A targeted quantitative proteomics strategy for global kinome profiling of cancer cells and tissues.
ABSTRACT: Kinases are among the most intensively pursued enzyme superfamilies as targets for anti-cancer drugs. Large data sets on inhibitor potency and selectivity for more than 400 human kinases became available recently, offering the opportunity to design rationally novel kinase-based anti-cancer therapies. However, the expression levels and activities of kinases are highly heterogeneous among different types of cancer and even among different stages of the same cancer. The lack of effective strategy for profiling the global kinome hampers the development of kinase-targeted cancer chemotherapy. Here, we introduced a novel global kinome profiling method, based on our recently developed isotope-coded ATP-affinity probe and a targeted proteomic method using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM), for assessing simultaneously the expression of more than 300 kinases in human cells and tissues. This MRM-based assay displayed much better sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy than the discovery-based shotgun proteomic method. Approximately 250 kinases could be routinely detected in the lysate of a single cell line. Additionally, the incorporation of iRT into MRM kinome library rendered our MRM kinome assay easily transferrable across different instrument platforms and laboratories. We further employed this approach for profiling kinase expression in two melanoma cell lines, which revealed substantial kinome reprogramming during cancer progression and demonstrated an excellent correlation between the anti-proliferative effects of kinase inhibitors and the expression levels of their target kinases. Therefore, this facile and accurate kinome profiling assay, together with the kinome-inhibitor interaction map, could provide invaluable knowledge to predict the effectiveness of kinase inhibitor drugs and offer the opportunity for individualized cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:Kinases are one of the most important families of enzymes that are involved in numerous cell signaling processes. Existing methods for studying kinase expression and activation have limited kinome coverage. Herein we established a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM)-based targeted proteomic method that provided an unprecedented coverage (?80%) of the human kinome. We employed this method for profiling comprehensively the alterations of the global kinome of HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells upon treatment with methylglyoxal, a glycolysis byproduct that is present at elevated levels in blood and tissues of diabetic patients and is thought to contribute to diabetic complications. Our results led to the quantification of 328 unique kinases. In particular, we found that methylglyoxal treatment gave rise to altered expression of a number of kinases in the MAPK pathway and diminished expression of several receptor tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), etc. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the diminished expression of EGFR occurred through a mechanism that is distinct from the reduced expression of IGF2R and FGFR1. Together, our targeted kinome profiling method offers a powerful resource for exploring kinase-mediated signaling pathways that are altered by extracellular stimuli, and the results from the present study suggest new mechanisms underlying the development of diabetic complications.
Project description:Phosphorylation of cellular components catalyzed by kinases plays important roles in cell signaling and proliferation. Quantitative assessment of perturbation in global kinome may provide crucial knowledge for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of environmental toxicants. Here, we utilized an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) affinity probe coupled with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to assess quantitatively the arsenite-induced alteration of global kinome in human cells. We constructed a SILAC-compatible kinome library for scheduled multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis and adopted on-the-fly recalibration of retention time shift, which provided better throughput of the analytical method and enabled the simultaneous quantification of the expression of ?300 kinases in two LC-MRM runs. With this improved analytical method, we conducted an in-depth quantitative analysis of the perturbation of kinome of GM00637 human skin fibroblast cells induced by arsenite exposure. Several kinases involved in cell cycle progression, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1 and CDK4) and Aurora kinases A, B, and C, were found to be hyperactivated, and the altered expression of CDK1 was further validated by Western analysis. In addition, treatment with a CDK inhibitor, flavopiridol, partially restored the arsenite-induced growth inhibition of human skin fibroblast cells. Thus, sodium arsenite may confer its cytotoxic effect partly through the aberrant activation of CDKs and the resultant perturbation of cell cycle progression. Together, we developed a high-throughput, SILAC-compatible, and MRM-based kinome profiling method and demonstrated that the method is powerful in deciphering the molecular modes of action of a widespread environmental toxicant. The method should be generally applicable for uncovering the cellular pathways triggered by other extracellular stimuli.
