and indicates that cysteine oxidation may play a role in redox regulation of malate synthase activity in vivo. There is mounting evidence that enzymes of the glyoxylate pathway are virulence factors in several pathogenic organisms, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. The results described in this study add insight into the mechanism of catalysis and may be useful for the design of inhibitory compounds as possible antimicrobial agents.
Project description:Malate synthase catalyzes the Claisen-like condensation of acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) and glyoxylate in the glyoxylate shunt of the citric acid cycle. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis malate synthase G gene, glcB, was cloned, and the N-terminal His(6)-tagged 80 kDa protein was expressed in soluble form and purified by metal affinity chromatography. A chromogenic 4,4'-dithiodipyridine assay did not yield linear kinetics, but the generation of an active site-directed mutant, C619S, gave an active enzyme and linear kinetics. The resulting mutant exhibited kinetics comparable to those of the wild type and was used for the full kinetic analysis. Initial velocity studies were intersecting, suggesting a sequential mechanism, which was confirmed by product and dead-end inhibition. The inhibition studies delineated the ordered binding of glyoxylate followed by AcCoA and the ordered release of CoA followed by malate. The pH dependencies of k(cat) and k(cat)/K(gly) are both bell-shaped, and catalysis depends on a general base (pK = 5.3) and a general acid (pK = 9.2). Primary kinetic isotope effects determined using [C(2)H(3)-methyl]acetyl-CoA suggested that proton removal and carbon-carbon bond formation were partially rate-limiting. Solvent kinetic isotope effects on k(cat) suggested the hydrolysis of the malyl-CoA intermediate was also partially rate-limiting. Multiple kinetic isotope effects, utilizing D(2)O and [C(2)H(3)-methyl]acetyl-CoA, confirmed a stepwise mechanism in which the step exhibiting primary kinetic isotope effects precedes the step exhibiting the solvent isotope effects. We combined the kinetic data and the pH dependence of the kinetic parameters with existing structural and mutagenesis data to propose a chemical mechanism for malate synthase from M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Haloarchaea are extremely halophilic heterotrophic microorganisms belonging to the class Halobacteria (Euryarchaeota). Almost half of the haloarchaea possesses the genes coding for enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle, a recently discovered anaplerotic acetate assimilation pathway. In this cycle, the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle together with the dedicated enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle convert two acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) molecules to malate. The methylaspartate cycle involves two reactions catalyzed by homologous enzymes belonging to the CitE-like enzyme superfamily, malyl-CoA lyase/thioesterase (haloarchaeal malate synthase [hMS]; Hah_2476 in Haloarcula hispanica) and ?-methylmalyl-CoA lyase (haloarchaeal ?-methylmalyl-CoA lyase [hMCL]; Hah_1341). Although both enzymes catalyze the same reactions, hMS was previously proposed to preferentially catalyze the formation of malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate (malate synthase activity) and hMCL was proposed to primarily cleave ?-methylmalyl-CoA to propionyl-CoA and glyoxylate. Here we studied the physiological functions of these enzymes during acetate assimilation in H. hispanica by using biochemical assays of the wild type and deletion mutants. Our results reveal that the main physiological function of hMS is malyl-CoA (not malate) formation and that hMCL catalyzes a ?-methylmalyl-CoA lyase reaction in vivo The malyl-CoA thioesterase activities of both enzymes appear to be not essential for growth on acetate. Interestingly, despite the different physiological functions of hMS and hMCL, structural comparisons predict that these two proteins have virtually identical active sites, thus highlighting the need for experimental validation of their catalytic functions. Our results provide further proof of the operation of the methylaspartate cycle and indicate the existence of a distinct, yet-to-be-discovered malyl-CoA thioesterase in haloarchaea. IMPORTANCE:Acetate is one of the most important substances in natural environments. The activated form of acetate, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), is the high-energy intermediate at the crossroads of central metabolism: its oxidation generates energy for the cell, and about a third of all biosynthetic fluxes start directly from acetyl-CoA. Many organic compounds enter the central carbon metabolism via this key molecule. To sustain growth on acetyl-CoA-generating compounds, a dedicated assimilation (anaplerotic) pathway is required. The presence of an anaplerotic pathway is a prerequisite for growth in many environments, being important for environmentally, industrially, and clinically important microorganisms. Here we studied specific reactions of a recently discovered acetate assimilation pathway, the methylaspartate cycle, functioning in extremely halophilic archaea.
Project description:Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is a facultative methylotroph capable of growth on both single-carbon and multicarbon compounds. Mutants defective in a pathway involved in converting acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to glyoxylate (the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway) are unable to grow on both C(1) and C(2) compounds, showing that both modes of growth have this pathway in common. However, growth on C(2) compounds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway should require glyoxylate consumption via malate synthase, but a mutant lacking malyl-CoA/beta-methylmalyl-CoA lyase activity (MclA1) that is assumed to be responsible for malate synthase activity still grows on C(2) compounds. Since glyoxylate is toxic to this bacterium, it seemed likely that a system is in place to keep it from accumulating. In this study, we have addressed this question and have shown by microarray analysis, mutant analysis, metabolite measurements, and (13)C-labeling experiments that M. extorquens AM1 contains an additional malyl-CoA/beta-methylmalyl-CoA lyase (MclA2) that appears to take part in glyoxylate metabolism during growth on C(2) compounds. In addition, an alternative pathway appears to be responsible for consuming part of the glyoxylate, converting it to glycine, methylene-H(4)F, and serine. Mutants lacking either pathway have a partial defect for growth on ethylamine, while mutants lacking both pathways are unable to grow appreciably on ethylamine. Our results suggest that the malate synthase reaction is a bottleneck for growth on C(2) compounds by this bacterium, which is partially alleviated by this alternative route for glyoxylate consumption. This strategy of multiple enzymes/pathways for the consumption of a toxic intermediate reflects the metabolic versatility of this facultative methylotroph and is a model for other metabolic networks involving high flux through toxic intermediates.
Project description:Malate synthase (EC 220.127.116.11) from dark-grown Euglena gracilis was purified to homogeneity by the criterion of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was released from acetate-grown cells by treatment with ultrasonic waves and purified from broken-cell suspensions by high-speed centrifugation and (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, followed by gel-filtration on Sepharose 6B. The final enzyme preparation was purified 190-fold compared with the crude extract. The mol.wt. of the enzyme was about 350000 as determined by gel filtration on Sepharose 6B. Treatment with sodium dodecyl sulphate and urea dissociated the enzyme into subunits of mol.wt. 175000. The pH optimum for the enzyme was 8.0 and the Km values for glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA were 50 and 80 micron respectively. Antibodies raised to the purified enzyme were shown to be monospecific by radiochemical immunoassay. Euglena anti-(malate synthase) tested on Ouchterlony double-diffusion gels gave a sharp precipitation band against acetate-grown Escherichia coli, but no immunological correspondence was observed with acetate-grown Chlorella fusca, Zea mays (maize) scutella or purified malate synthase from Ricinus communis.
Project description:Cell extracts of Rhodobacter capsulatus grown on acetate contained an apparent malate synthase activity but lacked isocitrate lyase activity. Therefore, R. capsulatus cannot use the glyoxylate cycle for acetate assimilation, and a different pathway must exist. It is shown that the apparent malate synthase activity is due to the combination of a malyl-coenzyme A (CoA) lyase and a malyl-CoA-hydrolyzing enzyme. Malyl-CoA lyase activity was 20-fold up-regulated in acetate-grown cells versus glucose-grown cells. Malyl-CoA lyase was purified 250-fold with a recovery of 6%. The enzyme catalyzed not only the reversible condensation of glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to L-malyl-CoA but also the reversible condensation of glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to beta-methylmalyl-CoA. Enzyme activity was stimulated by divalent ions with preference for Mn(2+) and was inhibited by EDTA. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined, and a corresponding gene coding for a 34.2-kDa protein was identified and designated mcl1. The native molecular mass of the purified protein was 195 +/- 20 kDa, indicating a homohexameric composition. A homologous mcl1 gene was found in the genomes of the isocitrate lyase-negative bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodospirillum rubrum in similar genomic environments. For Streptomyces coelicolor and Methylobacterium extorquens, mcl1 homologs are located within gene clusters implicated in acetate metabolism. We therefore propose that L-malyl-CoA/beta-methylmalyl-CoA lyase encoded by mcl1 is involved in acetate assimilation by R. capsulatus and possibly other glyoxylate cycle-negative bacteria.
Project description:Enzymes of the glyoxylate shunt have been implicated as virulence factors in several pathogenic organisms, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. Malate synthase has thus emerged as a promising target for design of anti-microbial agents. For this effort, it is essential to have reliable models for enzyme:substrate complexes. A 2.7 Angstroms resolution crystal structure for M. tuberculosis malate synthase in the ternary complex with magnesium, malate, and coenzyme A has been previously described. However, some unusual aspects of malate and Mg(++) binding prompted an independent determination of the structure at 2.3 Angstroms resolution, in the presence of saturating concentrations of malate. The electron density map of the complex reveals the position and conformation of coenzyme A to be unchanged from that found in the previous study. However, the coordination of Mg(++) and orientation of bound malate within the active site are different. The revised position of bound malate is consistent with a reaction mechanism that does not require reorientation of the electrophilic substrate during the catalytic cycle, while the revised Mg(++) coordination is octahedral, as expected. The results should be useful in the design of malate synthase inhibitors.
Project description:Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisation, the genes for eight complementation groups have been identified, leading to the determination of the general structure of vitamin B12 processing and providing methods for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and approaches to treatment.