Project description:Recent developments in instrumentation and bioinformatics have led to new quantitative mass spectrometry platforms including LC-MS/MS with data-independent acquisition (DIA) and targeted analysis using parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-PRM), which provide alternatives to well-established methods, such as LC-MS/MS with data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and targeted analysis using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM). These tools have been used to identify signaling perturbations in lung cancers and other malignancies, supporting the development of effective kinase inhibitors and, more recently, providing insights into therapeutic resistance mechanisms and drug repurposing opportunities. However, detection of kinases in biological matrices can be challenging; therefore, activity-based protein profiling enrichment of ATP-utilizing proteins was selected as a test case for exploring the limits of detection of low-abundance analytes in complex biological samples. To examine the impact of different MS acquisition platforms, quantification of kinase ATP uptake following kinase inhibitor treatment was analyzed by four different methods: LC-MS/MS with DDA and DIA, LC-MRM, and LC-PRM. For discovery data sets, DIA increased the number of identified kinases by 21% and reduced missingness when compared with DDA. In this context, MRM and PRM were most effective at identifying global kinome responses to inhibitor treatment, highlighting the value of a priori target identification and manual evaluation of quantitative proteomics data sets. We compare results for a selected set of desthiobiotinylated peptides from PRM, MRM, and DIA and identify considerations for selecting a quantification method and postprocessing steps that should be used for each data acquisition strategy.
Project description:Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a significant cause of disease in immune-compromised adults and immune naïve newborns. No vaccine exists to prevent HCMV infection, and current antiviral therapies have toxic side effects that limit the duration and intensity of their use. There is thus an urgent need for new strategies to treat HCMV infection. Repurposing existing drugs as antivirals is an attractive approach to limit the time and cost of new antiviral drug development. Virus-induced changes in infected cells are often driven by changes in cellular kinase activity, which led us to hypothesize that defining the complement of kinases (the kinome), whose abundance or expression is altered during infection would identify existing kinase inhibitors that could be repurposed as new antivirals. To this end, we applied a kinase capture technique, multiplexed kinase inhibitor bead-mass spectrometry (MIB-MS) kinome, to quantitatively measure perturbations in >240 cellular kinases simultaneously in cells infected with a laboratory-adapted (AD169) or clinical (TB40E) HCMV strain. MIB-MS profiling identified time-dependent increases and decreases in MIB binding of multiple kinases including cell cycle kinases, receptor tyrosine kinases, and mitotic kinases. Based on the kinome data, we tested the antiviral effects of kinase inhibitors and other compounds, several of which are in clinical use or development. Using a novel flow cytometry-based assay and a fluorescent reporter virus we identified three compounds that inhibited HCMV replication with IC50 values of <1 ?m, and at doses that were not toxic to uninfected cells. The most potent inhibitor of HCMV replication was OTSSP167 (IC50 <1.2 nm), a MELK inhibitor, blocked HCMV early gene expression and viral DNA accumulation, resulting in a >3 log decrease in virus replication. These results show the utility of MIB-MS kinome profiling for identifying existing kinase inhibitors that can potentially be repurposed as novel antiviral drugs.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is heterogeneous with patients exhibiting at least two molecular subtypes, basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL). MEK inhibitor (MEKi) treatment of BL and CL cell lines and mouse model tumors induced subtype-specific alterations in overall kinome activity referred to as protein kinase reprogramming. BL- and CL-specific reprogramming involving increases in receptor tyrosine kinases was also seen in TNBC patients comparing tumor samples before and after a one week treatment with the MEKi, trametinib. Combination of kinase inhibitors targeted to the BL and CL reprogrammed signatures would need to be individually selected due to the heterogeneous resiliency of BL and CL kinomes. To overcome this “reprogramming dilemma” we targeted the transcriptional co-activator BRD4 with BET bromodomain inhibitors, JQI and IBET151; both strongly inhibited kinome reprogramming and onset of MEKi resistance in BL and CL cells. Targeting chromatin modifiers may therapeutically block resistance due to kinome reprogramming.BL and CL TNBC are commonly treated as a single disease despite genomic studies showing they represent distinct molecular subtypes1. Recent Cancer Genome Atlas data demonstrated that the 518 protein kinases in the human genome (the kinome) were infrequently mutated in BL breast cancer; however, EGFR, KRAS and BRAF were amplified in 22, 32 and 31% of BL tumors, respectively. These findings are consistent with frequent activation of the BRAF-MEK-ERK pathway in TNBC2,3 and inhibitors targeting kinases in this pathway are currently in clinical trials for TNBC. As single agents, targeted kinase inhibitors generally fail to sustain durable responses when used to treat a range of human cancers including TNBC4-6. Onset of kinase inhibitor resistance can be due to selection of mutations in the targeted kinase7,8, activating mutations or amplification of RAS or downstream kinases9,10 or kinome reprogramming, a process in which there are system-wide changes in kinase networks11-13. Each of these resistance mechanisms allows the cancer cell to circumvent the targeted inhibition of specific kinases14. We previously developed chemical, proteomic methods that assay the activation state of protein kinases en masse15,16. Our methods utilize ¬Multiplexed Inhibitor Beads (MIBs), mixtures of covalently immobilized, linker adapted, kinase inhibitors. The immobilized inhibitors are primarily type I kinase inhibitors that preferentially bind activated (versus inactive) kinase17. Kinase capture is highly reproducible and is a function of kinase affinity for different immobilized inhibitors as well as the kinase activation state. Activated kinases preferentially bind, inactive kinases do not. By coupling MIB capture with mass spectrometry (MIB/MS), the technique allows quantitative interrogation of hundreds of kinases in a single mass spectrometry run. This also interrogates kinases known by sequence but which have been understudied due to lack of reagents such as specific phospho-antibodies. We report here both in preclinical models and patients that BL and CL TNBC have different baseline kinome activation states and both respond differently to MEKi with subtype-specific tyrosine kinase reprogramming. To avoid treatment strategy that uses multiple kinase inhibitors in individual patients, we discovered a novel pharmacologic strategy to block the initial reprogramming response to MEKi involving inhibition of epigenetic processes. Overall design: reference x sample
Project description:Protein kinases play critical roles in many biological and pathological processes, making them important targets for therapeutic drugs. Here, we desired to increase the throughput for kinome-wide profiling. A new workflow coupling ActivX ATP probe (AAP) affinity reagents with isotopic labeling to quantify the relative levels and modification states of kinases in cell lysates is described. We compared the new workflow to a classical proteomics approach in which fractionation was used to identify low-abundance kinases. We find that AAPs enriched approximately 90 kinases in a single analysis involving six cell lines or states in a single run, an 8-fold improvement in throughput relative to the classical approach. In general, AAPs cross-linked to both the active and inactive states of kinases but performing phosphopeptide enrichment made it possible to measure the phospho sites of regulatory residues lying in the kinase activation loops, providing information on activation state. When we compared the kinome across the six cell lines, representative of different breast cancer clinical subtypes, we observed that many kinases, particularly receptor tyrosine kinases, varied widely in abundance, perhaps explaining the differential sensitivities to kinase inhibitor drugs. The improved kinome profiling methods described here represent an effective means to perform systematic analysis of kinases involved in cell signaling and oncogenic transformation and for analyzing the effect of different inhibitory drugs.
Project description:Motivation:Kinases play a significant role in diverse disease signaling pathways and understanding kinase inhibitor selectivity, the tendency of drugs to bind to off-targets, remains a top priority for kinase inhibitor design and clinical safety assessment. Traditional approaches for kinase selectivity analysis using biochemical activity and binding assays are useful but can be costly and are often limited by the kinases that are available. On the other hand, current computational kinase selectivity prediction methods are computational intensive and can rarely achieve sufficient accuracy for large-scale kinome wide inhibitor selectivity profiling. Results:Here, we present a KinomeFEATURE database for kinase binding site similarity search by comparing protein microenvironments characterized using diverse physiochemical descriptors. Initial selectivity prediction of 15 known kinase inhibitors achieved an >90% accuracy and demonstrated improved performance in comparison to commonly used kinase inhibitor selectivity prediction methods. Additional kinase ATP binding site similarity assessment (120 binding sites) identified 55 kinases with significant promiscuity and revealed unexpected inhibitor cross-activities between PKR and FGFR2 kinases. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of 11 kinase drug candidates predicted novel as well as experimentally validated off-targets and suggested structural mechanisms of kinase cross-activities. Our study demonstrated potential utilities of our approach for large-scale kinase inhibitor selectivity profiling that could contribute to kinase drug development and safety assessment. Availability and implementation:The KinomeFEATURE database and the associated scripts for performing kinase pocket similarity search can be downloaded from the Stanford SimTK website (https://simtk.org/projects/kdb). Supplementary information:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Kinases are involved in numerous critical cell signaling processes, and dysregulation in kinase signaling is implicated in many types of human cancers. In this study, we applied a parallel-reaction monitoring (PRM)-based targeted proteomic method to assess kinome reprogramming during melanoma metastasis in three pairs of matched primary/metastatic human melanoma cell lines. Around 300 kinases were detected in each pair of cell lines, and the results showed that Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) was with reduced expression in the metastatic lines of all three pairs of melanoma cells. Interrogation of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data showed that reduced expression of JAK3 is correlated with poorer prognosis in melanoma patients. Additionally, metastatic human melanoma cells/tissues exhibited diminished levels of JAK3 mRNA relative to primary melanoma cells/tissues. Moreover, JAK3 suppresses the migration and invasion of cultured melanoma cells by modulating the activities of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9). In summary, our targeted kinome profiling method provided by far the most comprehensive dataset for kinome reprogramming associated with melanoma progression, which builds a solid foundation for examining the functions of other kinases in melanoma metastasis. Moreover, our results reveal a role of JAK3 as a potential suppressor for melanoma metastasis.
Project description:Kinases are among the most important families of enzymes involved in cell signaling. In this study, we employed a recently developed parallel-reaction monitoring (PRM)-based targeted proteomic method to examine the reprogramming of the human kinome during colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. We were able to quantify the relative expression of 299 kinase proteins in a pair of matched primary/metastatic CRC cell lines. We also found that, among the differentially expressed kinases, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 2 (PRPS2) promotes the migration and invasion of cultured CRC cells through regulating the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, we found that the up-regulation of PRPS2 in metastatic CRC cells could be induced by the MYC proto-oncogene. Together, our unbiased kinome profiling approach led to the identification, for the first time, of PRPS2 as a promoter for CRC metastasis.
Project description:Kinases are crucial components in numerous cell signaling pathways. Aberrant expression and activation of protein kinases are known to be accompanied by many types of cancer, and more than 30 small-molecule kinase inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cancer chemotherapy. Biological and clinical applications of small-molecule kinase inhibitors require comprehensive characterizations about how these inhibitors modulate the protein expression and activities of kinases at the entire proteome scale. In this study, we developed a parallel-reaction monitoring (PRM)-based targeted proteomic method to monitor the alterations in protein expression of kinases in K-562 chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) cells elicited by treatment with imatinib, an ABL kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA for CML treatment. By employing isotope-coded ATP affinity probes together with liquid chromatography-multiple-reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) analysis, we also examined the modulation of the ATP-binding affinities of kinases induced by imatinib treatment. The results revealed profound increases in protein expression levels of a large number of kinases in K-562 cells upon treatment with imatinib, which is accompanied by substantial decreases in ATP-binding capacities of many kinases. Apart from ABL kinases, we identified a number of other kinases whose ATP-binding affinities are markedly diminished upon imatinib treatment, including CHK1, a checkpoint kinase involved in DNA damage response signaling. Together, our targeted quantitative proteomic methods enabled, for the first time, dual assessments of small-molecule kinase inhibitor-induced changes in protein expression and ATP-binding affinities of kinases in live cells.